An Olympic Village is an accommodation center built for the Olympic Games, usually within an Olympic Park or elsewhere in a host city. Olympic Villages are built to all participating athletes, as well as officials. After the Munich Massacre at the 1972 Olympics, the Villages have been made extremely secure, only athletes and officials are allowed to room at the Village, though family members and former Olympic athletes are allowed inside with proper checks. Press and media are barred, the idea of the Olympic Village comes from Pierre de Coubertin. Up until the 1924 Summer Olympic Games, National Olympic Committees rented locations around the host city to house participants, for the 1924 Summer Olympics, the organizers built cabins near the Stade Olympique de Colombes to allow the athletes to easily access the Games venues. It has been reported that the Village is known for its hedonism once the athletes are done competing - with large quantities of alcohol. For the 2014 games in Sochi,100,000 free condoms were provided by the IOC for the 6,000 athletes in attendance, despite seemingly large numbers, several instances have occurred where smaller orders have resulted in shortages.
Sydney famously only provided 70,000 condoms but ran out, Athens 1906, The Zappeion, which was used during Athens 1896 as the main Fencing Hall, was used in 1906 as a Olympic Village. Paris 1924, In Paris in 1924, a number of cabins were built near the stadium to house visiting athletes, Los Angeles 1932, The first Olympic Village is constructed in the Baldwin Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. For male athletes only, the Village consisted of several hundred buildings, including post and telegraph offices, an amphitheater, a hospital, a department. Female athletes were housed at the Chapman Park Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard, the village was dismantled after the games. Used as barracks for over 50 years, only ruins remain, jesse Owenss house has been restored. Helsinki 1952, The first Olympic Village, Olympiakylä, was constructed in the Käpylä district of Helsinki for the planned 1940 Summer Olympics, another Olympic Village, Kisakylä, was built nearby for the 1952 Olympics. Kisakylä couldnt accommodate all athletes so other villages were designated for instance in Otaniemi, both Olympiakylä and Kisakylä areas are listed by Docomomo as significant examples of modern architecture in Finland.
Melbourne 1956, The area in Heidelberg West, where the athletes stayed is still called Olympic Village, after the games, athlete residences were used for public housing. The area now consists of a center, a primary school, shopping strip, a community health centre which houses a registered training organization. Rome 1960, consist of 33 buildings with two, three and even five floors, squaw Valley 1960, Four identical three-story apartment buildings, two of which still stand, modified into condominiums. Mexico City 1968,904 apartments distributed in 29 multi-story buildings in the Miguel Hidalgo Olympic Village Complex, Munich 1972, Multiple buildings of 25,22,20,19,16,15, and 12 stories, used now as Olympic Village student housing
Indianapolis, is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. It is in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States, with an estimated population of 853,173 in 2015, Indianapolis is the second most populous city in the Midwest, after Chicago, and 14th largest in the U. S. The city is the economic and cultural center of the Indianapolis metropolitan area, home to 2 million people and its combined statistical area ranks 26th, with 2.4 million inhabitants. Indianapolis covers 372 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by area in the U. S. The city grew beyond the Mile Square, as completion of the National Road and advent of the railroad solidified the position as a manufacturing. Indianapolis is within a single-day drive of 70 percent of the nations population, Indianapolis has developed niche markets in amateur sports and auto racing. The city is perhaps best known for hosting the worlds largest single-day sporting event. The city is notable as headquarters for the American Legion and home to a significant collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war dead, the most in the U. S.
outside of Washington, D. C. Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration has operated under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council, Indianapolis is considered a high sufficiency global city. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of land to establish a permanent seat of state government. Two years later, under the Treaty of St. Marys and this tract of land, which was called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers. Although many of these first European and American setters were Protestants, few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840. The first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families, on January 11,1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital.
The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6,1821, in April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31,1821, a combined county and town government continued until 1832, when Indianapolis incorporated as a town. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30,1847, Samuel Henderson, the citys first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter provided for an elected mayor
Pan American Games
The Pan-American or Pan American Games is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, the only Winter Pan American Games were held in 1990. The Pan American Sports Organization is the body of the Pan American Games movement, whose structure. The XVII Pan American Games were held in Toronto from July 10–26,2015, since 2007, host cities are contracted to manage both the Pan American and the Parapan American Games, in which athletes with physical disabilities compete with one another. The Parapan American Games are held following the Pan American Games. The Pan American Games Movement consists of sports federations, National Olympic Committees that are recognized by PASO. As the decision-making body, PASO is responsible for choosing the host city for each Pan American Games, the host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter and rules.
The Pan American Games program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is determined by PASO, the celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the flag and torch, and the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Pan American Games in 36 sports, the first and third-place finishers in each event receive gold and bronze medals, respectively. At the first Pan American Sports Congress, held in Buenos Aires in 1940, the plans had to be postponed because of World War II. A second Pan American Sports Congress held in London during the 1948 Summer Olympics reconfirmed Buenos Aires as the choice of host city for the inaugural games, countries that were part of the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada did not compete at the first Pan American Games. The second games were held in Mexico City, competitions started on March 12 and included 2,583 athletes from 22 countries, competing in 17 sports. The Pan American Games were held every four years in the cities of Chicago, United States in 1959, São Paulo, Brazil in 1963 and Winnipeg.
While the inaugural 1951 Games hosted 2,513 participants representing 14 nations, during the games most athletes and officials are housed in the Pan American Games village. This village is intended to be a home for all the participants. It is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, and locations for religious expression, PASO allows nations to compete that do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organizations demand. As a result and dependencies are permitted to set up their own National Olympic Committees, examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico and Bermuda which compete as separate nations despite being legally under the jurisdiction of another power. There have been attempts to hold Winter Pan American Games throughout the history of the games, reliable winter snow in the Americas is limited to two countries, the United States and Canada
Butler University is a private university in Indianapolis, Indiana. It comprises a 295-acre campus located five miles from downtown Indianapolis. On January 15,1850, the Indiana State legislature adopted Ovid Butlers proposed charter for a new Christian university in Indianapolis and university founder Ovid Butler provided the property. In 1930, Butler merged with the Teachers College of Indianapolis, founded by Eliza Blaker, the Jordan College of Fine Arts, the universitys fifth college, was established in 1951, following a merger with the Arthur Jordan Conservatory of Music. Butlers School of Religion, established in 1924, became independent in 1958 and is known as the Christian Theological Seminary. Butler University was founded by members of the Christian Church, though it was never controlled by the church, the university charter called for a non-sectarian institution free from the taint of slavery, offering instruction in every branch of liberal and professional education. The university was the first in Indiana and the third in the U. S. to admit men and women.
Butler was the first university in the United States to endow a chair designated specifically for a woman, catharine Merrill, the first person to hold the chair, became the second woman to be named a professor in an American university. The university established the first professorship in English literature and the first Department of English in the state of Indiana, the original location of the school was 13th Street and College Avenue on the near-northside of Indianapolis. The campus consisted of buildings, including an observatory, most of which were demolished in 1939. Enrollment at Butler increased following the end of World War I, the new and current campus, designed in-part by noted architect George Sheridan, was formed on the site of Fairview Park, a former amusement park on the citys northwest side. Classes began on the campus in 1928, the first building on the Fairview campus was Arthur Jordan Memorial Hall, designed by Robert Frost Daggett and Thomas Hibben. Also, in 1928, the Butler Fieldhouse was completed after being designed by architect Fermor Spencer Cannon, the building remained the largest indoor sports facility in the United States until the mid-1960s.
The Religion Building and Sweeney Chapel were completed in 1942 and these structures, designed by Burns and James, were remodeled into Robertson Hall in 1966. The building now serves as the alumni and admissions offices. Following World War II, construction began on the student center and this building was remodeled in 1993 and includes an on-campus Starbucks. McGuire and Shook designed Ross Hall, a dormitory originally designed for men but is now coed, and Schwitzer Hall, art Lindbergh, with help from Daggett, designed the Holcomb Observatory and Planetarium, which was dedicated in 1955. This building houses Indianas largest telescope, acclaimed architect Minoru Yamasaki, who designed the World Trade Center, designed Irwin Library which opened in 1963 and serves as the universitys main library
Vice President of the United States
The executive power of both the vice president and the president is granted under Article Two, Section One of the Constitution. The vice president is elected, together with the president. The Office of the Vice President of the United States assists, as the president of the United States Senate, the vice president votes only when it is necessary to break a tie. Additionally, pursuant to the Twelfth Amendment, the president presides over the joint session of Congress when it convenes to count the vote of the Electoral College. Currently, the president is usually seen as an integral part of a presidents administration. The Constitution does not expressly assign the office to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars whether it belongs to the executive branch, the legislative branch, or both. The modern view of the president as a member of the executive branch is due in part to the assignment of executive duties to the vice president by either the president or Congress. Mike Pence of Indiana is the 48th and current vice president and he assumed office on January 20,2017.
