Braunschweiger Turn- und Sportverein Eintracht von 1895 e. V. commonly known as Eintracht Braunschweig or BTSV, is a German football and sports club based in Braunschweig, Lower Saxony. The club was one of the members of the Bundesliga in 1963. The club currently plays in the 2, the second tier of the German football league system. Since 1923, Eintracht Braunschweig has played at the Eintracht-Stadion, the club shares a rivalry with fellow Lower Saxon side Hannover 96. In addition to the division, Eintracht has departments for several other sports. Eintracht Braunschweig was founded as the football and cricket club FuCC Eintracht 1895 in 1895, became FC Eintracht von 1895 in 1906, the team has a colorful history and it quickly became one of northern Germanys favorite sides. In 1900, Eintracht Braunschweig was among the members of the German Football Association. It enjoyed success early on, playing in the upper league, winning the Northern German championship in 1908 and 1913. Under the Third Reich, the played in the Gauliga Niedersachsen.
In 1942–43, Eintracht Braunschweig went into the national championship play-offs as one of the main favourites. The team under manager Georg Schorsch Knöpfle had just won the newly formed Gauliga Südhannover-Braunschweig with a record of 17 wins and 1 draw in 18 games, scoring 146 goals in the process. After a convincing 5–1 win over Victoria Hamburg in the first round, Dresden won the game held in Dresden with 4–0 and subsequently went on to win the German championship with an undefeated season. As such, Eintracht Braunschweig was merged into the new club TSV Braunschweig on 2 November 1945, TSV Braunschweig finally took on the clubs current name, Braunschweiger TSV Eintracht von 1895, on 1 April 1949. The club continued to play in the top division – now the Oberliga Nord – after the war, with the exception of a single season spent in tier II. The side was touched by tragedy in 1949 when goalkeeper Gustav Fähland died of internal bleeding a few days after being injured during a game in a collision with a Werder Bremen striker, another appearance in the final round of the national championship came in 1958.
Once again the side enjoyed success, capturing the national title in the 1966–67 season under manager Helmuth Johannsen with solid defensive play. That championship team gave up only 27 goals against, which stood as a Bundesliga record until bettered by Werder Bremen in 1988, another ten players joined the national side from the team, mostly through the 1960s and 70s. The club was hit by again during the winter break of the 1968–69 season when forward Jürgen Moll, aged 29 at the time
Sport-Club Freiburg e. V. commonly known as SC Freiburg, is a German football club, based in the city of Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg. It plays in the Bundesliga, having been promoted as champions from the 2. Freiburg has traditionally bounced between the first and second tier of the German football league system, leading to the fan chant, We go down, we go up, since 1954, the clubs stadium has been the Schwarzwald-Stadion. Volker Finke, who was the manager between 1991 and 2007, was the longest-serving manager in the history of professional football in Germany. Joachim Löw, current manager of the Germany national team, is the clubs leading goal scorer with 81 goals in 252 games during his three spells at SCF. The club traces its origins to a pair of clubs founded in 1904, Freiburger Fußballverein 04 was organised in March of that year, FC Schwalbe Freiburg just two months later. Both clubs underwent name changes, with Schwalbe becoming FC Mars in 1905, Mars becoming Union Freiburg in 1906, three years later, SV and Union formed Sportclub Freiburg, at the same time incorporating the griffin head.
In 1918, after the devastation of World War I, SC Freiburg entered an arrangement with Freiburger FC to be able to field a full side called KSG Freiburg. SC Freiburg picked up again with FT1844 Freiburg in 1938, the club managed to play on highest level from 1928, first in the Bezirksliga Baden, in the Gauliga Baden, from which they were relegated in 1934. At the end of World War II, Allied occupation authorities disbanded most existing organizations in Germany, including football and sports clubs. The clubs were permitted to reconstitute themselves after about a year, SC Freiburg was therefore briefly known as VfL Freiburg. By 1950, French-occupation authorities had let up enough to allow the clubs to reclaim their old identities, finally, in 1952, SC Freiburg left FT Freiburg behind again. To this point, the history of the club had been characterised by only modest success, through the 1930s, SC Freiburg played in the Bezirkliga, with the occasional turn in the Gauliga Baden, and captured a handful of local titles.
