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The Zappeion. It is used for meetings and ceremonies, both official and private. In 1869, the Greek Parliament allocated 80,000 square metres of public land between the Palace Gardens and the ancient Temple of Olympian Zeus, passed a law on 30 November 1869, "for the building works of the Olympic Games", as the Zappeion was the first building to be erected for the revival of the Olympic Games in the modern world; the ancient Panathenian stadium was refurbished as part of the works for the Olympic Games. Following some delay, on 20 January 1874, the cornerstone of the building was laid. On 20 October 1888, the Zappeion opened. For its benefactor, Evangelis Zappas, he did not live long enough to see the Zappeion built, his cousin Konstantinos Zappas was nominated by Evangelos Zappas to complete the building; the Austrian Parliament Building was designed by Hansen and followed the same theme in the exterior. The Zappeion was used during the 1896 Summer Olympics as the main fencing hall. A decade at the 1906 Intercalated Games, it was used as the Olympic Village.

It served as the first host for the organizing committee for the 2004 Games from 1998 to 1999 and served as the press center during the 2004 games. In 1938, the Athens Radio Station, the country's first national broadcaster, began operating in the premises; the building continued to house the National Radio Foundation until the inauguration of the House of Radio in 1970. A number of historical events have taken place at the Zappeion, including the signing of the documents formalizing Greece's accession to the European Community in May, 1979, which took place in the building's marble-clad, peristyle main atrium; the head of Evangelos Zappas is buried underneath his statue, located just outside the Zappeion. The Zappeion is being used as a Conference and Exhibition Center for both public and private purposes; the building contains about 25 distinct rooms that range in size from 97 square metres to 984 square metres. The Zappeion was selected as main motif for a high value euro collectors' coins.

In the obverse of the coin, a front view of the building is depicted. Various statues are placed in the gardens of Zappeion area. Official Zappeion Megaron Website Virtual Tour of the Zappeion Zappeion Remodelling Project, 2000 Old Photos of Zappeion

Elbbr├╝cken (Hamburg)

The Elbbrücken are several independent bridge structures crossing the river Elbe in Hamburg, Germany. Within Hamburg, the Elbe divides into two main anabranches, the Norderelbe and the Süderelbe, after the Alte Süderelbe was sealed off, reunite with the Norderelbe via the Köhlbrand anabranch, bypassing the Elbe islands, of which Wilhelmsburg is the largest river island on the Elbe. In particular, the term refers to several parallel railroad and road bridges over River Elbe in central Hamburg, divided into Norderelbbrücken and Süderelbbrücken, they emerged from the first crossings over River Elbe, today, due to the low headroom, form a barrier east of the Port of Hamburg which can't be passed by sea ships. Today the Norderelbbrücken are considered a landmark of Hamburg; the Hamburg Elbbrücken form, along with the Old Elbe Tunnel and the New Elbe Tunnel the last fixed Elbe crossings before the mouth into the North Sea. The bridges constitute an important link within the city-state of Hamburg and connect the districts north of the Elbe, including the inner city of Hamburg with the Wilhelmsburg, the Veddel and the port area as well as with the borough of Harburg to the south of the Elbe and the region beyond.

In addition, the Elbe bridges have a significant national function as a north-south link in European rail traffic and within the crossings of the federal motorways and federal highways. In the entire Hamburg city area, all road signs to Neue Elbbrücke and Brücke des 17. Juni, which are both part of the Hamburg Elbbrücken are signposted only as Elbbrücken, as the Freihafenelbbrücke and the motorway bridges are excluded and journeys over the other bridges would be a detour; the first fixed crossings over the Norderelbe were established in 1872 as a railway bridge, in 1887 as a road bridge. Sven Bardua: Brückenmetropole Hamburg, Dölling und Galitz, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-937904-88-7

Nerve compression syndrome

Nerve compression syndrome or compression neuropathy, is a medical condition caused by direct pressure on a nerve. It is known colloquially as a trapped nerve, though this may refer to nerve root compression, its symptoms include pain, tingling and muscle weakness. The symptoms affect just one particular part of the body, depending on. Nerve conduction studies help to confirm the diagnosis. In some cases, surgery may help to relieve the pressure on the nerve but this does not always relieve all the symptoms. Nerve injury by a single episode of physical trauma is in one sense a compression neuropathy but is not included under this heading. Upper limbLower limb and pelvis Tingling, and/ or a burning sensation in the area of the body affected by the corresponding nerve; these experiences may occur directly following insult or may occur several hours or days afterwards. Pain is less common than tingling or numbness as a symptom of nerve entrapment, although a burning sensation, if it occurs, may be classified as pain.

A nerve may be compressed by prolonged or repeated external force, such as sitting with one's arm over the back of a chair resting one's elbows on a table, or an ill-fitting cast or brace on the leg. Part of the patient's body can cause the compression and the term entrapment neuropathy is used in this situation; the offending structure may be a well-defined lesion such as a tumour, a ganglion cyst or a haematoma. Alternatively, there may be expansion of the tissues around a nerve in a space where there is little room for this to occur, as is the case in carpal tunnel syndrome; this may be due to weight gain or peripheral oedema, or to a specific condition such as acromegaly, hypothyroidism or scleroderma and psoriasis. Some conditions cause nerves to be susceptible to compression; these include diabetes, in which the blood supply to the nerves is compromised, rendering the nerve more sensitive to minor degrees of compression. The genetic condition HNPP is a much rarer cause. External pressure reduces flow in the vessels supplying the nerve with blood.

This causes local ischaemia, which has an immediate effect on the ability of the nerve axons to transmit action potentials. As the compression becomes more severe over time, focal demyelination occurs, followed by axonal damage and scarring; the symptoms and signs depend on which nerve is affected, where along its length the nerve is affected, how the nerve is affected. Positive sensory symptoms are the earliest to occur tingling and neuropathic pain, followed or accompanied by reduced sensation or complete numbness. Muscle weakness is noticed and is associated with muscle atrophy. A compression neuropathy can be diagnosed confidently on the basis of the symptoms and signs alone. However, nerve conduction studies are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, quantifying the severity, ruling out involvement of other nerves. A scan is not necessary, but may be helpful if a tumour or other local compressive lesion is suspected. Nerve injury, as a mononeuropathy, may cause similar symptoms to compression neuropathy.

This may cause diagnostic confusion if the patient does not remember the injury and there are no obvious physical signs to suggest it. The symptoms and signs of each particular syndrome are discussed on the relevant pages, listed below; when an underlying medical condition is causing the neuropathy, treatment should first be directed at this condition. For example, if weight gain is the underlying cause a weight loss program is the most appropriate treatment. Compression neuropathy occurring in pregnancy resolves after delivery, so no specific treatment is required; some compression neuropathies are amenable to surgery: carpal tunnel syndrome and cubital tunnel syndrome are two common examples. Whether or not it is appropriate to offer surgery in any particular case depends on the severity of the symptoms, the risks of the proposed operation, the prognosis if untreated. After surgery, the symptoms may resolve but if the compression was sufficiently severe or prolonged the nerve may not recover and some symptoms may persist.

Drug treatment may be useful for ameliorating neuropathic pain. A textbook on massage states that massage can alleviate at least some entrapment symptoms: The primary goal in treating nerve compression or tension pathology is to relieve adverse forces on the nerve. If soft tissue is binding or entrapping the nerve, reduce tension in that tissue so the nerve is no longer restricted. Use caution during treatment to ensure that additional pressure is not applied to the affected nerve, thereby aggravating symptoms. Soft-tissue treatment helps reduce the adverse compression or tension, but does not speed the healing of nerve pathologies, which are slow to heal. However, creating an optimum environment for the body’s healing process is essential for the most efficient recovery process. Massage is an effective adjunct treatment to neural mobilization techniques, which are used to free bound or restricted nerves in neural tension disorders

Epistemic community (international relations)

An epistemic community in international relations is a network of professionals with recognized knowledge and skill in a particular issue-area. They share a set of beliefs. Members of an epistemic community share causal beliefs, which result from their analysis of practices that contribute to set of problems in their issue-area that allow them to see the multiple links between policy and outcomes. Third, they share notions of validity, or internationally defined criteria for validating knowledge in their area of know-how. However, the members are from all different professions. Epistemic communities have a common set of practices associated with a set of problems towards which their professional knowledge is directed, because of the belief that human welfare will benefit as a result. Communities evolve independently and without influence of government, they do not have to be large. Non-members can have an influence on epistemic communities. However, if the community loses consensus its authority decreases.

Epistemic communities came to be because of the rapid professionalization of government agencies. The Columbia Basin Inter-Agency Committee was created by U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to coordinate the planning process. However, it did not participate in the planning process, but rather, was the venue that the Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation used to divide construction projects; the failure of the Columbia Basin Inter-Agency Committee to be part of the planning process shows that “committees imposed from the top may be less to promote coordination than to provide agency officials with a means to enhance their autonomy,”. Another reason why epistemic communities came to be is that decision makers began turning to experts to help them understand issues because there were more issues and all were more complicated; this caused greater interest in planning, future-oriented research, which caused the establishment of environmental and natural resource agencies in 118 countries from 1972-1982.

Growing professionalization of bureaucracies caused more respect towards experts scientists. The first achievement by epistemic communities was the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty between the United States and Russia. Epistemic communities influence policy by providing knowledge to policy makers. Uncertainty plays a large role in an epistemic community's influence, because they hold the knowledge that policy makers need to create the wanted outcomes in policy. According to Robert Keohane they fill the absence of “a research program” in particular studies that it can illuminate important issues in world politics,”, they can influence the setting of standards and the development of regulations as well as help coordinate structure of IR. The communities influence through communicative action. An epistemic community’s scope of cooperation is directly linked to the comprehensiveness of their beliefs; the strength of cooperative agreements depends on the power that the epistemic community has gathered within agencies and governments.

The duration of cooperation is determined by the epistemic community’s continued power. The most important contributions of epistemic communities are. Epistemic communities aid in issues concerning a technical nature, they guide decision makers towards the appropriate norms and institutions by framing and institutionalizing the issue-area. Epistemic communities are a source of policy innovation. Communities have indirect and direct roles in policy coordination by diffusing ideas and influencing the positions adopted. Policy evolution occurs in four steps: policy innovation, diffusion and persistence. Through framing the range of political controversy surrounding an issue, defining state interests, setting standards epistemic communities can define the best solution to a problem; the definition of interest is specially important because there are many different definitions of what is a priority for a government. Intellectual innovations are carried by domestic or international organizations are selected by political process.

Peter M. Haas argued “that epistemic communities help to explain the emergence and character of cooperation at the international level,”; the shared interests they represent last more than the disagreements about a specific issue. Epistemic communities create a reality, hindered by political factors and related considerations. If an epistemic community only acquires power in one country or international body its power is a direct effect of that country or body’s power. Epistemic communities became institutionalized in the short term because of change into the policy-making process and to persuade others that their approach is the right approach. Long-term effects occur through socialization. There are a myriad of examples of the impact. Arms control ideas are reflected in agreements following it during Cold War. Epistemic communities brought attention to their polluting consequences; this realization led to the creation of environmental international agencies in a majority of the world’s government

Chandra Saradavara

Chandra Saradavara, Princess of Phichit, was a Princess of Siam. She was a member of Siamese Royal Family, she is a daughter of King Rama V of Siam. Her mother was Princess Saovabhak Nariratana, daughter of Prince Ladavalya, the Prince Bhumindrabhakdi and Mom Chin Ladavalya na Ayudhya, she was given full name by her father as Chandra Saradavara Varolanlaksanasombati Ratanarajakumari For the royal duties, she was one of the executive vice-president of the Red Unalom Society, the major humanitarian organisation, founded by Queen Savang Vadhana as maternal patron. And Queen Saovabha Phongsri was appointed the first president, Thanpuying Plien Phasakoravongs acted as the society secretary, she worked as the executive vice-president with the other princesses. She was given the rank of the 4th level of the Krom ranks. Princess Chandra Saradavara died on 21 February 1905, while going to pay respect to her stepsister's funeral, Princess Srivilailaksana at Bang Pa-In Royal Palace, Ayutthaya Province. Dame of The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri Dame Cross of the Most Illustrious Order of Chula Chom Klao: received 26 November 1893 Royal Command of giving title HRH Princess Chandra Saradavara, the Princess of Phichit Death of HRH Princess Chandra Saradavara Executive Vice-President of Thai Red Cross Society