Futbol Club Barcelona, commonly known as Barcelona and familiarly as Barça, is a professional football club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Founded in 1899 by a group of Swiss, English and Catalan footballers led by Joan Gamper, unlike many other football clubs, the supporters own and operate Barcelona. It is the second most valuable team in the world, worth $3.56 billion. The official Barcelona anthem is the Cant del Barça, written by Jaume Picas, Barcelona was ranked first in the IFFHS Club World Ranking for 1997,2009,2011,2012 and 2015 and currently occupies the third position on the UEFA club rankings. The club has a rivalry with Real Madrid, matches between the two teams are referred to as El Clásico. Barcelona is one of the most supported teams in the world, Barcelonas players have won a record number of Ballon dOr awards, as well as a record number of FIFA World Player of the Year awards. Barcelona is one of three founding members of the Primera División that have never relegated from the top division, along with Athletic Bilbao. In 2011, the club became European champions again and won five trophies, by winning their fifth Champions League trophy on 6 June 2015, Barcelona became the first European club in history to achieve the continental treble twice. On 22 October 1899, Hans Gamper placed an advertisement in Los Deportes declaring his wish to form a football club, FC Barcelona had a successful start in regional and national cups, competing in the Campionat de Catalunya and the Copa del Rey. In 1902, the club won its first trophy, the Copa Macaya and he said in a meeting, Barcelona cannot die and must not die. If there is nobody who is going to try, then I will assume the responsibility of running the club now on. Club president on five occasions between 1908 and 1925, he spent 25 years in total at the helm. One of his achievements was ensuring Barça acquire its own stadium. On 14 March 1909, the moved into the Camp de la Indústria. To celebrate their new surroundings, the club conducted a logo contest the following year, Carles Comamala won the contest, and his suggestion became the crest that the club still wears – with some minor changes – as of the present day. The contest was the most prestigious in that era, from the inaugural year in 1910 to 1913, Barcelona won the competition four consecutive times. Carles Comamala played a part of the four-time champion, managing the side along with Amechazurra. The latter became the clubs first full-time coach in 1917, the last edition was held in 1914 in the city of Barcelona, which local rivals Espanyol won
Associazione Calcio Milan, commonly referred to as A. C. Milan, is a professional football club in Milan, Italy, founded in 1899. The club has spent its entire history, with the exception of the 1980–81 and 1982–83 seasons, in the top flight of Italian football, known as Serie A since 1929–30. With 18 officially recognised UEFA and FIFA titles, they are the fourth most successful club in the world, with 18 league titles, Milan is the joint-second most successful club in Serie A, along with local rivals Internazionale. They have also won the Coppa Italia five times, and the Supercoppa Italiana seven, Milans home games are played at San Siro, also known as the Stadio Giuseppe Meazza. The stadium, which is shared with city rivals Internazionale, is the largest in Italian football, inter are considered their biggest rivals, and matches between the two teams are called Derby della Madonnina, which is one of the most followed derbies in football. The owner of the club is former Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi, the club is one of the wealthiest in Italian and world football. It was a member of the now-defunct G-14 group of Europes leading football clubs as well as its replacement. A. C. Milan was founded as Milan Cricket and Foot-Ball Club on 13 December 1899 by English expatriates Alfred Edwards and Herbert Kilpin, who came from the English city of Nottingham. In honour of its English origins, the club has retained the English spelling of the name, as opposed to the Italian spelling Milano. Milan won its first Italian championship in 1901 and a two in succession in 1906 and 1907. In 1908, Milan experienced a split caused by disagreements over the signing of foreign players. Following these events, Milan did not manage to win a domestic title until 1950–51. The 1950s saw the return to the top of Italian football, headed by the famous Gre-No-Li Swedish trio Gunnar Gren, Gunnar Nordahl. This was one of the clubs most successful periods domestically, with the Scudetto going to Milan in 1951,1955,1957,1959 and 1962, in 1963, Milan won its first continental title by beating Benfica in the final of the European Cup. This success was repeated in 1969, with a 4–1 win over Ajax in the final, during this period Milan also won its first Coppa Italia, with victory over Padova in the 1967 final, and two European Cup Winners Cups, in 1967–68 and 1972–73. Milan won a league title in 1979, but after the retirement of Gianni Rivera in the same year. The club was involved in the 1980 Totonero scandal and as punishment was relegated to Serie B for the first time in its history, the scandal was centred around a betting syndicate paying players and officials to fix the outcome of matches. Milan achieved promotion back to Serie A at the first attempt, winning the 1980–81 Serie B title, in 1983, Milan won the Serie B title for the second time in three seasons to return to Serie A, where they achieved a sixth-place finish in 1983–84