After World War II, they picked up where left off. While only a club, SC Freiburg became known for the fight. Bundesliga in 1978–79, which they would compete in for a decade-and-a-half before making the breakthrough to the top-flight Bundesliga in 1993–94 under the management of Volker Finke, in their first Bundesliga season, Freiburg narrowly avoided relegation. They made a run in their second season at the top level, finishing third. It was at time that they were first nicknamed Breisgau-Brasilianer due to their attractive style of play
Hannoverscher Sportverein von 1896, commonly referred to as Hannover 96, Hannover, HSV or simply 96, is a German association football club based in the city of Hanover, Lower Saxony. Hannover 96 play in the 2, the second tier in the German football league system. Hannover 96 was founded in 1896, Hannover have won two German championships and one DFB-Pokal. Hannover 96 has a rivalry with VfL Wolfsburg and Eintracht Braunschweig. The club was founded on 12 April 1896 as Hannoverscher Fußball-Club 1896, upon the suggestion of Ferdinand-Wilhelm Fricke and their initial enthusiasm was for athletics and rugby, football did not become their primary interest until 1899. Most of the membership of Germania 1902 Hannover became part of 96 in 1902, in 1913, they merged with Ballverein 1898 Hannovera to become Hannoverscher Sportverein 1896. Hannoverscher FCs colours were black-white-green, but they played in blue, the newly united team kept black-white-green as the club colours, but they chose to take to the field in red, giving the team the nickname Die Roten.
The teams third jersey is in the official colours. HSV continued to field strong sides and make national level appearances on into the 1920s, under the Third Reich, German football was re-organized into 16 top-flight leagues in 1933 and Hannover became part of the Gauliga Niedersachsen. They appeared in the final rounds in 1935 and sent representatives to the national side the next year. They won their first national championship in 1938 in what was one of the biggest upsets in German football history when they beat Schalke 04, the two sides played to a 3–3 draw before Hannover prevailed 4–3 in a tension filled re-match. In 1942, the moved to the newly formed Gauliga Braunschweig-Südhannover. Like most other German organizations, the club was dissolved after World War II by occupying Allied authorities. A combined local side was assembled in August 1945 and the month a mixed group of players from Hannover 96. HSV was formally re-established as Hannoverscher SV on 11 November 1945 before re-adopting its traditional name on 27 April 1946, the club resumed league play in 1947 in the first division Oberliga Nord and was relegated, but quickly returned to the top-flight in 1949.
Hannover 96s next appearance in a final would not come until 1954 when they soundly defeated 1. The beaten side included five of the players who would go on that year to win Germanys first World Cup in a surprise victory known as the Miracle of Bern. In 1963, the Bundesliga, Germanys new professional football league, Hannover played in the Regionalliga Nord that season, but earned promotion to the senior circuit in the following year
Offenbacher Kickers, known as Kickers Offenbach, is a German association football club in Offenbach am Main, Hesse. The club was founded on 27 May 1901 in the Rheinischer Hof restaurant by footballers who had established local clubs including Melitia, Viktoria, Germania. From 1921 to 1925 they were united with VfB1900 Offenbach as VfR Kickers Offenbach until resuming their status as a separate side, since 2012, Kickers Offenbachs stadium has been the Sparda Bank Hessen Stadium. The club became one of the members of the Nordkreis-Liga in 1909. In post-First World War Germany, Kickers played in the Kreisliga Südmain, the club played as a mid-table side in the Bezirksliga Main-Hessen through the late 1920s and early 1930s. German football was re-organized in 1933 under the Third Reich into sixteen first division Gauligen, Kickers joined the Gauliga Südwest, where the team immediately captured the title and entered the national playoffs for the first time. They fared poorly there, but did manage to raise their level of play in the following seasons.
