Edwin Washington Edwards is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who served as the U. S. Representative for Louisiana's 7th congressional district from 1965 to 1972 and as the 50th Governor of Louisiana for four terms, twice as many elected terms as any other Louisiana chief executive, he served a total of 16 years in office, the sixth-longest serving gubernatorial tenure in post-Constitutional U. S. history at 5,784 days. A colorful and legendary figure in Louisiana politics, dubbed the "very last of the line of New Deal Southern Democrats", was long dogged by charges of corruption. In 2001, he was sentenced to ten years in federal prison. Edwards began serving his sentence in October 2002 in Fort Worth and was transferred to the federal facility in Oakdale, Louisiana, he was released from federal prison in January 2011. He was released from probation in 2013. Without a pardon, Edwards remains ineligible to seek the governorship until 15 years have passed from the end of his sentence.
In 2014, Edwards ran in the 2014 election to represent Louisiana's 6th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives. He placed first in the jungle primary, but was defeated by Republican Garret Graves by nearly 25 points in the runoff election. Edwin Washington Edwards was born near Marksville, his father, Clarence Edwards, was a half-French Creole Presbyterian sharecropper, while his mother, the former Agnès Brouillette, was a French-speaking Catholic. Edwards' ancestors were among early Louisiana colonists from France who settled in Avoyelles Parish, referred to as the original French Creoles. Edwards, like many 20th century politicians from Avoyelles, assumed that he had Cajun ancestry, when in fact he may have had none, his father was descended from a family in Kentucky, who came to Louisiana during the American Civil War. His great-great-grandfather, William Edwards, was killed in Marksville at the beginning of the American Civil War because of his pro-Union sentiment.
Avoyelles Parish has been known for colorful politicians. O. "Potch" Didier spent seven days in his own jail after being convicted of malfeasance in office during his own heated reelection. The young Edwards had planned on a career as a preacher; as a young man, he did some preaching for the Marksville Church of the Nazarene. He served in the U. S. Navy Air Corps near the end of World War II. After his return from the military, he graduated at the age of twenty-one from Louisiana State University Law Center and began practicing law in Crowley, the seat of Acadia Parish, he relocated there in 1949 after his sister, Audrey E. Isbell, who had moved there with her husband, told him there were few French-speaking attorneys in the southwestern Louisiana community. Edwards' career was thus helped by his being bilingual and articulate in both English and Cajun French, he learned to cultivate the goodwill of working reporters and editorial page editors. One of his favorites was Adras LaBorde, longtime managing editor of the Alexandria Daily Town Talk in Alexandria.
LaBorde influenced Edwards in regard to environmental policy. Edwards entered politics through election to the Crowley City Council in 1954, he was a member of the Democratic Party which, in that era, had a monopoly on public offices in Louisiana, but which fell out of favor in the late 20th century. Edwards remained on the Crowley council until his election to the Louisiana State Senate in 1964. Years as governor, Edwards appointed Cleveland's daughter, Willie Mae Fulkerson, a former member of the Crowley City Council, to the Louisiana Board of Prisons. After serving in the state Senate for less than two years as a floor leader for Governor John McKeithen, Edwards was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Louisiana's 7th congressional district, a position that he held from 1965 until 1972, he won the congressional seat in a special election called when the incumbent, T. Ashton Thompson of Ville Platte, was killed in an automobile accident near North Carolina. Edwards was reelected to three full terms in the House in 1966, 1968 and 1970.
In 1968, he defeated Republican Vance William Plauché of Lake Charles, son of former one-term Democratic Congressman Vance Gabriel Plauché, a native of Avoyelles Parish. Edwards received more than 80 percent of the general election vote. While in Congress, Edwards served on the Public Works and Internal Security committees. In 1970, he was one of the few Southern congressmen to support the extension for five years of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In the election of 1971–1972, Edwards won the governorship after finishing first in a field of seventeen candidates in the Democratic primary, including the final race of former governor Jimmie Davis and Gillis Long, a relative of Huey Long, his greatest support came from southern Louisiana among its large numbers of Cajun and African-American voters. In the first primary, Edwards led with 276,397. J. Bennett Johnston, Jr.. A state senator from Shreveport, followed with 208,830. In third place was former Congressman Gillis Long of Alexandria, with 164,276.
Former Governor Jimmie Davis finished fourth with 138,756. Far to the rear of the pack was Congressman Speedy O. Long of Jena in rural La Salle Parish with only 61,359 (5.2 per
Raymond Edwin Mabus Jr. is an American politician, former diplomat, member of the Democratic Party who served as the 75th United States Secretary of the Navy from 2009 to 2017. Mabus served as the State Auditor of Mississippi from 1984 to 1988, as the 60th Governor of Mississippi from 1988 to 1992 and as the United States Ambassador to Saudi Arabia from 1994 to 1996. Mabus was born in Starkville, is a fourth-generation Mississippian. After attending public schools, he graduated summa cum laude from the University of Mississippi, where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi, with a B. A. in English and political science. He earned an M. A. in political science from Johns Hopkins University and a J. D. magna cum laude, from Harvard Law School. He had been offered a Fulbright Scholarship, had held a Woodrow Wilson Fellowship, had traveled throughout Europe, the Middle East and Latin America Prior to attending law school, he served two years in the Navy as a surface warfare officer from 1970 to 1972 aboard the cruiser USS Little Rock, achieving the rank of Lieutenant, junior grade and worked as a law clerk in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.
Mabus began his professional career working in Washington, D. C. as legal counsel to the United States House Committee on Agriculture. Following the election of Governor William Winter, he returned to Mississippi to work in the governor's office, where the youthful staff—which included Mabus, Dick Molpus, John Henegan and Andy Mullins—earned the nickname "Boys of Spring" from a rival state legislator. In 1983, Mabus was elected state auditor and served from 1984 to 1988, during this time, he participated in a large FBI sting operation which recovered millions in misspent or stolen public funds. By the time it was finished, "Operation Pretense" had ensnared 57 county supervisors in 25 counties, all but two of those supervisors served time in prison. At 39 years of age, he defeated Tupelo businessman Jack Reed in the 1987 gubernatorial election by 53% to 47%, becoming the youngest governor in the United States, he won "on a wave of black votes" and lost the white vote "by about 3 to 2" despite support from what a coalition one Democratic state chairman described as "poor whites" and yuppies.
Mabus, who ran on the slogan "Mississippi Will Never Be Last Again", was billed as "the face of the New South", much like his counterpart in Arkansas at the time, Bill Clinton. Mabus was featured in a 1988 New York Times Magazine cover story titled "The Yuppies of Mississippi. During his time as governor, he passed B. E. S. T. Gave teachers the largest pay raise in the nation. Mississippi had record growth in new jobs, investment and exports; because of the gubernatorial succession amendment ratified in 1987, Mabus was eligible to become the first governor to serve two successive terms in more than 100 years, he ran for reelection in 1991. He was defeated 51% to 48% in the general election by Republican Kirk Fordice, a former Vicksburg construction executive, who portrayed him as "arrogant and out of touch with Mississippi politically", with a New York Times article describing him as a "Porsche politician in a Chevy pickup state". Mabus was appointed by President Bill Clinton to be the United States Ambassador to Saudi Arabia and served from 1994 to 1996.
During his tenure, a 1994 border crisis involving Yemen was defused, a 1994 crisis with Iraq was deterred, he presided over the embassy during the 1995 terrorist attack, child abduction cases were addressed, contracts worth more than $16 billion were signed between Saudi Arabian and American companies such as Boeing, AT&T. Mabus's residence and embassy office in Riyadh were decorated with items of interest from his home state including an Ackerman phone book on his office coffee table and the Mississippi flag next to the American flag. On March 27, 2009, Mabus was nominated by President Obama as Secretary of the Department of the Navy, he was sworn in on May 19, 2009, held a ceremonial swearing in at Washington Navy Yard on June 18, 2009, where he was re-sworn in by the Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. In April 2010 a furor arose when it was reported that Mabus made the proposal to name a United States Navy warship the USS John P. Murtha after the late Pennsylvania Democratic congressman John Murtha.
Additional naming controversies occurred due to the naming of auxiliary ship after civil rights activist Cesar Chavez who has described his service in the U. S. Navy as "...the worst two years in my life," and a littoral combat ship after former Arizona Democratic Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, after she suffered life-threatening wounds in the 2011 mass shooting in her home district of Tucson, Arizona. On April 16, 2012, the Navy Secretary returned to Naval tradition of naming certain warships after former U. S. presidents, announcing the next Zumwalt-class destroyer be named the USS Lyndon B. Johnson; this action represented somewhat of a change to previous norms, since with the exception of the current attack submarine, USS Jimmy Carter and the since-decommissioned USS George Washington class of Polaris/Poseidon fleet ballistic missile submarines, all recent U. S. warships named for presidents have been aircraft carriers. Subsequent ship namings include his January 6, 2016 announcement of his naming of another auxiliary ship after civil rights activist and sitting incumbent Georgia Democratic Congressman John Lewis.
Mabus further stated that this particular cl
Charles Elson "Buddy" Roemer III is an American politician and banker who served as the 52nd Governor of Louisiana from 1988 to 1992, as a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1981 to 1988. Roemer was a candidate for the presidential nominations of the Republican Party and the Reform Party in 2012, he withdrew from those contests and sought the 2012 Americans Elect presidential nomination until that group announced it would not field a candidate in 2012 because no candidate reached the required minimum threshold of support to be listed on its ballot. Roemer endorsed Libertarian Gary Johnson, former governor of New Mexico, for president in the 2012 general election. In March 1991, while serving as governor, Roemer switched affiliation from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party. Roemer serves on the Advisory Council of Represent. Us, a nonpartisan anti-corruption organization. Buddy Roemer was born on October 4, 1943, in Shreveport, the son of Charles Elson "Budgie" Roemer, II and the former Adeline McDade.
Roemer's maternal grandfather, Ross McDade, married a sister of the maternal grandmother of James C. Gardner, a former mayor of Shreveport. Gardner knew Roemer's grandfather as "Uncle Ross". McDade's wife died, he remarried, from which union came Adeline Roemer. Roemer and Gardner were not close politically. Roemer was reared on the family's Scopena plantation near Bossier City, he graduated in 1960 as valedictorian of Bossier High School. In 1964, he graduated from Harvard College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics. In 1967, he received an MBA in finance from Harvard Business School. After college, Roemer returned to Louisiana to work in his father’s computer business and founded two banks, he was elected in 1972 as a delegate to the Louisiana Constitutional Convention held in 1973. Among the Shreveport-area delegates who served with Roemer was his future gubernatorial advisor Robert G. Pugh, future U. S. District Judge Tom Stagg, former Louisiana State Representative Frank Fulco. Roemer's father had been in 1971 the campaign manager for Edwin Washington Edwards and became commissioner of administration during Edwards' first term as governor.
Buddy Roemer worked on the Edwards campaign as a regional leader and started a political consulting firm. As a member of Congress, Roemer represented Louisiana's 4th congressional district in the northwestern section of the state, which includes Shreveport and Bossier City. In 1978, Roemer lost in the nonpartisan blanket primary for the 4th district congressional seat, vacated by popular incumbent Joe Waggonner from Bossier Parish. Waggonner announced his opposition to Roemer after Roemer criticized the excessive costs of the Red River navigation program, a favored project of the retiring Waggonner. Roemer finished third in the primary to Democratic State Representative Buddy Leach, with 27 percent of the ballots, Republican Jimmy Wilson, a former state representative from Vivian in northern Caddo Parish. Leach went on to defeat Wilson by 266 votes in a disputed vote count. In 1980, Roemer and Wilson again challenged Leach in the primary; that time, Wilson finished in third place, Roemer ranked second, again with 27 percent, Leach led the field with 29 percent.
In the general election, with the support of Wilson, Roemer handily defeated Leach, who had the support of Campbell and many other state legislators, 64 to 36 percent. After his 1980 election victory, Roemer won congressional re-election without opposition in 1982, 1984, 1986. In Congress, Roemer supported Ronald Reagan's policy initiatives and fought with the Democratic congressional leadership, though he remained in the party, he criticized Democratic House leader Tip O'Neill of Massachusetts for being "too liberal", was in turn characterized by Speaker O'Neill as being "often wrong but never in doubt". After Roemer left the House to become governor, he was succeeded by his administrative assistant, Republican Jim McCrery. In 1981, Roemer joined forty-seven other House Democrats in supporting the passage of the Reagan tax cuts opposed by Speaker O'Neill and Roemer's fellow Louisiana Democrat Gillis William Long of Alexandria. In 1984, Roemer again broke with O'Neill to support Reagan's request for American aid to El Salvador, which Roemer described as "a freedom-loving country."