The Philips Sport Vereniging, abbreviated as PSV and internationally known as PSV Eindhoven is a sports club from Eindhoven, Netherlands. It is best known for its football department, which plays in the Eredivisie. Along with Ajax and Feyenoord, PSV is one of the big three clubs that have dominated the Eredivisie. The club was founded in 1913 as a team for Philips employees, PSVs history contains two golden eras revolving around the UEFA Cup victory in 1978 and the 1987–88 European Cup victory as part of the seasonal treble in 1988. The team has won the Eredivisie 23 times, the KNVB Cup nine times, currently, PSV is 28th on the UEFA club coefficients ranking. Since its foundation, it has played in the Philips Stadion and has upheld its club colours and its elaborate connection with Philips can be witnessed in its sponsoring, shared technology and board member ties. Fans have named themselves boeren, taking pride in Eindhovens status of being a provincial city, to serve the need for activities with Philips employees, the company founded its own football team in 1910, the Philips Elftal. Its ground was the Philips Sportpark, located on the location as the present day stadium. Financial turmoil and worker strikes led to a demise of the team and in 1913, its successor emerged, Philips Sport Vereniging. It was the day that Philips organized celebrations and sports competitions in light of the defeat of the French in the Napoleonic Wars. It was not until 1916, however, that the department switched its name from Philips Elftal to PSV. Because of World War I, the first possibility to enter a league was in the 1915–16 season, the clubs first ever match was a 3–2 defeat against Willem II Reserves on 19 September 1915. The team did achieve promotion that season to a newly created Third Division of the Brabantian FA, under the guidance of coach Wout Buitenweg, PSV were promoted in 1918 and 1921 as well, eventually reaching the Eerste Klasse. The team was relegated in 1925, but its stint in the Second Division only lasted one year when PSV were promoted again, since 1926, PSV has always played in the highest possible domestic league. That year, defender Sjef van Run was brought in and a year later Jan van den Broek joined PSV, behind the scenes, Frans Otten became chairman of the entire PSV sports union. He was responsible for bringing the club to a new level with new accommodations, after winning the district league in 1929, PSV entered the championship play-offs. In that competition, it won six out of eight matches, a 5–1 win against Velocitas from the city of Groningen meant that PSV was crowned league champions for the first time. In the following three years, PSV won the league every year, but it could not win the play-offs until 1935
Sporting Clube de Portugal, OM, ComC, MHIH or Sporting CP is a sports club based in Lisbon, Portugal, that is best known for its football team. As of 23 May 2016, Sporting is the worlds sixth-largest club in terms of members and is one of the Três Grandes football clubs in Portugal. They are nicknamed Leões and Verde e Brancos, the clubs anthem, A Marcha do Sporting, was written in 1955. Founded in Lisbon on 1 July 1906, Sporting were a member of the Primeira Liga and. Benfica and FC Porto, have never relegated from the top flight of Portuguese football since its establishment in 1934. Sporting are the third most successful Portuguese football club, with 50 titles in all the Portuguese competitions and one international title, domestically, they have won 18 Primeira Liga titles,16 Portuguese Cups, four Championships of Portugal and eight Portuguese Super Cup titles. Sportings football youth system has developed players such as Paulo Futre, Simão, Nani, Ricardo Quaresma and Ballon dOr recipients Cristiano Ronaldo. Sporting are currently ranked 54th in UEFA club rankings, Sporting Club de Portugal has its origins in June 1902, when young men Francisco da Ponte, Horta Gavazzo and his brother José Maria decided to create Sport Club de Belas. This club, the first ancestor of Sporting, played just one match and at the end of the years summer and they played their matches on the estate of Viscount of Alvalade, the grandfather