The formation of the office of vice president resulted directly from the compromise reached at the Philadelphia Convention which created the Electoral College, the delegates at Philadelphia agreed that each state would receive a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that states allocation of Representatives and Senators. The delegates assumed that electors would typically choose to favor any candidate from their state over candidates from other states, under a plurality election process, this would tend to result in electing candidates solely from the largest states. Consequently, the delegates agreed that presidents must be elected by a majority of the number of electors. To guard against such stratagems, the Philadelphia delegates specified that the first runner-up presidential candidate would become vice president, the process for selecting the vice president was modified in the Twelfth Amendment. Each elector still receives two votes, but now one of those votes is for president, while the other is for vice president.
The requirement that one of those votes be cast for a candidate not from the electors own state remains in effect. S, other statutorily granted roles include membership of both the National Security Council and the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. As President of the Senate, the president has two primary duties, to cast a vote in the event of a Senate deadlock and to preside over. For example, in the first half of 2001, the Senators were divided 50-50 between Republicans and Democrats and Dick Cheneys tie-breaking vote gave the Republicans the Senate majority, as President of the Senate, the vice president oversees procedural matters and may cast a tie-breaking vote. As President of the Senate, John Adams cast 29 tie-breaking votes that was surpassed by John C. Calhoun with 31. Adamss votes protected the presidents sole authority over the removal of appointees, influenced the location of the national capital, on at least one occasion Adams persuaded senators to vote against legislation he opposed, and he frequently addressed the Senate on procedural and policy matters
Ecuador includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century. The territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are recognized, including Quichua and Shuar. The capital city is Quito, while the largest city is Guayaquil, in reflection of the countrys rich cultural heritage, the historical center of Quito was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978. Cuenca, the third-largest city, was declared a World Heritage Site in 1999 as an outstanding example of a planned. Ecuador has an economy that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum. The country is classified as a medium-income country, Ecuador is a democratic presidential republic. The new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of Nature, Ecuador is known for its rich ecology, hosting many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands.
It is one of 17 megadiverse countries in the world, various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas. They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups, even though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture and religious interests. Eventually, through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations, one region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions. Its political and military came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line.
The native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru, similarly, a number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language, in contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior, as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered. The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained relatively autonomous until the Spanish soldiers, the Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century
Market Square Arena
Market Square Arena was an indoor arena located in Indianapolis. Completed in 1974, at a cost of $23 million, it seated 16,530 for basketball and 15,993 for ice hockey, seating capacity for concerts and other events was adjusted by the use of large curtains which sealed off the upper rows. In the late 1960s, the city of Indianapolis studied several areas of the city for future development. Students Joseph Mynhier and Terry Pastorino selected downtown Indianapolis as their market, the design envisioned by Mynhier and Pastorino was selected and used as a promotional tool by the City of Indianapolis for construction of the stadium. Four architectural firms were selected by the city to complete the design with two representatives from each of the four companies. Terry Pastorino, who had worked for Kennedy, Brown & Trueblood, Inc. during the summer of 1970 on the project, the original student design included a four-story office building covering two city blocks. The Market Square Arena as constructed consisted of a space frame design spanning Market Street.
The playing floor was elevated over Market Street by a garage on each side of Market Street. Market Street terminated at Market Square Arena to the east and to the west by the capitol, the final design eventually took up one city block spanning Market Street. Market Square Arenas original center-hung scoreboard was an American Sign and Indicator scoreboard similar to those which would be installed at Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, in 1987, Indianapolis hosted the Pan American Games and the basketball event was held at Market Square. Market Square Arena was best known as the home of the Indiana Pacers of the American Basketball Association, the first Pacers basketball game ever held in the arena was a preseason game against the Milwaukee Bucks, attendance was 16,929. The first regular-season ABA game in the arena was held on October 18,1974, against the San Antonio Spurs, the first Pacers victory in Market Square Arena came on October 23 with a 122–107 win over the Spirits of St. Louis.
