France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Todd James Eldredge is an American former competitive figure skater. He is the 1996 World champion, a six-time U. S. national champion, a three-time Olympian, a six-time World medalist. Eldredge began skating when he was five years old and moved from Chatham, Massachusetts to Philadelphia at age ten to train with Richard Callaghan, he trained at the Detroit Skating Club in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan and at the Onyx in Rochester Hills, Michigan. He won silver at the 1987 World Junior Championships and gold in 1988, he took bronze at the 1988 Skate America. In the 1989–90 season, Eldredge won his first senior national title and was sent to the 1990 World Championships, where he finished fifth; the following season, he repeated as the national champion and took the bronze medal at the 1991 World Championships. Although Eldredge missed the 1992 U. S. Championships, he was nominated to represent the U. S. at the 1992 Winter Olympics. He placed tenth in Albertville and seventh at the 1992 World Championships.
Eldredge struggled during the next two seasons, placing sixth at the 1993 U. S. Championships and fourth in 1994, was not selected for the 1994 Olympics, he regained momentum in the 1994–95 season, taking silver at the 1994 Goodwill Games and gold at the 1994 Skate America and 1994 NHK Trophy. He won his third national title and silver at the 1995 World Championships. In 1996, he came away with silver at the U. S. Championships but won gold at the 1996 World Championships. In the 1996-1997 season Eldredge started off on fire beating Alexei Urmanov to win Skate America, he controversially lost the Grand Prix final to Elvis Stojko who landed the first quadruple-triple combination, but had other errors, including a fall on his 2nd triple axel. Eldredge skated a clean and more complete program, but suffered from the home country scoring of the event in Canada, he regained his U. S title in the absence of defending Champion Rudy Galindo, now professional. At the World Championships Eldredge skated a spectacular short program, but due to the early draw he finished 2nd to Alexei Urmanov who skated near the end.
The top 6 were all clean with triple axel-triple toe combinations. Elvis Stojko though came from 4th to win the gold after a flawless long program with a quadruple-triple combination. Eldredge first singled later fell on his 2nd triple axel try, sealing his fate when combined with that he didn't have a quadruple jump to begin with. In the pivotal year of his career in 1997-1998, Eldredge suffered through a sluggish grand prix circuit. First winning Skate America with an uninspiring skate, after injuring himself in warm up. Placing only 4th at Trophee Lalique, won by rising start Alexei Yagudin, he controversially finished 3rd at the Grand Prix final where most believed he deserved at least 2nd place above Elvis Stojko. He skated cleanly, apart from a doubled triple loop, strangely lost to Stojko who fell on his quadruple attempt, he finished fourth at his second Olympics, in Nagano, after a crushing long program performance, managing only 5 of 8 planned triples, when a clean skate would have garnered him at least silver comfortably.
He rebounded to win silver at a watered down World Championships in his home country, an event missing all 3 Olympic medalists. A fall in the short program cost him the gold to rising star Alexei Yagudin, despite comfortably winning the long program with a strong skate. Eldredge continued to compete in pro ams and leave the door open for a return to amateur figure skating. In 2000, he landed his first quadruple jump in competition at the Masters of Figure Skating, he competed in various events through the 1999-2000 season, yet oddly did not skate at the World Championships. Eldredge withdrew from the 2001 Four Continents Championships due to an ankle injury, he returned to the U. S Championships for the first time since 1998, took silver behind Tim Goebel, but edged Goebel for the bronze at the World Championships where most felt he deserved silver over an injured and flawed Alexei Yagudin. In 2002, he won his sixth U. S. placed sixth in his third Olympic appearance. After retiring from competition, he toured with Stars on Ice.
Eldredge was inducted into the U. S. Figure Skating Hall of Fame during the 2008 U. S. Figure Skating Championships. On January 31, 2011, the World Figure Skating Hall of Fame announced Eldredge as a nominee for an outstanding competitor in the men's category. Eldredge coached at the Germain Arena in Estero, Florida. In April 2012, he underwent left hip replacement surgery. Beginning in 2014, he coached at the Dr Pepper StarCenter in Texas. In 2017, Eldredge relocated to Southern California, now coaches at The Rinks. Eldredge was born in Massachusetts, he married Megan McCrea on September 3, 2005, in Florida. In 2008, he moved to Florida. In March 2009, he said. Eldredge married Sabrina Corbaci on September 28, 2012, in California. Corbaci is a graphic designer and two-time U. S. novice pairs medalist with Eddy Zeidler. They have two sons — Ayrton, born May 26, 2012, Ryder, born in 2004. GP: Champions Series / Grand Prix Todd Eldredge's Official website Todd Eldredge's Coaching Bio Todd Eldredge on Instagram Todd Eldredge at the International Skating Union Stars on Ice: Todd Eldredge Todd Eldredge's U.