of José Alvalade, with the clubs headquarters located at the house of Francisco Gavazzo. For two years, the club developed an activity on several sports, namely football, tennis. The club also organized parties and picnics, some time later, José Gavazzo, José Alvalade and 17 other members left the club, with the latter saying I am going to have with me my grandfather and he will give me the money to make another club. As such, a new club, Campo Grande Sporting Clube, was founded, the Viscount of Alvalade, whose money helped to fund the club, was the first president of Sporting. José Alvalade, as one of the founders, uttered on behalf of himself and his fellow co-founders, We want this club to be a great club. Three months later, on 1 July 1906, António Félix da Costa Júnior suggested the name Sporting Clube de Portugal, Sporting played their first Primeira Liga game ever on 20 January 1935, winning 0–6 against Académica de Coimbra. A year later, in 1936, the club had their heaviest defeat ever against Porto, Sporting, however, got their revenge a year later, when they humbled the same team with a 9–1 result. In 1941, under the guidance of Hungarian manager József Szabó, the football team had their height during the 1940s and 1950s. It was spearheaded by Fernando Peyroteo, José Travassos, Albano Pereira, Jesus Correia and Manuel Vasques, with the violins help, Sporting won seven league titles in eight seasons between 1947 and 1954, including a then unprecedented four in a row from 1950–51 onwards. Fernando Peyroteo, the most known of the violins, is considered one of the greatest Portuguese players of all time, Sporting and the Yugoslavian team Partizan both made history on 4 September 1955, as they played the first-ever UEFA Champion Clubs Cup match
Dundee United F.C.
Dundee United Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in the city of Dundee. Formed in 1909, originally as Dundee Hibernian, the changed to the present name in 1923. United are nicknamed The Terrors or The Tangerines and the supporters are known as Arabs, the club has played in tangerine kits since the 1960s and have played at the present ground, Tannadice Park, since their foundation in 1909. United were founder members of the Scottish Premier League in 1998 and were ever-present in the competition until it was abolished in 2013 to make way for the SPFL structure, United were relegated in 2016 to the Scottish Championship, which is the second tier of the SPFL. Domestically, the club has won the Scottish Premier Division on one occasion, the Scottish Cup twice, United appeared in European competition for the first time in the 1966–67 season, going on to appear in Europe in 14 successive seasons from 1976. They also reached the European Cup semi-finals in 1984 and the UEFA Cup final in 1987, the club has a 100% record in four matches against Barcelona in competitive European ties. The club was formed as Dundee Hibernian in 1909, playing from the outset at Tannadice Park and they were voted into the Scottish Football League in 1910. After being saved from going out of business in October 1923, between 1925 and 1932 United were promoted and then relegated three times, winning the Second Division title in 1925 and 1929. The club achieved little success until Jerry Kerr became manager in 1959. Kerrs team won promotion in his first season in charge and became established in the top flight, Jim McLean took over from Kerr in 1971 and his youth policy led to the most successful era in the clubs history. United won the Scottish League Cup in 1979 and 1980 and then the Premier Division title in 1982–83, the club were also successful in Europe, reaching the European Cup semi-finals in 1984 and the 1987 UEFA Cup Final. The latter featuring another elimination of Barcelona, despite losing to IFK Gothenburg in the final, the club won a FIFA Fair Play Award. McLean retired as manager in 1993, but remained as club chairman, United won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1994 under McLeans successor Ivan Golac, but were relegated in 1995, returning a year later. Shortly after Leveins departure, the won the Scottish Cup for a second time in 2010 under the management of Peter Houston. After several relatively successful seasons, a slump in form led to United being relegated in 2016, for a complete pictorial history of playing kit, see the Historical Football Kits site. After persuasion by the wife of manager Jerry Kerr, the colour would soon be adopted as the own in 1969 to give the club a brighter. The new colour was paraded for the first time in a friendly against Everton in August. When founded as Dundee Hibernian, they had followed the example of clubs of similar heritage by adopting the traditionally Irish colours of green shirts
