The Tyrrell 012 is a Formula One racing car, designed by Maurice Philippe for the Tyrrell team. It was introduced for the 1983 season, was subsequently used in 1984 and the first few races of 1985, it was the first chassis built by the team to be composed of carbon fibre, following on from Lotus and McLaren. The car was powered by the short-stroke version of the Ford Cosworth DFV, supplied to Lotus, after that team signed to use Renault turbo engines; the Benetton clothing company sponsored the team in 1983, with the large budget used to develop the car. Although the car was light and nimble, it was no match for the massively powerful turbo cars. Ken Tyrrell helped develop their careers. Michele Alboreto, in his second year for the team, scored a point in the car's first race at Zandvoort. For 1984, Alboreto moved on to Ferrari and was replaced by Martin Brundle, whilst Stefan Bellof filled the other seat; the 012 was further developed with a larger rear wing to increase downforce. A newer version of the DFV, dubbed.
Tyrrell were now the only one of the established teams to use the venerable engine. Both Brundle and Bellof drove impressed in their rookie seasons in F1, achieving solid placings and a podium place each, but after Brundle's second place in the United States Grand Prix the cars were disqualified by the FIA for various rule infringements and the team were excluded from the championship; the 012 was pressed into service in the early races of 1985 and Bellof pulled off a run of points finishes until the 014 Renault turbo was introduced. The DFY engine, by the start of the 1985 season was around 300 hp down on most of the turbo-charged engines used by other teams that year; the 012 does, have the distinction of being the last Formula 1 car to enter a race powered by the DFV's development, the Cosworth DFY engine, with Martin Brundle driving in the 1985 Austrian Grand Prix. Brundle failed to qualify for the race. By 1985 the 012 was the only car in Formula One still using a non-turbo engine which put the team at a severe power disadvantage.
This was shown on the 1.8 km long Mistral Straight at Paul Ricard for the French Grand Prix. Brundle had been given use of the 012's replacement, the 014 which used a turbocharged Renault engine, he qualified 20th some 4.4 seconds faster than Bellof in the Cosworth powered 012. Brundle said after qualifying that at one point while both were on a quick lap, he had followed Bellof's 012 onto the Mistral about 100 yards back, by the time he reached Signes, Bellof was nothing more than a dot in his mirrors; the top speed of the new turbo powered car was around 310 km/h, some 33 km/h faster than the older 012. In 1985, two examples of this car were used in Formula 3000 by Barron Racing Team; the initial version of Tyrrell 012 had a triangle-shaped rear-wing design. The car with this wing design was seen only once during a grand prix weekend, in the hands of Michele Alboreto during practice for the 1983 Austrian Grand Prix; the same car design appeared during F1 tyre testing at Brands Hatch in 1983.
* 11 points scored using Tyrrell 011 in 1983** Tyrrell Racing disqualified for entire 1984 season
The DFV is an internal combustion engine, produced by Cosworth for Formula One motor racing. The name is an abbreviation of Double Four Valve, the engine being a V8 development of the earlier four-cylinder FVA, which had four valves per cylinder, its development in 1967 for Colin Chapman's Team Lotus was sponsored by Ford. For many years it was the dominant engine in Formula One, it was used in other categories of racing, including CART, Formula 3000 and sportscar racing; the engine is a 90°, 2,993 cc V8 with a bore and stroke of 85.67 x 64.897 mm producing over 400 bhp from the start reaching over 500 bhp by the end of its Formula 1 career. The 1983 DFY variant had a revised bore and stroke of 90 x 59 mm giving 2,993 cc and 520–530 bhp at 11,000 rpm, 280 ft⋅lbf torque at 8,500 rpm. In 1965, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, that administered Formula One racing, agreed to raise the series' maximum engine capacity from 1.5 litres to 3.0 litres from 1966. Up until that point, Colin Chapman's successful Team Lotus cars had relied on power from fast revving Coventry Climax engines, but with the change in regulations Coventry Climax decided for business reasons not to develop a large capacity engine.
Chapman approached Keith Duckworth a gearbox engineer at Lotus but now running his fledgling Cosworth company with Mike Costin, who commented that he could produce a competitive three-litre engine, given a development budget of £100,000. Chapman approached the Ford Motor Company and David Brown of Aston Martin for funding, each without initial success. Chapman approached Ford of Britain's public relations chief, former journalist Walter Hayes, with whom he had developed a close working relationship from the early 1960s. Since Hayes had joined Ford in 1962 the pair had collaborated in the production of the successful Lotus Cortina, introduced in 1963. Hayes arranged dinner for Chapman with Ford employee Harley Copp, a British-based American engineer who had backed and engineered Ford's successful entry into NASCAR in the 1950s. Hayes and Copp developed a business plan, backed by Ford UK's new chairman Stanley Gillen, approved by Ford's Detroit head office as a two-part plan: Stage one would produce a four-cylinder twin-cam engine for Formula Two Stage two would produce a V8 engine for Formula One, by May 1967 The project was revealed by Hayes in a PR launch in Detroit at the end of 1965, but the engine was not ready until the third race of the 1967 season, on the 4 June at Zandvoort.
Its debut proved successful. Graham Hill, in the team at the specific request of Ford and Hayes, put his DFV-powered Lotus 49 on pole position by half a second and led for the first 10 laps but was sidelined by a broken gear in the camshaft drive. Team-mate Jim Clark came home to win. However, this dominant performance belied a serious fault in the timing gear. Clark took three more wins that season, but reliability problems left him third in the Drivers' Championship, 10 points behind champion Denny Hulme; the progress of the engine was documented in a film produced by the Ford Motor Company's film section, entitled 9 Days in Summer. The agreement between Ford and Lotus was binding on all parties, Ford as the funder had no plans to sell or hire the DFV to any other teams. However, it occurred to Hayes that there was no competition: the Ferrari engine was underpowered. Only Brabham's Repco V8 engine provided a usable combination of power and reliability, but its age and design left little room for further improvement.
Hayes concluded that Ford's name could become tarnished if the Lotus were to continue winning against only lesser opposition, that they should agree to use the unit in other teams, hence dominate Formula One. At the end of 1967, Copp and Hayes explained to Chapman that he would no longer have monopoly use of the DFV and in August 1967 it was announced that the power unit would be available for sale, via Cosworth Engineering, to racing teams throughout the world. Hayes released the DFV to French team Matra, headed by Ken Tyrrell with Jackie Stewart as a driver. What followed was a golden age, where teams big or small could buy an engine, competitive, compact, easy to work with and cheap; the DFV replaced the Coventry Climax as the standard F1 powerplant for the private teams. Lotus, McLaren, Brabham, Surtees, Hesketh, Williams, Penske and Ligier are just some of the teams to have used the DFV. In 1969 and 1973 every World Championship race was won by DFV-powered cars, with the engine taking a total of 155 wins from 262 races between 1967 and 1985.
The advent of ground effect aerodynamics on the F1 scene in 1977 provided a new lease of life for the now decade-old engine. The principle relied on Venturi tunnels on the underside of the car to create low pressure regions and thus additional downforce. Teams running Ferrari and Alfa-Romeo flat-12 engines had enjoyed a handling advantage due to the low centre of gravity in such a configuration. However, for ground effect, the wide engine was the opposite of what was required as the cylinder heads protruded into the area where the Venturi tunnels should have been. In contrast, the V-configuration of the Cosworth engine angled the cylinders upwards and left ample s
German Grand Prix
The German Grand Prix is a motor race, held most years since 1926, with 75 races having been held. The race has been held at only three venues throughout its history; the race continued to be known as the German Grand Prix through the era when the race was held in West Germany. Because West Germany was prevented from taking part in international events in the immediate post-war period, the German Grand Prix only became part of the Formula One World Championship in 1951, it was designated the European Grand Prix four times between 1954 and 1974, when this title was an honorary designation given each year to one Grand Prix race in Europe. It has been organised by the Automobilclub von Deutschland since 1926; the German Grand Prix was held at Hockenheimring every year between 1977 and 2006. During this time, a separate F1 race was held in Germany at the Nürburgring most years from 1995 until 2007 under the title of the European Grand Prix. Intended to begin in 2007, Hockenheimring and the Nürburgring alternated hosting the German Grand Prix between 2008 and 2014, at which point Nürburgring pulled out of hosting the event in 2015, leaving Hockenheim the sole host of the race but only in alternating years until 2018.
A further one-year deal places the German Grand Prix on the 2019 calendar. In 1907, Germany staged the first of the Kaiserpreis races at the 73-mile Taunus public road circuit, just outside Frankfurt. Entries were limited to touring cars with engines of less than eight litres; the race itself was a tragedy. There was a medical team there, but it took them two and a half hours to get to the site of the accident, of which driver Otto Göbel was badly injured and his co-driver Ludwig Faber, pinned under their Adler was dead. Göbel died of his injuries in hospital on. Italy's Felice Nazzaro won the race in a Fiat. Like the Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt, held from 1908 to 1911, it was a precursor to the German Grand Prix; the first national event in German Grand Prix motor racing was held at the AVUS race circuit in southwestern Berlin in 1926 as a sports car race. The AVUS circuit was made up of two 6-mile straights combined with two left-hand hairpins at each end; the first race at AVUS, in heavy rain, was won by Germany's native son, Rudolf Caracciola in a Mercedes-Benz.
The event was marred by Adolf Rosenberger's crash into one of the marshals' huts, killing three people. The AVUS circuit was considered dangerous back then- so the event was moved; the German Grand Prix became an official event in 1929. Although it was raced on in the non-championship AVUS-Rennen in the 1930s which saw some of the fastest road races held, the Grand Prix would not return to AVUS until 1959 for a one-off appearance; the Grand Prix moved to the new, 28.3 km Nürburgring, located in the Eifel Mountain region in western Germany about 70 miles from Frankfurt and Cologne. It was inaugurated on 18 June 1927 with the ADAC Eifelrennen; this was a huge challenging racing circuit that sped and twisted through forests of the Eifel Mountains, had over 1000 feet of elevation change and many spots where the cars visibly left the ground, such as the Flugplatz and Pflanzgarten sections. There were two more races on the Gesamtstrecke combined course, which were both sportscar races, where German pre-war great Rudolf Caracciola would win his second of six German Grands Prix.
The 1930 and 1933 races were cancelled due to economic reasons related to the Great Depression. In 1931, the event began to use only the 14.2-mile Nordschleife, this would continue onwards throughout the century. Caracciola would win the 1932 events in a Mercedes and an Alfa Romeo respectively. Starting in 1934, there were several races each year with the so-called "Silver Arrows" Grand Prix cars in Germany, e.g. the Eifelrennen, the AVUS race and several hillclimbs. Yet it was only the Grand Prix at the Nürburgring, the national Grande Epreuve, which counted toward the European Championship from 1935 to 1939; the 1935 event was considered to be one of the greatest motorsports victories of all time. Italian legend Tazio Nuvolari, driving a hopelessly outdated and underpowered Alfa Romeo against state-of-the-art Mercedes and Auto Unions drove a hard race in appalling conditions. After a dreadful start, he was able to pass a number of cars while some of the German cars pitted, but after a botched pit stop that cost him six minutes, he drove on the limit, made up that time and was second by the start of the last lap.
Von Brauchitsch had ruined his tyres by pushing hard in the dreadful conditions and Nuvolari was able to catch the German and take victory in front of the stunned German High Command and 350,000 spectators. The small 42-year-old Italian ended up finishing in front of eight running Silver Arrows. Second placed; the 1936 race was won by German driver Bernd Rosemeyer, driving an Auto Union, who won the Eifelrennen event at the Nordschleife in spectacular style, earning the nickname "Fog Master". The 1937 race saw Carraciola win again in a Mercedes and Auto Union driver Ernst Von Delius die after a crash near the Antonius Bridge on the main straight. Von Delius hit the back of Briton Richard Seaman's Mercedes at 250 km/h and he went f
Andreas Nikolaus "Niki" Lauda is an Austrian former Formula One driver and a three-time F1 World Drivers' Champion, winning in 1975, 1977 and 1984. He is the only driver to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sport's two most successful constructors, he is considered by some as one of the greatest F1 drivers of all time. More an aviation entrepreneur, he has founded and run three airlines, he is Bombardier Business Aircraft brand ambassador. He was a consultant for Scuderia Ferrari and team manager of the Jaguar Formula One racing team for two years, he is working as a pundit for German TV during Grand Prix weekends and acts as non-executive chairman of the Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 Team. Lauda owns 10% of the team. Having emerged as Formula One's star driver amid a 1975 title win and leading the 1976 championship battle, Lauda was injured in a crash at the 1976 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring during which his Ferrari burst into flames, he came close to death after inhaling hot toxic fumes and suffering severe burns.
However, he survived and recovered enough to race again just six weeks at the Italian Grand Prix. Although he narrowly lost the title to James Hunt that year, he won his second Ferrari crown the year after during his final season at the team. After a couple of years at Brabham and two years' hiatus, Lauda returned and raced four seasons for McLaren between 1982 and 1985 – during which he won the 1984 title by 0.5 points over his team colleague Alain Prost. Niki Lauda was born on 22 February 1949 in Austria, to a wealthy family, his paternal grandfather was the Viennese-born businessman Hans Lauda. Lauda became a racing driver despite his family's disapproval. After starting out with a Mini, Lauda moved on into Formula Vee, as was normal in Central Europe, but moved up to drive in private Porsche and Chevron sports cars. With his career stalled, he took out a £30,000 bank loan, secured by a life insurance policy, to buy his way into the fledgling March team as a Formula Two driver in 1971; because of his family's disapproval he had an ongoing feud with them over his racing ambitions and abandoned further contact.
He was promoted to the F1 team, but drove for March in F1 and F2 in 1972. Although the F2 cars were good, March's 1972 F1 season was catastrophic; the lowest point of the team's season came at the Canadian Grand Prix at Mosport Park, where both March cars were disqualified within 3 laps of each other after just past 3/4 race distance. Lauda took out another bank loan to buy his way into the BRM team in 1973. Lauda was quick, but the team was in decline. Regazzoni spoke so favourably of Lauda that Ferrari promptly signed him, paying him enough to clear his debts. After an unsuccessful start to the 1970s culminating in a disastrous start to the 1973 season, Ferrari regrouped under Luca di Montezemolo and were resurgent in 1974; the team's faith in the little-known Lauda was rewarded by a second-place finish in his debut race for the team, the season-opening Argentine Grand Prix. His first Grand Prix victory – and the first for Ferrari since 1972 – followed only three races in the Spanish Grand Prix.
Although Lauda became the season's pacesetter, achieving six consecutive pole positions, a mixture of inexperience and mechanical unreliability meant Lauda won only one more race that year, the Dutch GP. He finished fourth in the Drivers' Championship and demonstrated immense commitment to testing and improving the car; the 1975 F1 season started for Lauda. His first World Championship was confirmed with a third-place finish at the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, he became the first driver to lap the Nürburgring Nordschleife in under seven minutes, considered a huge feat as the Nordschleife section of the Nürburgring was two miles longer than it is today. Lauda famously gave away any trophies he won to his local garage in exchange for his car to be washed and serviced. Unlike 1975 and despite tensions between Lauda and Montezemolo's successor, Daniele Audetto, Lauda dominated the start of the 1976 F1 season, winning four of the first six races and finishing second in the other two. By the time of his fifth win of the year at the British GP, he had more than double the points of his closest challengers Jody Scheckter and James Hunt, a second consecutive World Championship appeared a formality.
It would be a feat not achieved since Jack Brabham's victories in 1959 and 1960. He looked set to win the most races in a season, a record held by the late Jim Clark since 1963. A week before the 1976 German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring though he was the fastest driver on that circuit at the time, Lauda urged his fellow drivers to boycott the race because of the 23-kilometre circuit's safety arrangements, citing the organisers' lack of resources to properly manage such a huge circuit- i.e. the lack of fire marshals. Most of the other drivers voted against the boycott and the race went ahead. On 1 August 1976 during the second lap at the fast left kink before Bergwerk, Lauda was involved in an accident where his Ferrari swerved o
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the Union Internationale Motonautique governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale governs air sports. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom. Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.
After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became established. Motorsports became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, their appropriate organisations. Motor racing is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other; the Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former ` Formula' series include Formula Two.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, organized by the owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing; the series was conceived in 2012, the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. The series is sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains; the series has gained significant traction in recent years. A series originated on June 1909 in Portland, Oregon at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles, its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 40 different drivers; the current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season.
Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American'stock car'. Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, specialised racing types; the premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area.
An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but gained interest from all over the country; as oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, including part of A1A; the highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500 nicknamed'The Great American Race', held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Off-Road Racing is a group
West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs. Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871–1945 German Empire. It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. From the West German perspective, the GDR was therefore illegitimate.
Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.
Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990, its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like UN, NATO, OECD and the European Union; the official name of West Germany, adopted in 1949 and unchanged since is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the 1950s and 1960s.
This changed once under its 1968 constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In the early 1970s, starting in the East German Neues Deutschland, the initialism "BRD" for the "Federal Republic of Germany" began to prevail in East German usage. In 1973, official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit. In reaction to this move, in 1965 the West German Federal Minister of All-German Affairs Erich Mende issued the Directives for the appellation of Germany, recommending avoiding the initialism. On 31 May 1974, the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. In November 1979 the federal government informed the Bundestag that the West German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF had agreed to refuse to use the initialism.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code of West Germany was "DE", which has remained the country code of Germany after reunification. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.de. Accordingly the less used ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of West Germany was "DEU", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany; the now deleted codes for East Germany, on the other hand, was "DD" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 and "DDR" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-3. The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. "Westdeutschland" was a widespread colloquial form used in German-speaking countries without political overtones. On 4–11 February 1945 leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated.
The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.