The 1974–75 season ended for the Pacers with the ABA Finals played in Market Square Arena and Freedom Hall against their archrivals, the Colonels defeated the Pacers in that championship series, winning the ABA title in five games. The 1975–76 Pacers won their final home ABA game in Market Square Arena with a 109–95 victory against the Colonels, the Pacers continued to play in Market Square Arena after they joined the NBA. Michael Jordans return to the Chicago Bulls after his first retirement took place at Market Square Arena in a loss to the Pacers on March 19,1995. The final Pacers game to be played in Market Square Arena was an exhibition game against the Utah Jazz on October 23,1999. The arena hosted the 1980 NCAA mens basketball Final Four & the Midwestern Collegiate Conference mens basketball tournament from 1986 to 1988. The gold-medal match of the 1987 Pan American Games in Indianapolis pitted Brazil against the United States
Brown County State Park
Brown County State Park is located in the United States in the center of the southern half of the state of Indiana. The park is the largest of 24 state parks in Indiana and it is Indianas most visited state park, and has about 1.3 million visitors each year. Although Bloomington, Indiana, is the closest city, the park is closer to the town of Nashville in Brown County. Brown County is named for General Jacob Brown, who fought in the War of 1812, the park opened in 1929, and was dedicated in 1932 as a memorial to Indiana humorist Frank McKinney Kin Hubbard. Although Hubbard lived and worked in Indianapolis, he was a frequent visitor to Nashville, the parks Abe Martin Lodge is named after Hubbards fictional backwoodsmen character used to convey Hubbards humor and witticisms. Brown County and its park are known for their views of the hills of southern Indiana. Both are the home of a variety of trees that attract visitors each year when the vegetation transforms to its autumn colors. The park contains trees that flower in the springtime.
Visitors will find a rustic atmosphere, enhanced by an infrastructure that was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps during the 1930s. In addition to the lodge, cabins can be rented. The park has trails for hiking and horseback riding and it has two lakes for fishing that complement the surrounding forests and provide a water source for the local wildlife. The areas beauty attracts artists and photographers worldwide, Brown County was created in 1836 from portions of Monroe and Bartholomew counties, and is named after General Jacob Brown, a hero of the War of 1812. Early settlers tried farming in Brown Countys hilly woodlands, leading them to clear the forests, beginning in the 1840s and continuing for the rest of the century, most of Brown Countys forests were cleared. At first, the largest trees were cut for lumber used in the construction industry, in years, smaller trees were cleared for furniture wood, railroad ties, and firewood. The rugged land eventually became difficult to farm because of poor quality soil, a combination of poor farming practices and erosion caused by deforestation depleted the soils nutrients.
At least two people played major roles in the creation of Brown County State Park, richard Lieber, an Indianapolis businessman who became the first director of the Indiana Department of Conservation, visited Brown County in 1910. Lieber was so impressed with the beauty of the land that he built a cabin near Nashville, Lieber eventually became known as the father of Indianas state parks, and the state opened 10 state parks during his tenure as director of the Indiana Department of Conservation. Lieber was not the one from Indianapolis that was impressed with Brown County
The Cuban Revolution was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castros 26th of July Movement and its allies against the right-wing authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista. The revolution began in July 1953, and continued sporadically until the rebels finally ousted Batista on 1 January 1959, the 26th of July Movement reformed along communist lines, becoming the Communist Party in October 1965. Castro’s organized attack set up on the end of Santiago de Cuba against the military barracks ended in despair. The Cuban Revolution had powerful domestic and international repercussions, in particular, it transformed Cubas relationship with the United States. Efforts to improve diplomatic relations have gained momentum in recent years, in the immediate aftermath of the revolution, Castros government began a program of nationalization and political consolidation that transformed Cubas economy and civil society. The revolution heralded an era of Cuban intervention in military conflicts, including the Angolan Civil War.
Although Batista had been relatively progressive during his first term, in the 1950s he proved far more dictatorial, Batista developed a powerful security infrastructure to silence political opponents. In the months following the March 1952 coup, Fidel Castro, a lawyer and activist, petitioned for the overthrow of Batista. However, Castros constitutional arguments were rejected by the Cuban courts, after deciding that the Cuban regime could not be replaced through legal means, Castro resolved to launch an armed revolution. Striking their first blow against the Batista government, Fidel and Raúl Castro gathered 123 Movement fighters, on 26 July 1953, the rebels attacked the Moncada Barracks in Santiago and the barracks in Bayamo, only to be decisively defeated by government soldiers. The staged attack was in hope to spark a revolt against Batista’s government. He had around 150 factory and farm workers, after an hour of fighting the rebel leader fled to the mountains. Due to the large number of men, Hunt revised the number to be around 60 members taking at the opportunity to flee to the mountains along with Castro.