The club have played continuously in the top tier of the Italian football league system since its debut in 1909. Inter have won 30 domestic trophies as well as local rivals A. C. Milan, from 2006 to 2010, the club won five successive league titles, equalling the all-time record. They have won the Champions League three times, two back-to-back in 1964 and 1965 and then another in 2010 and their latest win completed an unprecedented Italian seasonal treble, with Inter winning the Coppa Italia and the Scudetto the same year. The club has won three UEFA Cups, two Intercontinental Cups and one FIFA Club World Cup. Inters home games are played at the San Siro stadium, also known as the Stadio Giuseppe Meazza, shared with rivals A. C. Milan, the stadium is the largest in Italian football. The local team A. C. Milan are considered among their biggest rivals, as of 2010, Inter is the second-most supported team in Italy, and the sixth most-supported team in Europe. The club is one of the most valuable in Italian and world football and it was a founding member of the now-defunct G-14 group of Europes leading football clubs. The club was founded on 9 March 1908 as Football Club Internazionale, following the schism with the Milan Cricket, the name of the club derives from the wish of its founding members to accept foreign players as well as Italians. The club won its very first championship in 1910 and its second in 1920, the captain and coach of the first championship winning team was Virgilio Fossati, who was later killed in battle while serving in the Italian army during World War I. In 1922, Inter remained in the top league after winning two play-offs, six years later, during the Fascist era, the club was forced to merge with the Unione Sportiva Milanese and was renamed Società Sportiva Ambrosiana. The team wore white jerseys around this time with a red cross emblazoned on it, the jerseys design was inspired by the flag and coat of arms of the city of Milan. Their first Coppa Italia was won in 1938–39, led by the iconic Giuseppe Meazza, a fifth championship followed in 1940, despite Meazza incurring an injury. After the end of World War II the club regained its name, winning its sixth championship in 1953. He would transform Inter into one of the greatest teams in Europe and he modified a 5–3–2 tactic known as the Verrou to include larger flexibility for counterattacks. The catenaccio system was invented by an Austrian coach Karl Rappan, herrera would modify it by adding a fifth defenders, the sweeper or libero behind the two centre backs. The sweeper or libero who acted as the man would deal with any attackers who went through the two centre backs. Inter finished third in the Serie A in his first season, second the next year, then followed a back-to-back European Cup victory in 1964 and 1965, earning him the title il Mago. In 1964, Inter reached the European Cup Final by beating Borussia Dortmund in the semi-final, in the final, they met Real Madrid, a team that had reached seven out of the nine finals to date
Paris Saint-Germain F.C.
Paris Saint-Germain Football Club is a French professional football club based in Paris, whose first team play in the highest tier of French football, the Ligue 1. The club was formed in 1970 by the merger of Paris FC, Paris Saint-Germain remain the only club to have never been relegated from Ligue 1. The Parisians are also one of only two French clubs to win a European title – the other being arch-rivals Olympique de Marseille, PSG are the most successful French club in terms of trophies won, with 32. Domestically, Paris SG have won six Ligue 1 titles, a record ten French Cups, in international club football, Paris have won one UEFA Cup Winners Cup and one UEFA Intertoto Cup. PSG have always represented both Paris and nearby Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the capital side play their games in Paris at the Parc des Princes, while the Camp des Loges is located in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Paris SG spent their formative years using the Stade Municipal Georges Lefèvre, located in front of the Camp des Loges, Paris SG shares an intense rivalry with Marseille and contest the most notorious football match in France, known as Le Classique. PSG is the second-highest supported football club in France after OM, red, blue and white are the clubs traditional colours. And Paris est magique. are PSGs most popular mottos, the Red-and-Blues have hosted the Tournoi de Paris at the Parc des Princes since 1975. During the tournaments 2010 edition, PSG unveiled Allez Paris Saint-Germain, to the tune of Go West by Village People, Qatar Sports Investments has been the clubs owner since 2011. The takeover made Paris Saint-Germain the richest club in France and amongst the richest in the world. Currently, PSG have the sixth-highest revenue in the world with an annual revenue of €520.9 million. Towards the end of the 1960s, an group of businessmen decided to create a major club in the French capital. After a petition was signed by 20,000 people, Paris Saint-Germain Football Club were founded on 12 August 1970 with the merger of Paris FC, PSG are today the citys largest club by far, as well as Frances most successful club in terms of trophies won. Paris SG won the Ligue 2 title in their inaugural season, PSG have never formally been relegated from Ligue 1. However, the split into two in 1972. The professional arm of the continued life in the top-flight under the name of Paris FC. Paris returned to Ligue 1 in 1974, ironically the year that Paris FC were relegated. Since then, PSG have always played in Ligue 1, the clubs trophy cabinet welcomed its first major silverware in the shape of the French Cup in 1981–82