S. Olympic Team bio Todd Eldredge on IMDb
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Christopher Nicol Bowman was an American figure skater. He was a two-time World medalist, the 1983 World Junior champion, a two-time U. S. national champion. He competed in two Olympic Winter Games, placing 7th in 1988 and 4th in 1992. Bowman was born in California. In his childhood, he appeared in commercials and two episodes of the TV series Little House on the Prairie. In 1983, Bowman won the World Junior Championships and the U. S. national junior title. Bowman withdrew from the 1986 U. S. Championships after finishing second in the short program; the following season, he took the silver medal at U. S. was assigned to his first senior World Championships, finishing 7th. In 1988, Bowman won the bronze medal at the U. S. Championships and was sent to his first Olympics, where he finished 7th, he placed 5th at the 1988 World Championships. Bowman's left shin was cut in an accident with another skater in December 1988, he won his first senior U. S. national title in 1989. He won his first World medal, silver, at the 1989 World Championships.
Bowman withdrew from the 1990 U. S. Championships but received a berth to the 1990 World Championships. After the event, he parted ways with Frank Carroll. Toller Cranston and Ellen Burka were his next coaches, followed by John Nicks. Bowman won his second national title in 1992, he was placed 4th. In Inside Edge by Christine Brennan, Bowman admitted to having had a $950 a day cocaine habit during his eligible career, that he had checked into the Betty Ford Center before the 1988 Olympic Games. Cranston later described Bowman's drug problems in his book Zero Tollerance, he was known as "Bowman the Showman" for his crowd-pleasing performances. Brian Boitano, the 1988 Olympic champion, told the Chicago Tribune: "If I had to pick the three most talented skaters of all time, I would pick Christopher as one, he had natural charisma, natural athleticism, he could turn on a crowd in a matter of seconds and he always seemed so relaxed about it."Bowman retired from competitive skating after the 1992 World Championships and toured with Ice Capades the following year.
He left the tour in 1993. For some years thereafter, Bowman worked as a skating coach, first in Massachusetts and in the Detroit area, where he lived from 1995 until 2007, as a skating commentator. Prior to his death, he had returned to southern California to make a comeback in acting, with a role as an assistant coach in Down and Distance. Bowman was divorced from skating coach Annette Bowman Jasinkiewicz with whom he had a daughter, Bianca. Bowman was pronounced dead on January 10, 2008, at 12:06 p.m. after being found in a motel in the North Hills area of Los Angeles. He was 40 years old; the Los Angeles County Coroner determined. Wright, Benjamin T. Skating in America. Christopher Bowman on IMDb Official web site
Single skating is a discipline of figure skating in which male and female skaters compete individually. Men's singles and women's singles, along with the other figure skating disciples, pair skating, ice dance, synchronized skating, are governed by the International Skating Union. There are two segments in all international competitions, the short program and the free skating program. Compulsory figures, from which the sport of figure skating gets its name, was a crucial part of the sport for most of its history until the ISU voted to remove them in 1990. Singles skating has required elements that skaters must perform during a competition and that make up a well-balanced skating program, they include: jumps, step sequences, choreographic sequences. They must be performed in specific ways, as described by published communications by the ISU, unless otherwise specified; the ISU publishes their points values yearly. Deductions in singles skating include violations in time and clothing, as well as regulations regarding falls and interruptions.
The short program is the first segment of single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters. The short program must be skated before the second component in competitions; the short program lasts, for both senior and junior singles and pairs, 40 seconds. Vocal music with lyrics has been allowed in single skating and in all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season. Yuzuru Hanyu from Japan holds the two highest single men's short program scores: 110.53 points, which he earned at the 2018 Rostelecom Cup, 106.69, earned at the 2018 Grand Prix of Helsinki. Russian skater Alina Zagitova holds the highest single women's short program score of 82.92, which she earned at the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang, South Korea. The short program for senior single skaters consists of seven required elements.
The sequence of the elements is optional. Skaters can choose their own music. Men single senior skaters must have the following elements in their short program: a double or triple axel. Women single senior skaters must perform seven elements in their short program: a double or triple axel. Junior single skaters have seven required elements. Free skating called the free skate or long program, is the second segment in single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters, its duration, across all disciplines, is 4 minutes for senior skaters and teams, 3 1/2 minutes for junior skaters. American skater Nathan Chen holds the highest single men's free skating program score of 216.02, which he earned at the 2019 World Championships. Alina Zagitova from Russia holds the highest single women's free skating score of 158.50, which she earned at the 2018 CS Nebelhorn Trophy.
According to the ISU, free skating "consists of a well balanced program of Free Skating elements, such as jumps, spins and other linking movements". A well-balanced free skate for both senior men and women single skaters must consist of the following: up to seven jump elements, one of which has to be an axel jump. Junior men and women single skaters have the same requirements, except that they do not have to perform a choreographic sequence. Compulsory figures called school figures, are the "circular patterns which skaters trace on the ice to demonstrate skill in placing clean turns evenly on round circles"; until 1947, for the first half of the existence of figure skating as a sport, compulsory figures made up for 60 percent of the total score at most competitions around the world. After World War II, the numbers of figures skaters had to perform during competitions decreased, after 1968, they began to be progressively devalued, until the ISU voted to remove them from all international competitions in 1990.
Despite the apparent demise of compulsory figures from the sport of figure skating, coaches continued to teach figures and skaters continued to practice them because figures gave skaters an advantage in developing alignment, core strength, body control, discipline. The World Figure Sport Society has conducted festivals and competitions of compulsory figures, endorsed by the Ice Skating Institute, since 2015; the ISU defines a jump element as "an individual jump, a jump combination or a jump sequence". The six most common jumps can be divided into two groups: toe jumps and edge jumps (the Salchow, the loop
Viktor Vasyliovych Petrenko is a Ukrainian former competitive figure skater who represented the Soviet Union, the Unified Team, Ukraine during his career. He is the 1992 Olympic Champion for the Unified Team. Petrenko became the first flagbearer for Ukraine. Petrenko lives in the United States and works as an ISU Technical Specialist, tours professionally, coaches figure skating. Viktor was born in Odessa, Ukrainian SSR, the first of two sons born to engineers Tamara and Vasyl Petrenko, his younger brother Vladimir Petrenko was a competitive skater and the 1986 World Junior champion. The Petrenko family spoke Russian, dominant in Odessa, as well as a means of inter-ethnic communication throughout the USSR. Viktor Petrenko attended a Russian-speaking school where he chose to study English as a foreign language; because Ukrainian was not used in his family or his school, he never learned to speak the native language of his own country fluently. Petrenko was sick as a young child and doctors suggested to his parents that they put him in a sport in order to improve his strength and stamina, so when he was five years old, they took him to the local ice rink and started him in figure skating.
At the age of nine, his talent was noticed by Ukrainian figure skating coach Galina Zmievskaya and she took him on as a pupil at Spartak in Odessa. For the Soviet Union, Petrenko was the 1984 World Junior Champion, he won the bronze medal at the 1988 Olympic Games, became one of the youngest male figure skating Olympic medalists. He won the bronze medal at the 1988 World Figure Skating Championships; the former was a major surprise as all expected the 3 Former World Champions Brian Orser, Brian Boitano, Alexander Fadeev to compromise the podium, but capatilizing on disaesterous short and long program by Fadeev, Petrenko skated superbly in all 3 phases to earn the bronze. Expected to take over as top skater with the retirement of the Brians, Petrenko first lost the Soviet Nationals to a resurgent Fadeev. At Worlds a fall in the short program combined with a subpar long program left him off the podium, while upstart and his eventual career rival Kurt Browning won a surprising victory, he went on to win his first two European Championships in 1990 and 1991.
He was frustrated in his attempts at a World title though. He won the short program at both the 1990 and 1991 World Figure Skating Championships but mistakes in the long program dropped him to silver both times; the 1991 decision was close as Petrenko skated a strong program, only stepping out of a triple loop, omitting a planned triple axel-triple toe which he turned into a triple-double, but lost in a controversial 6-3 split when Browning unleashed a historic skate with 3 triple-triples, edging Petrenko based on the superior technical difficulty of the program. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, athletes from former Soviet states went to the Olympics together for the last time in 1992 on a Unified Team. Petrenko competed for this Unified Team and with a free skate, ranked above American Paul Wylie's by seven of the nine judges, he won the gold medal, the first for a singles skater from the former Soviet Union, his skate was not his best, some contested his win, but the triple axel-triple toe in both programs kept him over both Wylie and European Champion Petr Barna, in spite of the mistakes.
A month he went to the 1992 World Championships and won the gold medal there, as well, earning two 6.0's for presentation in his free program and receiving first-place ranking from all nine judges. In doing so he defeated his arch nemesis Kurt Browning who took silver, he used the same free program for the 3rd straight year, the polish and familiarity showing in the artistic strength of the program. Petrenko turned professional following his Olympic win, moving to Las Vegas, but when the International Skating Union ruled that professionals could return to competitive status in 1993, he moved back to Odessa and began training for another Olympics, he defeated another returning great Brian Boitano to win Skate America with a commanding 8 triple long program. He won his third European Championships in January 1994, competing for the first time for the independent nation of Ukraine, went on to represent his homeland at the 1994 Lillehammer Olympics, where it was expected that he, 1988 Olympic gold medalist Brian Boitano and World Champion Kurt Browning would be the main challengers for medals.
After the short program, Petrenko was in ninth place after stepping out of his triple axel and not completing the rotation on his triple lutz, Boitano and Browning were in eighth and twelfth, respectively. His strong performance in the free skate pulled him up to a fourth-place finish, might well have been enough to defend his title had he delivered a clean short program, he had many successes as a professional including winning the prestigious Challenge of Champions event, considered the top professional event 3 times, but failed to win the other major professional event, the Landover World Professional Skating Championships, in fact never placing higher than 3rd. In 1992, Petrenko convinced his coach Galina Zmievskaya to take in a 14-year-old Ukrainian orphan named Oksana Baiul and become both her guardian and coach, with Petrenko covering Baiul's expenses. With their guidance, Baiul went on to win the 1993 World Figure Skating Championship and the gold medal at the 1994 Olympic Games, he performed as the Scarecrow for the CBS television special The Wizard of Oz on Ice in 1996.
Petrenko married Zmievskaya's oldest daughter, Nina Milken, on 19 June 1992 and their daughter Victoria was born on 21
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi