California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 42nd vice president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A United States senator from Minnesota, he was the Democratic Party's nominee in the United States presidential election of 1984, but lost to Ronald Reagan in an Electoral College landslide. Reagan won 49 states while Mondale carried his home state of District of Columbia, he became the oldest-living former U. S. vice president after the death of George H. W. Bush in 2018. Mondale was born in Ceylon and graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1951 after attending Macalester College, he served in the U. S. Army during the Korean War before earning a law degree in 1956, he married Joan Adams in 1955. Working as a lawyer in Minneapolis, Mondale was appointed to the position of attorney general in 1960 by Governor Orville Freeman and was elected to a full term as attorney general in 1962 with 60 percent of votes cast, he was appointed to the U. S. Senate by Governor Karl Rolvaag upon the resignation of Senator Hubert Humphrey following Humphrey's election as vice president in 1964.
Mondale was subsequently elected to a full Senate term in 1966 and again in 1972, resigning that post in 1976 as he prepared to succeed to the vice presidency in 1977. While in the Senate, he supported consumer protection, fair housing, tax reform, the desegregation of schools, he served as a member of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. In 1976, Jimmy Carter, the Democratic presidential nominee, chose Mondale as his vice presidential running mate; the Carter/Mondale ticket defeated incumbent president Gerald Ford and his vice presidential running mate, Bob Dole in the first televised vice presidential debate. Carter and Mondale's time in office was marred by a worsening economy and, although both were renominated by the Democratic Party, they lost the 1980 election to Republicans Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. In 1984, Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination and campaigned for a nuclear freeze, the Equal Rights Amendment, an increase in taxes, a reduction of U.
S. public debt. His vice presidential nominee was Geraldine Ferraro, a congresswoman from New York, the first female vice presidential nominee of any major party. Mondale and Ferraro lost the election to incumbent president Ronald Reagan, winning only Minnesota and the District of Columbia. After his defeat by Reagan, Mondale joined the Minnesota-based law firm of Dorsey & Whitney and the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. President Bill Clinton appointed Mondale United States Ambassador to Japan in 1993. In 2002, Mondale ran for his old Senate seat, agreeing to be the last-minute replacement for Democratic Senator Paul Wellstone, killed in a plane crash during the final two weeks of his re-election campaign. However, Mondale narrowly lost that race to Saint Paul mayor Norm Coleman, he returned to working at Dorsey & Whitney and remained active in the Democratic Party. Mondale took up a part-time teaching position at the University of Minnesota's Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs.
Mondale was born in Ceylon, the son of Claribel Hope, a part-time music teacher, Theodore Sigvaard Mondale, a Methodist minister. Walter's half-brother Lester Mondale became a Unitarian minister. Mondale has two brothers, known as Pete and William, known as Mort, his paternal grandparents were Norwegian immigrants, his mother, the daughter of an immigrant from Ontario, was of Scottish and English descent. The surname "Mondale" comes from a valley and town in the Fjærland region of Norway. Mondale attended public schools and Macalester College in St. Paul before transferring to the University of Minnesota, where he earned a B. A. in political science in 1951. As Mondale did not have enough money to attend law school, he enlisted in the U. S. Army and served for two years at Fort Knox during the Korean War, he married Joan Adams in 1955. Through the support of the G. I. Bill, he graduated from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1956. While at law school, he served on the Minnesota Law Review and as a law clerk in the Minnesota Supreme Court under Justice Thomas F. Gallagher.
He practiced law in Minneapolis, continued to do so for four years before entering the political arena. Mondale became involved in national politics in the 1940s. At the age of 20, he was visible in Minnesota politics by helping organize Hubert Humphrey's successful Senate campaign in 1948. Humphrey's campaign assigned Mondale to cover the staunchly Republican 2nd district. Mondale, raised in the region, was able to win the district for Humphrey by a comfortable margin. After working with Humphrey, Mondale went on to work on several campaigns for Orville Freeman. Mondale worked on Freeman's unsuccessful 1952 campaign for governor as well as his successful campaign in 1954 and his re-election campaign in 1958. In 1960, Governor Freeman appointed Mondale as Minnesota Attorney General following the resignation of Miles Lord. At the time he was appointed, Mondale was only 32 years old and had been practicing law for four years, he won re-election to the post in his own right in the 1962 election. During his tenure as Minnesota Attorney General, the case Gideon v. Wainwright was being heard by the U.
S. Supreme Court; when those opposed to the right to counsel organized a Friend of the Court brief representing several state attorneys general for that position, Mondale organized a cou
1912 United States presidential election in California
The 1912 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1912 United States presidential election. California narrowly voted for the Progressive nominee, former Republican president Theodore Roosevelt, over the Democratic nominee, New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson, though two electors cast their votes for Wilson; the incumbent, Republican William Howard Taft, did not appear on the ballot and was a write-in candidate. This was the closest presidential election in California history, with Roosevelt winning by just 174 votes out of 677,944 cast, a margin of 0.02567 percent. It remains the fourth-closest presidential race in any state in history, with the only closer one since being the controversial Florida election of 2000, the only others being two in Maryland in 1832 and 1904, the latter of which involved Roosevelt. Although Wilson narrowly failed to win the state, he did become the first Democrat to carry Napa and Marin Counties since James Buchanan in 1856, the first to carry Sacramento County and Sierra County since Stephen A. Douglas in 1860, the first to win San Diego County since 1868, the first to carry Ventura County, created in 1872, the first to carry Sutter County since 1876.
Since this election, Solano County has voted Democratic in all but six Republican landslide elections of 1920, 1924, 1928, 1972, 1980 and 1984. With 41.83% of the popular vote, California would prove to be Roosevelt's second strongest state in terms of popular vote percentage in the 1912 election after South Dakota
Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois, he graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman.
Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, was re-elected in 1970, he twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years in 1980, he won the nomination and defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have assumed office until Donald Trump in 2017. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U. S. president, 525, or 97.6 percent of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U. S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5 percent or 523 of the 531 electoral votes.
Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.
He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed; when Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68 percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era, he was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent, he died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, he is an icon among conservatives.
Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, he was the younger son of Jack Reagan. Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary, while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent. Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan, became an advertising executive. Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut. Reagan's family lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until settling in Dixon. After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House private quarters, he would quip that he was "living above the store again". Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and did".
She attended the Disciples of Christ church and was active, influential, within it.
2008 United States presidential election in California
The 2008 United States presidential election in California took place on November 4, 2008, in California as part of the 2008 United States presidential election. Voters chose 55 electors, the most out of any of the 50 states, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. California was won by Democratic nominee Barack Obama with a 24.1% margin of victory. No Republican has carried the state in a presidential election since 1988; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last time the Democratic candidate carried Trinity and Butte counties in a presidential election. For other parties, see California state elections, February 2008. On February 5, 2008, presidential primaries were held by all parties with ballot access in the state; the 2008 California Democratic primary took place on February 5, 2008 known as Super Tuesday. California was dubbed the "Big Enchilada" by the media because it offers the most delegates out of any other delegation. Hillary Clinton won the primary.
In the primary, 370 of California's 441 delegates to the Democratic National Convention were selected. The remaining delegates were superdelegates not obligated to vote for any candidate at the convention. Of these delegates, 241 were awarded at the congressional district level, the remaining 129 were awarded to the statewide winner. Candidates were required to receive at least 15% of either the district or statewide vote to receive any delegates. Registered Democrats and Decline to State voters were eligible to vote; the latest six polls were averaged. The California Republican primary, 2008 was held on February 5, 2008, with a total of 173 national delegates at stake; the delegates represented California at the Republican National Convention. There were three delegates to fourteen bonus delegates; the winner in each of the 53 congressional districts was awarded all of that district's delegates. The statewide winner was awarded 11 of the 14 bonus delegates, with the 3 remaining delegates assigned to party leaders.
Voting in the primary was restricted to registered Republican voters. Early polls showed Rudy Giuliani in the lead. Polls showed Mitt Romney or John McCain as the favored candidate; the American Independent Party held its primary February 5, 2008 The Green Party held its primary February 5, 2008. The Libertarian Party held its primary February 5, 2008; the Peace and Freedom Party held its primary February 5, 2008. Obama won. In the final three polls he averaged 59%, while McCain averaged 34%. Obama raised a total of $124,325,459 from the state. McCain raised a total of $26,802,024; the Obama campaign spent $5,570,641. The McCain campaign spent $1,885,142. Obama visited the state six times. McCain visited the state eight times. California was once a Republican stronghold, supporting Republican candidates in every election from 1952 through 1988, except in 1964. However, since the 1990s, California has become a reliably Democratic state with a diverse ethnic population and liberal bastions such as the San Francisco Bay Area and Los Angeles County.