In the early 1940s the Gauliga Südwest had been split into the Gauliga Westmark and the Gauliga Hessen-Nassau, by 1944, Allied armies were rolling through Germany and the Gauliga Hessen-Nassau did not play the 1944–45 season. The club found itself in the new Regionalliga Süd and play in the Bundesliga would have to wait until 1968, the team was immediately relegated, but returned to the upper league for play in 1970–71. In addition to their return to the Bundesliga, the club would win its one of its few honours in 1970 with a 2,1 German Cup victory over 1, the end of the 1971 season would find Kickers Offenbach at the centre of the Bundesliga scandal. Receiving no help from league officials, Canellas began gathering evidence of how widespread the payoffs were, the club central to the scandal – Arminia Bielefeld – would not be punished until the following season, too late to save Offenbach. The scandal had a negative effect on the young league. One outcome of the affair was the further evolution of German football, salary restrictions were removed.
Bundesliga became a professional league, for the players it meant that having ones club sent down no longer meant losing ones status as a paid professional. Kickers immediately returned to top level, the best finish was 7th in 1972–73 season. They were leaders for 5 rounds and beat Bayern Munich 6–0 in 1974–75 season and they relegated to second level in 1975–76 season. Kickers would spend the next seven years in the division before making a return to the Bundesliga for just a single season in 1983–84. In 1985, financial problems led to the club being penalized points and they recovered themselves only to be denied a license in 1989 and be sent back down again
Bayer 04 Leverkusen
Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH, known as Bayer 04 Leverkusen, Bayer Leverkusen, Leverkusen or simply Bayer, is a German football club based in Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia. The club plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, the club was founded in 1904 by employees of the German pharmaceutical company Bayer, whose headquarters are in Leverkusen and from which the club draws its name. In 1999 the football department was separated from the club and is now a separate entity formally called Bayer 04 Leverkusen GmbH. Bayer Leverkusen have won one DFB-Pokal and one UEFA Cup, on 27 November 1903, Wilhelm Hauschild wrote a letter – signed by 170 of his fellow workers – to his employer, the Friedrich Bayer and Co. seeking the companys support in starting a sports club. The company agreed to support the initiative, and on 1 July 1904 Turn- und Spielverein Bayer 04 Leverkusen was founded, on 31 May 1907, a separate football department was formed within the club.
In the culture of sports in Germany at the time, there was significant animosity between gymnasts and other types of athletes, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen took with them the clubs traditional colours of red and black, with the gymnasts adopting blue and yellow. Through this period, and into the 1930s, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen played third, in 1936, they earned promotion to the second highest class of play of the period. That was the year that the club wore the familiar Bayer cross for the first time and they made their first appearance in upper league play in 1951, in the Oberliga West and played there until 1956, after which they were relegated. SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen would not return to the leagues until 1962, just one season before the formation of Germanys new professional league. The next year saw the club in the Regionalliga West, tier II, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen made something of a breakthrough in 1968 by winning the division title, but was unable to advance through the playoff round to the first division.
The club was relegated again in 1973, but made a return to what was now called the 2. Bundesliga after just one season spent in the third division, four years later, the club handily secured a place in the Bundesliga to start to play there in the 1979–80 season. By the mid-1980s, SV Bayer 04 Leverkusen had played its way into the half of the league table and was well-established there by the end of the decade. It was during time, in 1984, that the two-halves of the club that had parted ways over a half century earlier were re-united as TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen e. V. The new club took red and white as its colours, in addition to becoming an established Bundesliga side, the club earned its first honours with a dramatic win in the 1988 UEFA Cup. Down 0–3 to Espanyol after the first leg of the final, Bayer Leverkusen drew even in the match and captured the title on penalty kicks. That same year, long-time Bayer Leverkusen executive Reiner Calmund became the manager of the club. This is regarded as one of the most important moves in the history, as Calmund ushered in a decade
Penalty shoot-out (association football)
A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining the winner of an association football match that is drawn after the regulation as well as extra playing time. Although the procedure for taking kicks from the penalty mark resembles that of a penalty kick, most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked. The method of breaking a draw in a match requiring a winner is determined beforehand by the organizing body. Although employed in football commonly since the 1970s, penalty shoot-outs remain unpopular with some, during a shoot-out, players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the centre circle. The kicking teams goalkeeper stands at the intersection of the goal line, goals scored during the shoot-out are not included in the final score, nor are they added to the goalscoring records of the players involved. A tie is a result in football. Exceptionally, a shoot-out after a league or round-robin match may be provided for and this provision appears for occasions where opposing teams in a final-day match finish the group with identical records, which can result in an immediate shoot-out.
This happened in Group A of the 2003 UEFA Womens Under-19 Championship, several leagues, such as the J-League, have experimented with penalty shoot-outs immediately following a drawn league match, with the winner being awarded an extra point. A team that loses a penalty shoot-out is eliminated from the tournament but it does not count as a defeat, for instance, the Netherlands are considered to have concluded the 2014 FIFA World Cup undefeated, despite being eliminated at the semi-final stage. The following is a summary of the procedure for kicks from the penalty mark, the procedure is specified in Law 10 of the IFABs Laws of the Game document. The referee tosses a coin to decide the goal at which the kicks will be taken, the choice of goal by the coin toss winner may only be changed by the referee for safety reasons or if the goal or playing surface becomes unusable. The referee tosses the coin a second time to determine which team will take the first kick, all players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the pitchs centre circle.
Each kick will be taken in the manner of a penalty kick. Each kick will be taken from the penalty mark, which is 12 yards from the line and equidistant from each touch line. Each team is responsible for selecting from the players the order in which they will take the kicks. The referee is not informed of the order, each kicker can kick the ball only once per attempt. Once kicked, the kicker may not play the ball again, no other player on either team, other than the designated kicker and goalkeeper, may touch the ball. The ball may touch the goalkeeper, goal posts, or crossbar any number of times before going into the goal as long as the referee believes the motion is the result of the initial kick
Verein für Leibesübungen Bochum 1848 Fußballgemeinschaft, commonly referred to as simply VfL Bochum, is a German association football club based in the city of Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia. The Turnverein zu Bochum was established on 18 February 1849. The club was banned on 28 December 1852 for political reasons, the club was reorganized in May 1904 as Turnverein zu Bochum, gegründet 1848 and formed a football department on 31 January 1911. On 1 April 1919 the club merged with Spiel und Sport 08 Bochum to form Turn- und Sportverein Bochum 1848, on 1 February 1924 the two clubs from the earlier merger split to into the Bochumer Turnverein 1848 and Turn- und Sportverein Bochum 1908. Bochumer Turnverein 1848 was forced by the Nazi regime to merge with Turn- und Sport Bochum 1908, after the merger VfL Bochum continued to compete in the top flight as part of the Gauliga Westfalen. As World War II progressed, play throughout Germany became increasingly difficult due to shortages, travel problems.
VfL became part of the wartime side Kriegsspielgemeinschaft VfL 1848/Preußen Bochum alongside Preußen 07 Bochum before re-emerging as a side after the war. Following the war the football section resumed play as the independent VfL Bochum 1848, Oberliga West in 1949, while Preußen Bochum went on to lower tier amateur level play. VfL captured the title in 1953 to advance to the Oberliga West for a single season. They repeated their win in 1956 and returned to the top-flight until again being relegated after the 1960–61 season. With the formation of the Bundesliga, Germanys new professional league, in 1963, a first-place result there in 1965 raised them to the Regionalliga West from where they began a steady climb up the league table to the Bundesliga in 1971. During this rise Bochum played its way to the final of the 1968 German Cup where they dropped a 1,4 decision to 1. In spite of being a lower table side, Bochum developed a reputation for tenaciousness on the field in a run of twenty seasons at the top flight.
The club made a appearance in the German Cup final in 1988. Relegated after a 16th-place finish in 1993, the team has become a classic yo-yo club, bouncing up, the clubs best Bundesliga results have come relatively recently as 5th-place finishes in 1997 and 2004, which earned them appearances in the UEFA Cup tournament. In 1997, they advanced to the round where they were put out by Dutch side Ajax Amsterdam. Todays sports club has 5,000 members with the football department accounting for over 2,200 of these. Other sections now part of the association include athletics, basketball, fencing, handball, swimming, table tennis, tennis, as of 13 January 2017 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules
Fußball-Club Augsburg 1907 e. V. commonly known as FC Augsburg or Augsburg, is a German football club based in Augsburg, Bavaria. FC Augsburg play in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, the team was founded as Fußball-Klub Alemania Augsburg in 1907 and played as BC Augsburg from 1921 to 1969. With over 12,200 members, it is the largest football club in Swabian Bavaria, FC Augsburg, which has long fluctuated between the second and third division, experienced a difficult time in the early 2000s, suffering relegation to the fourth division for two seasons. FCA recovered from this, returning to football in 2006. At the end of the 2010–11 season, Augsburg were promoted to the Bundesliga for the first time, since 2009, FC Augsburgs stadium has been the WWK ARENA. A first serious meeting between the two sides was held in 1964, both clubs having dropped out of football by then. The leadership of the multi-sports club Schwaben was completely behind a merger but the football department was not.