Among the dead was Abel Santamaría, Castros second-in-command, who was imprisoned, numerous key Movement revolutionaries, including the Castro brothers, were captured shortly afterwards. In a highly political trial, Fidel spoke for four hours in his defense, ending with the words Condemn me. Through Castro’s defense he used nationalism, the representation and beneficial programs for the non-elite Cubans, Fidel was sentenced to 15 years in the Presidio Modelo prison, located on Isla de Pinos, while Raúl was sentenced to 13 years. However, in 1955, under political pressure, the Batista government freed all political prisoners in Cuba. Fidels Jesuit childhood teachers succeeded in persuading Batista to include Fidel, the Castro brothers joined with other exiles in Mexico to prepare for the overthrow of Batista, receiving training from Alberto Bayo, a leader of Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War
Michigan City, Indiana
Michigan City is a city in LaPorte County, United States. It is one of the two cities of the Michigan City-La Porte, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City Combined Statistical Area. Located in the known to locals as Michiana, it is approximately 50 miles east of Chicago and 40 miles west of South Bend. The city had a population of 31,479 at the 2010 census, Michigan City is noted for both its proximity to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and for bordering Lake Michigan. Due to this, Michigan City receives an amount of tourism during the summer months, especially by residents of Chicago. The lighthouse is a symbol for the city and is incorporated in the heading of Michigan Citys sole newspaper, The News Dispatch. Michigan City hosted the events at the 1987 Pan American Games. Michigan City is located at 41°42′34″N 86°53′13″W, according to the 2010 census, Michigan City has a total area of 22.855 square miles, of which 19.59 square miles is land and 3.265 square miles is water.
Michigan City is home to the stream Trail Creek which flows into Lake Michigan, as of the census of 2010, there were 31,479 people,12,136 households, and 7,147 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,606.9 inhabitants per square mile, there were 14,435 housing units at an average density of 736.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64. 9% White,28. 1% African American,0. 4% Native American,0. 7% Asian,2. 1% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 5. 9% of the population. 34. 3% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 37.1 years. 23. 5% of residents were under the age of 18,8. 9% were between the ages of 18 and 24,27. 8% were from 25 to 44,26. 2% were from 45 to 64, and 13. 5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 51. 4% male and 48. 6% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 32,900 people,12,550 households, and 7,906 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,678.6 inhabitants per square mile, there were 14,221 housing units at an average density of 725.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69. 45% White,26. 31% African American,0. 26% Native American,0. 51% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,1. 10% from other races, and 2. 36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3. 15% of the population,30. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and it is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Indiana, ports along its shores include Chicago, Green Bay, Gary and Benton Harbor, Michigan. The word Michigan originally referred to the lake itself, and is believed to come from the Ojibwa word mishigami meaning great water, some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians. Their culture declined after 800 AD, and for the few hundred years. The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan, in the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of Michigan, named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes.
Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a role in the development of Chicago. The first person to reach the bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump. Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition, in 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College. This formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake, One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated, Lake Michigan is the only one of the Great Lakes wholly within the borders of the United States, the others are shared with Canada.
It lies in the known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has an area of 22,404 sq. mi, making it the largest lake entirely within one country by surface area. It is the half of Lake Michigan–Huron, which is the largest body of fresh water in the world. It is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long, the lakes average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet, while its greatest depth is 153 fathoms 5 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water, Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team scores more goals wins. Modern handball is played on a court 40 by 20 metres, the goals are surrounded by a 6-meter zone where only the defending goalkeeper is allowed, goals must be scored by throwing the ball from outside the zone or while diving into it. The sport is played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and Czech handball. The game is fast and high-scoring, professional teams now typically score between 20 and 35 goals each, though lower scores were not uncommon until a few decades ago, body contact is permitted by the defenders trying to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. The game was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe, the modern set of rules was published in 1917 in Germany, and had several revisions since.
The first international games were played under rules for men in 1925. Mens handball was first played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin as outdoors, and the time at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich as indoors. Womens team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics, the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946 and, as of 2016, has 197 member federations. The sport is most popular in the countries of continental Europe, in the womens world championships, only two non-European countries have won the title, South Korea and Brazil. The game enjoys popularity in the Far East, North Africa, There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing a version of handball called expulsim ludere. There are records of games in medieval France, and among the Inuit in Greenland. By the 19th century, there existed similar games of håndbold from Denmark, házená in the Czech Republic, handbol in Ukraine, the team handball game of today was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe—primarily in Denmark, Germany and Sweden.
The first written set of team handball rules was published in 1906 by the Danish gym teacher and Olympic medalist Holger Nielsen from Ordrup grammar school, north of Copenhagen. The modern set of rules was published on 29 October 1917 by Max Heiser, Karl Schelenz, after 1919 these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz. The first international games were played under rules, between Germany and Belgium by men in 1925 and between Germany and Austria by women in 1930. In 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation nominated a committee to draw up rules for field handball. The International Amateur Handball Federation was formed in 1928 and the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946, Mens field handball was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin