South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Botswana the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since it has maintained a tradition of stable representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998, it is Africa's oldest continuous democracy. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 percent of its territory being the Kalahari Desert, it is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, Zimbabwe to the northeast. Its border with Zambia to the north near Kazungula is poorly defined but is, at most, a few hundred metres long. A mid-sized country of just over 2 million people, Botswana is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. Around 10 percent of the population lives in the capital and largest city, Gaborone.
One of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US$70 per year in the late 1960s—Botswana has since transformed itself into one of the world's fastest-growing economies. The economy is dominated by mining and tourism. Botswana boasts a GDP per capita of about $18,825 per year as of 2015, one of the highest in Africa, its high gross national income gives the country a high standard of living and the highest Human Development Index of continental Sub-Saharan Africa. Botswana is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations; the country has been among the hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Despite the success in programmes to make treatments available to those infected, to educate the populace in general about how to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, the number of people with AIDS rose from 290,000 in 2005 to 320,000 in 2013; as of 2014, Botswana has the third-highest prevalence rate for HIV/AIDS, with 20% of the population infected.
The country's name means "land of the tswana", referring to the dominant ethnic group in Botswana. The term Batswana was applied to the Tswana, still the case. However, it has come to be used as a demonym for all citizens of Botswana. Many English dictionaries recommend the term Botswanan to refer to people of Botswana. Archaeological digs have shown. Stone tools and fauna remains have shown that all areas of the country were inhabited at least 400,000 years ago. Evidence left by modern humans such as cave paintings are about 73,000 years old; the original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Khoi peoples. Both speak Khoisan languages and hunted and traded over long distances; when cattle were first introduced about 2000 years ago into southern Africa, pastoralism became a major feature of the economy, since the region had large grasslands free of tsetse fly. It is unclear when Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north, although AD 600 seems to be a consensus estimate.
In that era, the ancestors of the modern-day Kalanga moved into what is now the north-eastern areas of the country. These proto-Kalanga were connected to states in Zimbabwe as well as to the Mapungubwe state; these states, located outside of current Botswana's borders, appear to have kept massive cattle herds in what is now the Central District—apparently at numbers approaching modern cattle density. This massive cattle-raising complex prospered until 1300 AD or so, seems to have regressed following the collapse of Mapungubwe. During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi, moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari. All these various peoples were connected to trade routes that ran via the Limpopo River to the Indian Ocean, trade goods from Asia such as beads made their way to Botswana most in exchange for ivory and rhinoceros horn; the arrival of the ancestors of the Tswana-speakers who came to control the region has yet to be dated precisely. Members of the Bakwena, a chieftaincy under a legendary leader named Kgabo II, made their way into the southern Kalahari by AD 1500, at the latest, his people drove the Bakgalagadi inhabitants west into the desert.
Over the years, several offshoots of the Bakwena moved into adjoining territories. The Bangwaketse occupied areas to the west, while the Bangwato moved northeast into Kalanga areas. Not long afterwards, a Bangwato offshoot known as the Batawana migrated into the Okavango Delta in the 1790s; the first written records relating to modern-day Botswana appear in 1824. What these records show is that the Bangwaketse had become the predominant power in the region. Under the rule of Makaba II, the Bangwaketse kept vast herds of cattle in well-protected desert areas, used their military prowess to raid their neighbors. Other chiefdoms in the area, by this time, had capitals of 10,000 or so and were prosperous; this equilibrium came to end during the Mfecane period, 1823–1843, when a succession of invading peoples from South Africa entered the country. Although the Bangwaketse were able to defeat the invading Bakololo in 1826, over time all the major chiefdoms in Botswana were attacked and impoverished.
The Bakololo and Amandebele raided and took large numbers of cattle and children from the Batswana—most of whom were driven into the desert or sanctuary areas such as hilltops and caves. Only after 1843, when the Amandebele moved into western Zimbabwe, did this threat subside. During th
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
The Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor is an award given annually by the Los Angeles Film Critics Association. It was first introduced in 1975 to reward the best performance by a leading actor. † = Winner of the Academy Award for Best Actor ‡ = Nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor 3 winsDaniel Day-Lewis 2 winsRobert De Niro Robert Duvall Michael Fassbender Jack Nicholson National Board of Review Award for Best Actor New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor
F. Murray Abraham
F. Murray Abraham is an American actor, he became known during the 1980s after winning an Oscar for his leading role as Antonio Salieri in the drama film Amadeus. Abraham won a Golden Globe and received a BAFTA Award nomination for the role, he has appeared in many roles, both leading and supporting, in films such as All the President's Men, The Name of the Rose, Last Action Hero, Star Trek: Insurrection, Finding Forrester, Inside Llewyn Davis, The Grand Budapest Hotel. Abraham is known for his television and theatre work and is a regular cast member on the television series Homeland, which earned him two Primetime Emmy Award nominations. Abraham was born Murray Abraham on October 24, 1939 in Pittsburgh, the son of Fahrid "Fred" Abraham, an auto mechanic, his wife Josephine, a housewife, his father emigrated from Syria at age 5 during the famine. His mother, one of 14 children, was Italian American, the daughter of an immigrant who worked in the coal mines of Western Pennsylvania, he had two brothers and Jack, who were killed in separate car accidents.