Futebol Clube do Porto, MHIH, OM, commonly known as FC Porto or simply Porto, is a Portuguese sports club based in Porto. It is best known for the football team playing in the Primeira Liga. They are nicknamed Dragões, for the mythical creature atop the clubs crest, the club supporters are called Portistas. Since 2003, Porto have played their matches at the Estádio do Dragão, which replaced the previous 52-year-old ground. Porto is the second most successful Portuguese team, with a total of 74 official trophies,67 were achieved in domestic competitions and comprise 27 league titles,16 Taça de Portugal,4 Campeonato de Portugal, and a record 20 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira. Porto is the team in Portuguese league history to have won two titles without conceding any defeat, namely in the 2010–11 and 2012–13 seasons. In the former, Porto achieved the largest-ever difference of points between champion and runner-up in a system, on their way to a second quadruple. In addition, they were runners-up in the 1983–84 European Cup Winners Cup, together with Barcelona and Real Madrid, Porto have the most appearances in the UEFA Champions League group stage. At the end of the 2015–16 season, Porto were 16th in the UEFA club coefficient ranking, Porto was the only Portuguese club that was part of G-14 member. Porto played its first matches with other Portuguese clubs, including one against Lisbons Foot-Ball Club Lisbonense on 2 March 1894. This match had the patronage of King Carlos I and Queen Amélie of Orléans, almeidas enthusiasm and involvement with the club waned due to family pressure, and by the turn of the century, Porto had entered a period of inactivity. In 1906, José Monteiro da Costa returned to Porto after finishing his studies in England, on 2 August 1906, Porto was revived and Monteiro da Costa appointed its president. Although football was the force, the club also promoted other sports, including gymnastics, weightlifting and wrestling, athletics. Shortly after, Porto rented its first ground and recruited a French coach named Adolphe Cassaigne, on 15 December 1907, Porto played its first match against a foreign team, hosting Spains Real Fortuna. In the following month, Porto returned the visit and played its first match abroad, four years later, the club won the inaugural staging of the Taça José Monteiro da Costa, securing its first-ever official title. In 1912, Porto joined efforts with Leixões to establish the Porto Football Association, Porto finished the first season as runners-up, behind local rivals Boavista, but in the following season the club won its first championship. The 1921–22 season was marked by the creation of the first nationwide football competition – the Campeonato de Portugal, organised by the national federation, this knockout tournament gathered the winners of the different regional championships to determine the Portuguese champion. After clinching its fourth consecutive title, Porto defeated Sporting CP in the inaugural edition
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to also serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps, illustrations and diagrams printed in the United States. It also began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate. James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law also extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family later returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacement
Cruzeiro Esporte Clube
Cruzeiro Esporte Clube, commonly known as Cruzeiro and nicknamed Raposa, is a Brazilian multisport club based in Barro Preto, Belo Horizonte. Although they compete in a number of different sports, Cruzeiro is mostly known for its football team. It plays in the Campeonato Mineiro, the state of Minas Geraiss premier state league, as well as in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, Cruzeiro are one of the four Brazilian clubs to have never been relegated, along with São Paulo, Flamengo and Santos. As a result of the Second World War, the Brazilian federal government banned the use of any symbols referring to the Axis powers in 1942, the club board members rebaptized the club with the name of a leading national symbol, the Cruzeiro do Suls constellation. Cruzeiro play their games at the Mineirão stadium, which currently holds up to 62,547 spectators. Cruzeiros regular kit colours are blue shirts and white shorts with blue socks, umbro are the sides current kit manufacturers. Cruzeiro is one of Brazils most successful clubs despite its young age and it won the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A for the first time in 1966, after defeating Santos Os Santásticos in the final series. Cruzeiro has won the Brasileirão again in 2003,2013 and 2014, Cruzeiro has also won four Copa do Brasil titles and the Campeonato Mineiro 37 times. Cruzeiro won the state competitions Taça Minas Gerais five times, the Copa dos Campeões Mineiros twice, Copa Sul Minas twice, the Torneio Início 10 times. A Raposa also obtained many international laurels such as two Copa Libertadores, two Supercopa Libertadores, one Recopa Sudamericana, one Copa de Oro and one Copa Master de Supercopa, Cruzeiro hold a long-standing rivalry against Atlético Mineiro. Cruzeiros history is traced back to the Italian community living in Belo Horizonte, similar to the Italians of São Paulo the people of Belo Horizonte wanted the Italian colonies in Minas Gerais to have its own club as well. Was born at that moment, the Società Sportiva Palestra Italia, the meeting was attended by 95 founders present the shield and uniform that made reference to the Italian colors, and whose SSPI description would be recorded in the center shell. Another definition was right that members of the Italian colony could wear the shirt time. Aurelio Noce was elected the first President, the Palestra Italia emerged as the representative of the Italian colony. The idea of the club being created took a big step when Yale, when some players left Yale over a dispute, some went on to found the all Italian, Sociedade Esportiva Palestra Itália of Belo Horizonte. Until 1925 the club would only allow Italian men to participate, despite other teams in the nation accepting people of all skin colors, Palestra debuted in the Prado Mineiro Stadium with a 2–0 win in a friendly on April 3,1921, against a combination from Nova Lima. The Nova Lima team united players from two teams from the city, Villa Nova, and Palmeiras, another team form Nova Lima, however the first official match of Palestra was in a 3–0 win over future archrivals Clube Atlético Mineiro. In 1927, in a Mineiro Championship match, the most extreme result in the history of rivalry was a 9-2 victory by Atlético
Joan Gamper Trophy
The Joan Gamper Trophy or Joan Gamper Cup is an annual friendly football competition held in August, before the start of FC Barcelonas La Liga season. The competition is hosted by FC Barcelona at the Camp Nou stadium and is named in honour of Joan Gamper, a member, player. The competition was inaugurated in 1966 by Enric Llaudet, one of Gampers successors as club president, the trophy itself is an 800 grams silver cup with five micrometres of gold finishing, on top of a 10 kilograms marble plinth base. Initially, four participated in the competition, which featured two semi-finals, a third-place play-off, and a final. For the first competition in 1966, Barcelona were joined by Belgiums R. S. C, anderlecht, Frances FC Nantes, and Germanys FC Köln. Barcelona beat the German team 3–1 in the final, Köln subsequently won the competition in 1978 and 1981 and were runners-up in 1979, making them the only team, other than the hosts, to win the competition more than once. The next edition saw the first appearance of another Spanish team, Atlético Madrid, who along with the hosts, were joined by German side Bayern Munich, the latter two clubs are among the most regular guests. Bayern were runners-up in 1984,1987 and 2006, while Boca became the first of several South American guests to be invited and have returned in 1977,1984,2003 and 2008. The only non-European team to win the tournament was Brazils Internacional, subsequent competitions have included teams from Italys Serie A, Germanys Bundesliga. Other top-flight Spanish clubs have also occasionally been invited, including Tenerife and Valencia, since 1997, the competition has only featured a one-off game, the tournament being shortened due to an increased fixture list and a shorter close season. If the match is tied after 90 minutes, no extra-time is played, a marks the winner was determined after a penalty shootout Below is the participation by club listed, grouped by country. Lionel Messi is the player in the history of Joan Gamper Trophy who has won the man of the match award three times. First in 2013 against Santos, then in 2014 against Club León, lionel Messi is the only player in the history of Joan Gamper Trophy who has scored in four consecutive editions. General Lozano Ferrer, Carles, et al