Futebol Clube do Porto, MHIH, OM, commonly known as FC Porto or simply Porto, is a Portuguese sports club based in Porto. It is best known for the football team playing in the Primeira Liga. They are nicknamed Dragões, for the mythical creature atop the clubs crest, the club supporters are called Portistas. Since 2003, Porto have played their matches at the Estádio do Dragão, which replaced the previous 52-year-old ground. Porto is the second most successful Portuguese team, with a total of 74 official trophies,67 were achieved in domestic competitions and comprise 27 league titles,16 Taça de Portugal,4 Campeonato de Portugal, and a record 20 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira. Porto is the team in Portuguese league history to have won two titles without conceding any defeat, namely in the 2010–11 and 2012–13 seasons. In the former, Porto achieved the largest-ever difference of points between champion and runner-up in a system, on their way to a second quadruple. In addition, they were runners-up in the 1983–84 European Cup Winners Cup, together with Barcelona and Real Madrid, Porto have the most appearances in the UEFA Champions League group stage. At the end of the 2015–16 season, Porto were 16th in the UEFA club coefficient ranking, Porto was the only Portuguese club that was part of G-14 member. Porto played its first matches with other Portuguese clubs, including one against Lisbons Foot-Ball Club Lisbonense on 2 March 1894. This match had the patronage of King Carlos I and Queen Amélie of Orléans, almeidas enthusiasm and involvement with the club waned due to family pressure, and by the turn of the century, Porto had entered a period of inactivity. In 1906, José Monteiro da Costa returned to Porto after finishing his studies in England, on 2 August 1906, Porto was revived and Monteiro da Costa appointed its president. Although football was the force, the club also promoted other sports, including gymnastics, weightlifting and wrestling, athletics. Shortly after, Porto rented its first ground and recruited a French coach named Adolphe Cassaigne, on 15 December 1907, Porto played its first match against a foreign team, hosting Spains Real Fortuna. In the following month, Porto returned the visit and played its first match abroad, four years later, the club won the inaugural staging of the Taça José Monteiro da Costa, securing its first-ever official title. In 1912, Porto joined efforts with Leixões to establish the Porto Football Association, Porto finished the first season as runners-up, behind local rivals Boavista, but in the following season the club won its first championship. The 1921–22 season was marked by the creation of the first nationwide football competition – the Campeonato de Portugal, organised by the national federation, this knockout tournament gathered the winners of the different regional championships to determine the Portuguese champion. After clinching its fourth consecutive title, Porto defeated Sporting CP in the inaugural edition
Rio Ave F.C.
Rio Ave Futebol Clube, commonly known as Rio Ave, is a Portuguese football club based in Vila do Conde, northern Portugal. The club is named after the Ave River, which flows through the town, founded in 1939, Rio Ave currently play in the Primeira Liga, Portugals top-tier division of professional football. They play their games at Estádio do Rio Ave, also known as Estádio dos Arcos. Built in 1985, the current stadium seats approximately 12,815 people and is a multi-sports venue, although it is used mainly for Rio Aves football matches. The clubs home colours are green and white striped shirts with shorts and socks, whilst their away kit consists of a red and white striped shirt. Portuguese internationals Alfredo, Paulinho Santos, Quim, Rui Jorge, the Vilacondenses best top-tier league finish was fifth in the 1981–82 season. They reached the 1984 Taça de Portugal Final, where they lost to Porto 4–1, with this result, Rio Ave qualified for the 2014–15 UEFA Europa League, their first participation in a major European competition. Rio Ave was founded in 1939, soon being nicknamed Rio Grande, in 1981–82, Rio Ave achieved its best ever league standing by finishing in fifth place, in what was then known as the Primeira Divisão. Two seasons later, it reached the Portuguese Cup final, losing to Porto 4–1, most recently, Rio Ave managed to see of Braga to gain a spot in the 2014 Taça de Portugal Final, where they faced Benfica and lost 1–0. Notes 3Q, Third qualifying round PO, Play-off round GS, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality, ^A Best league classification finish in the clubs history. ^B Best cup run in the clubs history, ^C Best league cup run in the clubs history. = Division, 1D = Portuguese League, 2H = Liga de Honra, 2DS/2D = Portuguese Second DivisionPos. = Position, Pl = Match played, W = Win, D = Draw, L = Lost, GS = Goal Scored, GA = Goal Against, P = Points Official website Zerozero team profile Detailed up-to-date club news
Oeiras is a municipality in western part of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, subregion of Greater Lisbon, in continental Portugal. It is part of the agglomeration of Lisbon. The population in 2011 was 172,120, in an area of 45.88 km², Oeiras is an important economic hub, being one of the most highly developed municipalities of Portugal and Europe. It has the highest GDP in the country, being also the municipality with the highest purchasing power as well as the second one collecting taxes in the country. The mild climate, access to water, quality of its soils, the rugged hilltops of the interior conditioned cultivation and allowed the settlement of several small agricultural castros within the regions limits, such as Castro of Leceia. Remnants of the Roman occupation of the Iberian peninsula are evident in places throughout the municipality, including mosaics, specifically along the Rua das Alcássimas. The latter Arab conquest left behind several toponomic markers, such as Arab/Moorish place names, Alcássimas, Algés, Alpendroado, the settlement of Oeiras dates back to 1208, when the area was colonized by Christian tribes from the northern Portugal, moving south into warmer agricultural lands. At the beginning of the Age of Discoveries, Oeiras became the industrial and commercial warehouse of Lisbon, a royal charter, dated 7 June 1759, gave jurisdiction of the lands within Oeiras to the Kings loyal minister, becoming the first Count of Oeiras. A month later the village was elevated to the status of town. In 1894, the municipality was extinguished, but reestablished four years later on 13 January 1898 and it was reconstituted without Carcavelos, which was annexed to Cascais, while gaining the civil parish of Benfica. But, this activity began to decline by the 19th century, large factories began to locate in the municipality, among them the Fábrica do Papel, the Fundição de Oeiras, a Lusalite and Fermentos Holandeses. At the same time, between the 19th and 20th century, the growth of leisure activities along the coast transformed Oeiras, which became a privileged location for the Portuguese elite. By the beginning of the 20th century, many of the beaches in Oeiras were already occupied by the social classes. The construction of the National E. N, simultaneously, the concentration of economic activities in Lisbon, and surrounding urban municipalities, meant that Oeiras had direct access to the capital. After 1940-50 the municipality began to function as a suburb and bedroom community and this culminated in the 1970s, with the appearance of illegal urban settlements, squatters and barrios. Until the 1980s, the municipality was dependent on the larger urban centre for development. The municipality is located along the margin and mouth of the Tagus River, across from the municipality of Almada, surrounded by the municipalities of Lisbon, Sintra, Amadora. Oeiras municipality had a population of 172,120 as of the 2011 Census, retaining the nations 11th most-populous municipality, the major expansion in the municipalities demographics, much like the other municipalities that circle Lisbon, occurred in the second half of the 20th century
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training, ranking and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur. Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge, shorts and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, black, red, yellow, green and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, often, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control. The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal, body and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England