In 1968, with BCA struggling in the division after relegation from professional football the year before and Schwaben soon to follow. In April 1969, a meeting between the two club bosses brought the decision to merge the clubs and name the new side FC Augsburg. FCA was to be a football only with no other sports department. The then-mayor of Augsburg, Hans Breuer, was one of the forces behind the move. In June,256 of 265 of BCAs members present voted for the merger while, shortly after,75 percent of Schwabens members approved the motion, too. Schwaben, opted for the small club was to remain independent with only its football department merging into the new club. But even this move was not universally popular within the club, with former members forming a new football club, Eintracht Augsburg. For this reason, FCA is generally not considered to carry on the traditions of TSV Schwaben, a year later, the footballers of Eintracht rejoined Schwaben but, since then, have always remained an amateur club.
It took the new department until 1981 to regain its third-division status. The new FCA played its first game on 30 July 1969, FC Nürnberg in Augsburg in front of 13,000, losing 0–3 in extra time. After the formation of the club in 1969, the side was to spend most of its time in tier-two, the new side, despite now concentrating Augsburgs football forces, was no instant success
FC Bayern Munich
Fußball-Club Bayern München e. V. commonly known as FC Bayern München, FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Germany. FC Bayern was founded in 1900 by 11 football players, led by Franz John, although Bayern won its first national championship in 1932, the club was not selected for the Bundesliga at its inception in 1963. The club had its period of greatest success in the middle of the 1970s when, under the captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer, Bayern has reached ten European Cup/UEFA Champions League finals, most recently winning their fifth title in 2013 as part of a continental treble. Since the formation of the Bundesliga, Bayern has been the dominant club in German football with 26 titles and has won 8 of the last 12 titles and they have traditional local rivalries with 1860 Munich and 1. FC Nürnberg, as well as with Borussia Dortmund since the mid-1990s, since the beginning of the 2005–06 season, Bayern has played its home games at the Allianz Arena. Previously the team had played at Munichs Olympiastadion for 33 years, the team colours are red and white, and the team crest shows the white and blue flag of Bavaria.
In terms of revenue, Bayern Munich is the biggest sports club in Germany, as of November 2016, Bayern has over 284,000 members. There are more than 4,000 officially-registered fan clubs with over 314,000 members, the club has other departments for chess, basketball, bowling, table tennis and senior football with more than 1,100 active members. FC Bayern is ranked second in the current UEFA club coefficient rankings, FC Bayern Munich was founded by members of a Munich gymnastics club. Within a few months, Bayern achieved high-scoring victories against all rivals, including a 15–0 win against FC Nordstern. In the following years, the club won some trophies and in 1910–11 Bayern joined the newly founded Kreisliga. The club won league in its first year, but did not win it again until the beginning of World War I in 1914. In the years after the war, Bayern won several regional competitions before winning its first South German championship in 1926, an achievement repeated two years later. Its first national title was gained in 1932, when coach Richard Little Dombi Kohn led the team to the German championship by defeating Eintracht Frankfurt 2–0 in the final, the advent of Nazism put an abrupt end to Bayerns development.
Club president Kurt Landauer and the coach, both of whom were Jewish, left the country, many others in the club were purged. Bayern was taunted as the Jews club, while local rival 1860 Munich gained much support, josef Sauter, who was inaugurated 1943, was the only NSDAP member as president. As some Bayern players greeted Landauer, who was watching a friendly in Switzerland lead to continued discrimination, Bayern was affected by the ruling that football players had to be full amateurs again. In the following years, Bayern could not sustain its role of contender for the national title, after the war, Bayern became a member of the Oberliga Süd, the southern conference of the German first division, which was split five ways at that time