The last time the state was won by a Republican candidate was in 1988 by George H. W. Bush. Obama won with 61.01 % of the votes. The last time the margin was higher in the state was in 1936 when Franklin D. Roosevelt won with 66.95% of the vote. In San Francisco and Alameda County, four out of five voters backed the Democratic candidate. Elsewhere in the Bay Area, Obama won every county by a three to greater. In Los Angeles County, Obama won 70% of the votes, his combined margin in the Bay Area and Los Angeles County would have been more than enough to carry the state. Obama made considerable headway in Republican areas of the state. Fresno County, for example, a populated county in the Central Valley, went from giving Bush a 16% margin to a 1% margin for Obama. San Diego County moved from a six-percent margin for Bush to a 10-point margin for Obama—only the second time since World War II that a Democrat has carried this military-dominated county. San Bernardino and Riverside went from double-digit Republican victories to narrow Democratic wins.
Ventura County moved from Republican to Democratic. Orange County one of the most Republican suburban counties in the nation, went from a 21-point margin for Bush to only a 2.5-point margin for McCain. Voter turnout was fairly higher in the election; the 79% turnout of registered voters was the highest since the 1976 presidential election. Despite the Democratic landslide in California, during the same election, a ballot proposition to ban same-sex marriage narrowly passed. A number of counties that had voted for Obama voted yes for it, as it was supported by Hispanics and African Americans. Though Obama considered marriage to be between a man and a woman at the time, he opposed the "divisive and discriminatory efforts to amend the California Constitution... the U. S. Constitution or those of other states". Arnold Schwarzenegger, the state's Republican governor and a supporter of McCain, opposed the proposition, though McCain supported it; the following are official results from the California Secretary of State.
The results below are compiled from the final reports available from the Secretary of State. The "others" category includes write-in votes. Obama carried 42 congressional districts in California, including all 34 districts held by Democrats and eight districts held by Republicans in the U. S. House of Representatives. Technically the voters of California cast their ballots for electors: representatives t
1920 United States presidential election in California
The 1920 United States presidential election in California took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 General Election in which all 48 states participated. California voters chose thirteen electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting Democratic nominee, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio and his running mate, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York, against Republican challenger U. S. Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio and his running mate, Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. By the beginning of 1920 skyrocketing inflation and President Woodrow Wilson's focus upon his proposed League of Nations at the expense of domestic policy had helped make the incumbent President unpopular – besides which Wilson had major health problems that had left First Lady Edith Wilson running the nation. Political unrest observed in the Palmer Raids and the "Red Scare" further added to the unpopularity of the Democratic Party, since this global political turmoil produced considerable fear of alien revolutionaries invading the country.
Demand in the West for exclusion of Asian immigrants became stronger than it had been before. Another issue was the anti-Cox position taken by the Ku Klux Klan, Cox's inconsistent stance on newly passed Prohibition – he had been a "wet" but announced he would support Prohibition enforcement in AugustThe West had been the chief presidential battleground since the "System of 1896" emerged following that election. For this reason, Cox chose to tour the entire nation and after touring the Pacific Northwest Cox went to California to defend his proposed League of Nations. Cox argued that the League could have stopped the Asian conflicts – like the Japanese seizure of Shandong – but his apparent defence of Chinese immigrants in the Bay Area was unpopular and large numbers of hecklers attacked the Democratic candidate. Moreover, the only attention Cox received in the Western press was severe criticism. In September, several opinion polls were conducted, all predicting that Harding would carry California, close in the two preceding elections, by over one hundred thousand votes.
By the end of October, although no more opinion polls had been published, most observers were more convinced that the Republicans would take complete control of all branches of government. On election day, Warren Harding carried California by a margin much larger than early polls predicted, winning with 66.20 percent of the vote to James Cox's 24.28 percent. Harding became the first of only two presidential nominees to sweep all of California's counties. Harding's 66.20 percent of the vote was the largest fraction for any presidential candidate in California until Roosevelt won with 66.95 percent in 1936, though his 41.92-percentage-point margin of victory is the largest for any candidate in the state. This was the first time Mariposa County and Colusa County, the only counties in the Pacific States to support Democratic nominee Alton B. Parker in 1904, had voted Republican. Plumas County would never vote Republican again until Ronald Reagan in 1980, Amador, El Dorado and Placer Counties would not vote Republican again until Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952
1932 United States presidential election in California
The 1932 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1932 United States presidential election. California voted for the Democratic challenger, New York Governor Franklin Roosevelt, in a landslide over the Republican incumbent, Herbert Hoover, carrying every county except Riverside. Roosevelt became the first Democrat to gain an absolute majority of the vote in California since James Buchanan in 1856, in winning all but one county he broke numerous long streaks of Republican dominance. Alpine and Orange Counties had never voted Democratic before this election, Alameda County had last voted for a Democrat in 1856, Humboldt County had never been Democratic since Stephen Douglas carried it in 1860, San Bernardino and Santa Clara Counties had not voted Democratic since Horatio Seymour in 1868, Los Angeles County supported a Democrat with Samuel J. Tilden in 1876