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Pollution-induced community tolerance

Pollution-induced community tolerance is an approach to measuring the response of pollution-induced selective pressures on a community. It is an eco-toxicological tool that approaches community tolerance to pollution from a holistic standpoint. Community Tolerance can increase in one of three ways: physical adaptations or phenotypic plasticity, selection of favorable genotypes, the replacement of sensitive species by tolerant species in a community. PICT differs from the population tolerance approach to community tolerance in that it can be applied to any ecosystem and it is not critical to use a representative test organism, as with the population tolerance approach. Community tolerance can be used as indicator for determining if a toxicant has a disturbance on an exposed community for multiple types of organisms. Tolerance of a toxicant can increase by three ways: physiological adaptation known as the phenotypic plasticity of an individual. Physiological adaptation, or phenotypic plasticity, is the ability of an individual organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment.

This can occur with huge variance between the type of organism and the type of the disturbance they experience. Natural selection that occurs over several generations causes an entire population to exhibit specific selection of genotypes. Over time, tolerant genotypes can be selected over non-tolerant ones and can cause a shift in a population’s genome. Natural selection can cause a replacement of less tolerant species with more tolerant species. All of these aspects can alter a community's structure drastically, if a toxicant can be identified as the culprit, action can take place to prevent that toxicant from further accumulating. PICT can be used for linkage between cause and effect of the toxicants due to the structure of a community that has survived the event known as toxicant-induced succession. Toxicant-induced succession would be the development of more tolerant generations once a chemical was introduced into the environment. There are two types of tolerances that can occur: co-tolerance.

Multiple tolerances can elevate an individual' ability to tolerate several toxicants present at once. This means that the type of chemicals present in the environment, the concentration, the organisms that are affected could alter the environment in multiple different ways. Co-tolerance is the ability of an organism to develop a tolerance to a certain toxicant in short-term tests, obtain that tolerance for other toxicants similar to the first, it can be difficult to determine which type of tolerance is occurring if there are multiple types of toxicants in a community because they could be acting simultaneously. It is difficult to understand what may be going on in a community without testing it with multiple ecotoxicological tools with long- and short-term toxicity tests. Assessing pollution-induced community tolerance can be done utilizing in situ techniques, many of which involve the use of known or created chemical exposure gradients. One example is the use of a known concentration gradient of Tri-n-butylin to assess PICT in periphyton.

Tolerance patterns showed that tolerance was highest closest to the marina, the source of contamination. The use of reference sites in addition to contaminated sites is commonly used for translocation assessments of PICT. A study in Germany cultured periphyton on glass discs in two river systems north of Leipzig, Germany. One system was the contaminated area of study and the other was 10 km upstream and uncontaminated, intended to be used as a reference. After the colonization period, 6 of the 10 racks of glass discs were trans-located to the other river system. During the experiment the community structure present on the glass discs from the reference site, when translocated to the contaminated site changed to mirror that of the control discs that were left in the contaminated sites. In another study in Denmark, enclosure experiments were done allowing for an assessment of PICT utilizing the lake water from Lake Bure as a baseline. By using this water from the lake confounding variables would be nullified by comparing results to the control.

Concentrations of atrazine and copper were added to these enclosures in varying concentrations. As in other experiments discussed periphyton communities were used in this experiment and were cultured using glass discs. Photosynthetic activity was used as a measurement of PICT throughout the experiment; the experiment showed that elevated levels of Cu lead to community tolerance of the phytoplankton community as well as co-tolerance of zinc. Total Biomass decreased at the outset of the trials involving high concentrations of Cu indicating that Community Tolerance was increased due to direct mortality of the sensitive species; the use of PICT in an in situ fashion is not limited to aquatic systems. A study involving 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene utilized respirometric techniques to measure Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance in soil microbial communities in response to the presence of TNT; the results of this study further corroborate the PICT Theory, in that treatments with long-term exposure to TNT had a larger proportion of TNT-resistant bacteria than soils with low levels of TNT.

This PICT caused by TNT was present in another study. Ideally, pollution-induced community tolerance can be assessed in the field by using a representative sample of the natural community in response to environmental contamination. However, this is not always the case, why laboratory studies are necessary supplements to properly assess PICT; the laboratory investigation of PICT

Pacific Northwest Seismic Network

The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network, or PNSN, collects and studies ground motions from about 400 seismometers in the U. S. states of Washington. PNSN monitors volcanic and tectonic activity, gives advice and information to the public and policy makers, works to mitigate earthquake hazard. Damaging earthquakes are well known in the Pacific Northwest, including several larger than magnitude 7, most notably the M9 1700 Cascadia earthquake and the M7.0–7.3 earthquake in about 900AD on the Seattle Fault. The M6.5 1965 Puget Sound earthquake shook the Seattle, Washington area, causing substantial damage and seven deaths. This event spurred the installation of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network in 1969 to monitor regional earthquake activity. Earthquakes are recorded beneath Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, Mount Hood. After using seismic activity to predict the 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption, monitoring was expanded to other Cascade Mountains volcanoes; the PNSN, in conjunction with the Cascades Volcano Observatory of the USGS, now monitors seismicity at all the Cascade volcanoes in Washington and Oregon.

The network was expanded after the damaging 2001 Nisqually earthquake. After an earthquake on January 30, 2009 the network's emergency notification system failed. A magnitude 4.3 earthquake in February 2015 showed that the present architecture of the network results in a significant delay in the early warning notification program, depending upon the location of the quake, leading to proposals to again expand the network. The early warning notification program was implemented with its reliability contingent upon unknown future funding, but with the election of Donald Trump "future funding is uncertain" according to Washington Congressman Derek Kilmer; the president's budget for the fiscal year commencing October 1, 2018 calls for reductions in funding and staff for the early warning notification program. The network operates from the Earth and Space Sciences Department at the University of Washington in Seattle, its data archiving is at the Data Management Center of the IRIS Consortium in Seattle.

The network is affiliated with the University of Oregon Department of Geology. It is the second largest of the regional seismic networks in the ANSS and has produced more data than the networks in the states of Alaska, Nevada and the New Madrid, Missouri-Tennessee-Kentucky-Arkansas area; the network is funded by the United States Geological Survey, which stations its own staff on the campus, the network is managed by UW staff. Additional funding is provided by the Department of Energy, the State of Washington, the State of Oregon. Pacific Northwest Seismic Network PNSN—Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network – United States Geological Survey ShakeAlert Implementation Plan – United States Geological Survey

Enrique "Coco" Vicéns

Enrique "Coco" Alberto Vicéns Sastre was a Puerto Rican professional basketball player that served as senator-at-large in the Puerto Rico State Legislature from 1973 until 1978. He played for the Leones de Ponce basketball team and was a volleyball player and track and field athlete, his brother was basketball star Juan "Pachín" Vicéns. Enrique "Coco" Alberto Vicéns Sastre was born September 1926, in Ciales, Puerto Rico, he was one of 13 siblings. He attended high school at Escuela Superior José de Diego in Manati from 1939 to 1943, graduating that year. Starting in 1943 he attended the University of Puerto Rico, he graduated as a medical doctor with a specialty in otorhinolaryngology. From 1943 through 1946, Vicéns played in the Baloncesto Superior Nacional league, winning the national championship in the 1944-45 season. In 1944, again in 1946, he formed part of Puerto Rico's National Basketball Team competing in Cuba. In 1945, he formed part of the first Puerto Rican college basketball team to play in the United States at Madison Square Garden, Buffalo Memorial Auditorium and Philadelphia Palestra, playing against Valparaiso University, Bowling Green State University and Loyola University.

In 1946, Vicéns was champion in the 800 meter intercollegiate games. He competed in the 400m and the 4 × 400 m races, he competed in track and field and volleyball. In 1946, Vicéns moved to Ponce where he would have residence. By he had been nicknamed "El Hombre de Goma’’ for his performance on the basketball court. In that same year he became a basketball player for the Leones de Ponce, playing until 1951, again in 1953. Vicéns Sastre entered the U. S. Army and by 1952 he was an Army captain at the barracks in Fort Buchanan in the 296th Regiment, he received a Bronze Star Medal for his actions in the Korean War. As a physician, he was part of the medical staff that accompanied the Puerto Rico Delegation to the 1970 Central American and Caribbean Games. In 1957, he returned to the Leones de Ponce basketball team for the 1957-58 season. From 1959 to 1962 he owned the Ponce Leones team, seeing them into two national victories in the 1960 and 1961 seasons. During 1960, Vicéns was responsible for the establishment of the first volleyball franchise in Ponce.

From 1964 to 1968 he again owned the Leones de Ponce team, seeing them once again into three national victories in 1964, 1965, 1966. In 1967, the Leones fought for the winner's crown but was defeated while vying for the top position. In 1972, Vicéns Sastre ran for electoral office winning a seat in the Puerto Rico State Legislature as senator-at-large from 1973 until 1978. There he served as president of the Senate’s Comision de Juventud y Deportes from 1972 to 1976. Projects developed or completed under Vicens Sastre's watch included Guayama’s indoor basketball court, Manati’s Baseball stadium, basketball courts in Canovanas and Fajardo. Vicéns served as a Municipal Legislator in Ponce during 2004-2008."Coco" Vicens was a member of the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico, which opposes Puerto Rican statehood and favors a commonwealth status relationship with the United States. Vicéns Sastre died on March 6, 2015, he was 88 years old. In 1966 he was selected to the Puerto Rico Basketball Hall of Fame and in 1993 he was included in the Ciales Sports Hall of Fame.

His entry into the Ponce Sports Hall of Fame took place in 1983. In the 1990s the "Centro Recreativo y Cultural Enrique Vicéns" was established at the Complejo Recreativo y Cultural La Guancha by the Ponce municipal government under the administration of Ponce Mayor Rafael Cordero Santiago, he was a member of Phi Sigma Alpha fraternity. List of Puerto Ricans National Superior Basketball

Tiimmy Turner

"Tiimmy Turner" is a song by American hip hop recording artist Desiigner. It was released on July 2016, for digital download by GOOD Music and Def Jam Recordings; the song was produced by Mike Dean and Desiigner himself. The official remix of the song, which features vocals and production from Kanye West as well as additional production from Nana Kwabena Tuffuor and Noah Goldstein, was commercially released on October 14, 2016; the song was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in December 2016, for earning a million equivalent units in the United States."Tiimmy Turner" received critical acclaim, was ranked at number 44 on Rolling Stone's "50 Best Songs of 2016" list. Desiigner previewed "Tiimmy Turner" during his freestyle for XXL's "Freshmen Class of 2016". Shortly after, Desiigner shared a video of himself alongside longtime Kanye West-collaborator Mike Dean, working on the official version of the song. On July 21, 2016, Desiigner released the song on YouTube for digital download on the iTunes Store the next day.

"Tiimmy Turner" debuted at number 46 on the US Billboard Hot 100 for the chart issue dated August 13, 2016. "Tiimmy Turner" peaked at number 34 on the Hot 100, number 38 on the Canadian Hot 100, becoming Desiigner's second top 40 entry in both countries. Audio on YouTube Lyrics of this song at Genius

Archie Gips

Archie Gips is an American filmmaker and producer who resides in Los Angeles. Gips studied broadcast journalism at Syracuse University before moving to Chicago, where he was trained at The Second City and wrote several plays and sketch shows, including the comedy revue Saturday Morning Live, he received his masters in film from New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, where he won the top Graduate Screenwriting Student Award and New York Picture Company Award for Best Comedic Screenplay. In an online interview, Gips says he was influenced by his father, Philip Gips a graphic designer who created iconic movie posters for such films as Rosemary's Baby, his mother, Barbara Gips a copywriter who penned the classic Alien tagline, "In space no one can hear you scream." His first feature-length film, Loveless in Los Angeles, is a romantic comedy that takes place behind the scenes of a reality dating show. The plot and characters were informed by his work as a writer/producer for Blind Date, EX-treme Dating and The Fifth Wheel.

Gips wrote the animated feature, The Golden Blaze, featuring the voices of Blair Underwood and Neil Patrick Harris. The film took top honors at the 2005 Giffoni International Film Festival, he co-directed and produced the documentary feature The Ambassadors of Hollywood, which examines the lives of the costumed characters who work on Hollywood Boulevard, wrote and directed Chloe and Keith's Wedding, the first independent feature marketed as a viral video. A clip from the film, which depicts a bride and a priest being knocked into a pool during a wedding ring exchange by the best man, has been viewed by more than 100 million people online. Titled Worst Best Man Ever, Clumsy Best Man Ruins Wedding, or Wedding Ring Exchange Fail, the movie clip became a viral sensation, making several top ten best lists including #80 on's best 99 viral videos of all time and featured on Yahoo's and AOL's home pages. The clip was aired on hundreds of television talk shows and news broadcasts, most notably The Today Show, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, Good Morning America, Inside Edition and has been used in TV commercials throughout the world.

In all, the film clip has been seen by more than 100 million people worldwide online and on TV. Chloe and Keith's Wedding had a limited theatrical release in fall 2012. Gips helped produce two features for Paramount Pictures; the Jon Chu feature film, Justin Bieber: Never Say Never and Katy Perry: Part of Me. In television, he serves as showrunner for A&E's Wahlburgers. In 2015, Gips was nominated for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Unstructured Reality Program, he executive produced TLC's Welcome to Myrtle Manor, Style Network's XOX Betsey Johnson and WE tv's Braxton Family Values. The first season of BFV was the #1 rated reality show on WE tv and the network ordered a 13-episode second season of the show after the third episode. Gips has directed and written for ABC's Academy Awards Red Carpet show and was a consulting producer for the A&E hit show, Duck Dynasty. Chloe & Keith's Wedding The Ambassadors of Hollywood 83rd & 84th Annual Academy Awards Red Carpet Show Loveless in Los Angeles Chloe & Keith's Wedding Loveless in Los Angeles The Golden Blaze The Fifth Wheel Blind Date Katy Perry: Part of Me.

Justin Bieber: Never Say Never Wahlburgers Welcome to Myrtle Manor Duck Dynasty XOX Betsey Johnson Tamar & Vince Braxton Family Values Top Chef Loveless in Los Angeles Last Comic Standing Wahlburgers Archie Gips on IMDb Archie Gips at AllMovie