Abraham was raised in El Paso, near the Mexican border. He attended Vilas Grammar School, graduated from El Paso High School in 1958, he was a gang member during his teenage years. He attended Texas Western College, where he was given the best actor award by Alpha Psi Omega for his portrayal of the Indian Nocona in Comanche Eagle during the 1959–60 season, he attended the University of Texas at Austin studied acting under Uta Hagen at HB Studio in New York City. He began his acting career on the stage, debuting in a Los Angeles production of Ray Bradbury's The Wonderful Ice Cream Suit. Abraham added "F." to his stage name in honor of Fahrid. He has stated "Murray Abraham just doesn't seem to say anything, it just is another name, so I thought I'd frame it." Abraham made his screen debut as an usher in the George C. Scott comedy They Might Be Giants. By the mid-1970s, Murray had steady employment as an actor, doing voice-overs. Abraham can be seen as one of the undercover police officers along with Al Pacino in Sidney Lumet's Serpico, in television roles including the bad guy in one fourth-season episode of Kojak.
He played a cabdriver in the theatrical version of The Prisoner of Second Avenue, a mechanic in the theatrical version of The Sunshine Boys, a police officer in the film All the President's Men. Despite these small roles, Abraham continued to do commercials and voice-over work for income, but in 1978, he decided to give them up. Frustrated with the lack of substantial roles, Abraham said, "No one was taking my acting seriously. I figured if I didn't do it I'd have no right to the dreams I've always had." His wife, Kate Hannan, went to work as an assistant and Abraham became a "house husband". He described, "I took care of the kids, it was rough on my macho idea of life. But it was the best thing that happened to me." Abraham appeared as drug dealer Omar Suárez alongside Pacino again in the gangster film Scarface. He gained visibility voicing a talking bunch of grapes in a series of television commercials for Fruit of the Loom underwear. Abraham won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as envious composer Antonio Salieri in Amadeus, an award for which Tom Hulce, playing Mozart in that movie, had been nominated.
He won a Golden Globe Award, among other awards, his role in the film, directed by Miloš Forman, is still his most iconic. After Amadeus, he next appeared in The Name of the Rose, in which he played Bernardo Gui, nemesis to Sean Connery's William of Baskerville. In its DVD commentary, his director on the film, Jean-Jacques Annaud, described Abraham as an "egomaniac" on the set, who considered himself more important than Sean Connery, since Connery did not have an Oscar; that said, the film was a critical success. Abraham had tired of appearing as heavies and wanted to return to his background in comedy, as he explained to People Weekly Magazine in an interview he gave at the time of its release. Though Abraham had fewer prominent roles in the next decade or so, he became known for his roles in Woody Allen's Mighty Aphrodite, Ahdar Ru'afo in Star Trek: Insurrection, Gus Van Sant's Finding Forrester, where he once again played nemesis to Connery, he had a significant role in The Bonfire of the Vanities, but chose not to be credited due to a contract dispute.
Abraham's low-profile film career subsequent to his Academy Award win has been considered an example of the "Oscar jinx". According to film critic Leonard Maltin, professional failure following an early success is referred to in Hollywood circles as the "F. Murray Abraham syndrome". Abraham rejected this notion and told Maltin, "The Oscar is the single most important event of my career. I have dined with shared equal billing with my idols, lectured at Harvard and Columbia. If this is a jinx, I'll take two." In the same interview, Abraham said, "Even though I won the Oscar, I can still take the subway in New York, nobody recognizes me. Some actors might find that disconcerting, but I find it refreshing." A 2009 guest appearance on Saving Grace bega
Dame Edith Margaret Emily Ashcroft, known professionally as Peggy Ashcroft, was an English actress whose career spanned more than sixty years, who, along with contemporaries John Gielgud, Laurence Olivier and Ralph Richardson, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. Born to a comfortable middle-class family, Ashcroft was determined from an early age to become an actress, despite parental opposition, she was working in smaller theatres before graduating from drama school, within two years thereafter she was starring in the West End. Ashcroft maintained her leading place in British theatre for the next fifty years. Always attracted by the ideals of permanent theatrical ensembles, she did much of her work for the Old Vic in the early 1930s, John Gielgud's companies in the 1930s and 1940s, the Royal Shakespeare Company from the 1950s and the National Theatre from the 1970s. While well regarded in Shakespeare, Ashcroft was known for her commitment to modern drama, appearing in plays by Bertolt Brecht, Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter.
Her career was wholly spent in the live theatre until the 1980s, when she turned to television and cinema with considerable success, winning an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and several British and European awards. Ashcroft was born in Croydon, the younger child and only daughter of William Worsley Ashcroft, a land agent, his wife, Violetta Maud, née Bernheim. According to her biographer Michael Billington Violetta Ashcroft was of Danish and German-Jewish descent and a keen amateur actress. Ashcroft's father was killed on active service in the First World War, she attended Woodford School, East Croydon, where one of her teachers encouraged her love of Shakespeare, but neither her teachers nor her mother approved of her desire to become a professional actress. Ashcroft was determined, at the age of sixteen, she enrolled at the Central School of Speech and Drama, run by Elsie Fogerty, from whom her mother had taken lessons some years before; the school's emphasis was on the voice and elegant diction, which did not appeal to Ashcroft or to her fellow pupil Laurence Olivier.
She learned more from reading My Life in Art by Constantin Stanislavski, the influential director of the Moscow Art Theatre. While still a student, Ashcroft made her professional stage debut at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in a revival of J. M. Barrie's Dear Brutus opposite Ralph Richardson, with whom she had been impressed when she saw him in Charles Doran's touring company while she was still a schoolgirl, she graduated from the Central School in 1927 with London University's Diploma in Dramatic Art. Never much drawn to the West End or stardom, she learned her craft with small companies in fringe theatres, her first notable West End role was Naemi in Jew Süss in 1929, an extravagantly theatrical production, in which she won praise for the naturalism and truth of her playing. In the same year she married Rupert Hart-Davis an aspiring actor a well-known publisher, he described the marriage as "a sad failure: we were much too young to know what we wanted... after much agony we parted and were duly divorced.
Nowadays Peggy and I lunch together once or twice a year in a Soho restaurant and have a lovely nostalgic-romantic talk of shared memories of long ago. She is a lovely person and the best actress living." In 1930 Ashcroft was cast as Desdemona in a production of Othello at the Savoy Theatre, starring Paul Robeson in the title role. The production was not well received; the production prompted a political awakening in Ashcroft, astonished to receive hate-mail for appearing onstage with a black actor. During the run she had a brief affair with Robeson, followed by another with the writer J. B. Priestley, put an end to her first marriage. Hart-Davis was granted a divorce in 1933, on the grounds of Ashcroft's adultery with the director Theodore Komisarjevsky. Among those impressed by Ashcroft's performance as Desdemona was John Gielgud established as a West End star, he recalled, "When Peggy came on in the Senate scene it was as if all the lights in the theatre had gone up". In 1932 he was invited by the Oxford University Dramatic Society to try his hand at directing, in the society's production of Romeo and Juliet.
Ashcroft as Juliet and Edith Evans as the nurse won golden notices, although their director notorious for his innocent slips of the tongue, referred to them as "Two leading ladies, the like of whom I hope I shall never meet again." Ashcroft joined the Old Vic company for the 1932–33 season. The theatre, in an unfashionable area of London south of the Thames, was run by Lilian Baylis to offer plays and operas to a working-class audience at low ticket prices, she paid her performers modest wages, but the theatre was known for its unrivaled repertory of classics Shakespeare, many West End stars took a large pay cut to work there. It was, in the place to learn Shakespearean technique and try new ideas. During the season Ashcroft played five Shakespeare heroines, as well as Kate in She Stoops to Conquer, Mary Stuart in a new play by John Drinkwater, Lady Teazle in The School for Scandal. In 1933 she made The Wandering Jew, she was not attracted to the medium of cinema and made only four more films over the next quarter-century.
During her professional and personal relationship with Komisarjevsky, whom she married in 1934 and left in 1936, Ashcroft learned from him what Billington calls "the vital importance of discipline and the idea that t
Choose Me is a 1984 American comedy-drama film directed and written by Alan Rudolph, starring Keith Carradine, Lesley Ann Warren, Geneviève Bujold. The film is a look at sex and love in 1980s Los Angeles centered around a dive bar known as Eve Lounge; the film's tagline is In the middle of the night, when there's no one else... After Mickey is released from a mental hospital, where his stories are perceived as lies, he goes back to Los Angeles in search of a woman named Eve; when he arrives at the bar that bears her name, he is attracted to the new owner, a former call girl named Eve. She tells Mickey she bought the bar after the old owner killed herself, "over some guy"; the bar is a popular spot for patrons looking for one night stands as well as hookers looking for potential johns. Although Eve is attracted to Mickey, she refuses to commit to any one man, confessing to French radio talk show host Dr. Nancy Love that she ruined too many marriages to have one of her own; that night Eve rebuffs Mickey's advances and sleeps with the bartender who has a crush on her, while avoiding the wealthy married man she's been having an affair with.
That same night, Dr. Nancy Love answered Eve's ad for a roommate to share her house, moves in the next day. Nancy conceals her identity and begins to observe Eve's romantic entanglements as she counsels Eve through her radio show; when Eve's married lover, calls looking for her, Nancy asks penetrating questions and begins dispensing relationship advice, despite the fact that she herself has been unable to maintain a successful relationship. Zack in turn resumes his pursuit of Eve, although his wife, has begun to haunt Eve's bar hoping to catch him with her, unbeknownst to Eve. Mickey comes back to the bar the next night when he is unable to pay for a bus ticket home to Las Vegas. Pearl asks his opinion of a poem, when she argues his interpretation Mickey reveals that he taught poetry, as well as being a photographer and a former soldier. Eve is intrigued but cool, Mickey leaves when Pearl offers to get him into a hot card game where he can get the money for a ticket home; when she drops him off, Mickey kisses Pearl and asks her to marry him, but she just laughs, calling him crazy, although she invites him to drop by her place, gives him Eve's address and phone number.
At the game Mickey wins big. Zack warns Mickey not to come back, before he goes to meet Eve, but Eve in turn sends Zack away, telling him their affair is over. Mickey goes to Pearl's apartment to crash, when he wakes up begins taking pictures as she sleeps, she is just waking up when Zack walks in, still stinging from Eve's rejection, he attacks Mickey, pulling a gun and taking back the money he lost. He slaps Pearl, it is implied that Zack abuses Pearl and physically and she was hoping to catch her husband with Eve so she could have an excuse to divorce him. Mickey calls Eve's house, when Nancy answers pleads to come over and crash, hanging up before he realizes who she is; when he arrives Nancy tells him Eve isn't home, while he is confused he welcomes the chance to bathe and eat when she allows him in. She snoops in his suitcase while he bathes, finding memorabilia showing the truth of his stories and travels; as he eats they talk about Eve, but sensing her loneliness he sweeps her into bed asks her to marry him and go with him to Las Vegas.
Nancy laughs, but tells him she doesn't believe. She tells him to leave before she goes to work. Eve calls into Nancy's radio show from the office above her bar, torn between her attraction for Mickey and her fear of making another mistake. Nancy's post-coital euphoria overcomes her normal intellectual approach, she encourages Eve to give in to, rather than resist, her feelings. So when Mickey comes looking for Eve that night, she is ready to give in when Zack appears and assaults Mickey again. Eve takes off while they are fighting, when she gets home is confronted by Nancy, who tells her everything. Eve is devastated when Nancy proposes that they "share" Mickey's affection, she tells Nancy she can have him, before rushing out. Mickey goes back to Eve's house to recover his suitcase, Zack finds him there and assaults him again, but Mickey prevails, leaving with his suitcase. He tries to cadge a ride to the bus station but spies Eve on the roof of the bar, races up to see her, she threatens to kill herself until he does the same.
Soon they are on a bus, on their way to Las Vegas, when a fellow passenger asks if they are gambling, Eve says you could call it that - they've just been married. The film is reviewed favourably in Pauline Kael's eighth collection of movie reviews State of the Art: "The love roundelay Choose Me, written and directed by Alan Rudolph, on a budget of $835,000, is pleasantly bananas; the songs are performed by Teddy Pendergrass and he's just right. The entire movie has a lilting, choreographic flow to it this low-budget comedy-fantasy has some of the most entertaining performances I've seen all year." The film was screened out of competition at the 1984 Cannes Film Festival. List of American films of 1984 Choose Me on IMDb Choose Me at AllMovie Choose Me at Box Office Mojo Choose Me at Rotten Tomatoes
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original