Roemer was among the congressional observers in the El Salvador national election. In 1988, Roemer claimed that Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis made "a much better choice in terms of politics and impact on Louisiana" in choosing U. S. Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas for his vice presidential running mate than did Republican George H. W. Bush made in choosing Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana. Roemer, as the host governor and still a Democrat, welcomed the Republicans to New Orleans, where delegates in convention nominated Bush and Quayle. In his first term in Congress, Roemer was denied a seat on the Banking Committee by the Democratic leadership and instead was assigned to the Public Works and Transportation Committee due to Roemer having voted with the Republican minority on extending the debate on House rules proposed by the Democratic majority, he was a member of the Conservative Democratic Forum. Buddy Roemer was one of a large number of Democratic candidates to challenge three-term incumbent governor Edwin Edwards, whose flamboyant personality and reputation for questionable ethical practices had polarized voters.
Other candidates challenging Edwards in the primary were U. S. Representatives Bob Livingston, a suburban New Orleans Republican, Billy Tauzin, a Democrat f
1987 Mississippi gubernatorial election
The 1987 Mississippi gubernatorial election took place on November 3, 1987, in order to elect the Governor of Mississippi. Incumbent Democrat William Allain was term-limited, could not run for reelection to a second term. No candidate received a majority in the Democratic primary, which featured 7 contenders, so a runoff was held between the top two candidates; the runoff election was won by State Auditor Ray Mabus, who defeated cotton farmer and businessman Mike Sturdivant. Businessman and State Board of Education member Jack Reed won the Republican primary, defeating Doug Lemon. At 39 years of age, Ray Mabus defeated Tupelo businessman Jack Reed in the 1987 gubernatorial election by 53% to 47%, becoming the youngest governor in the United States, he won "on a wave of black votes" and lost the white vote "by about 3 to 2" despite support from what a coalition one Democratic state chairman described as "poor whites" and yuppies. Mabus, who ran on the slogan "Mississippi Will Never Be Last Again", was billed as "the face of the New South", much like his counterpart in Arkansas at the time, Bill Clinton.
Mabus was featured in a 1988 New York Times Magazine cover story titled "The Yuppies of Mississippi.
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
William Alexander "Bill" Allain was an American politician who held office as the 59th Governor of Mississippi as a Democrat from 1984 to 1988. He was born in Washington in Adams County near Mississippi, he attended the University of Notre Dame in South Bend and received his law degree from the University of Mississippi School of Law at Oxford. Allain served in the United States Army infantry in the Korean War. A Catholic, he was Veterans of Foreign Wars. After the war, he practiced law in Natchez, until his appointment as assistant state attorney general in 1962. Allain was elected state attorney general in 1979, having defeated the Republican State Senator Charles W. Pickering of Laurel. Allain earned a reputation as a consumer advocate, he stopped the storage of nuclear waste in Mississippi. State labor president Claude Ramsay sought to broker an agreement between Democratic Party presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale and Allain when the latter sought a veto over the federal storage of nuclear waste in Mississippi as a condition for his political support of Mondale.
He fought the powerful Mississippi Legislature, which for decades had diluted executive branch power by appointing legislators to executive department boards and commissions. The Mississippi Supreme Court, at Allain's insistence, struck the practice as a violation of the constitutional principle of separation of powers; the resulting decision, Allain v. Alexander, is sometimes referred to as "Mississippi's Marbury vs. Madison," after the landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court which delineated the powers of the three branches of the federal government. Allain's efforts strengthened the Mississippi executive and streamlined Mississippi's political processes. Allain as governor instituted a legal panel to study the possibility of re-writing the 1890 Bourbon state constitution and created an administrative task force of state agency heads to reduce the use of illegal drugs, he was unsuccessful in the former and successful in the case in the interdiction and seizure of a ton of cocaine.
In 1983, while Allain was running for governor against Republican candidate Leon Bramlett of Clarksdale, private detective Rex Armistead with the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, helped to spread rumors that Allain had sexual intercourse with two African-American male transvestites. Allain denied the charges; the tranvestites went on the record with a lie detector but in 1984 claimed they had never met Allain and had been paid for their testimony. Allain died December 2013 in Jackson, Mississippi. Appearances on C-SPAN
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem