The 1990s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1,1990, and ended on December 31,1999. Culturally, the 1990s are characterized by the rise of multiculturalism and alternative media, movements such as grunge, the rave scene and hip hop spread around the world to young people during that decade, aided by then-new technology such as cable television and the World Wide Web. The United States saw a revival in the use of the death penalty in the 1990s. The dot-com bubble of 1997–2000 brought wealth to some entrepreneurs before its crash between 2000 and 2001, New ethnic conflicts emerged in Africa, the Balkans, and the Caucasus, the former two which led to the Rwandan and Bosnian genocides, respectively. Zaire is renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Second Congo War starts in 1998 in central Africa and includes 50 different cultures and 7 different nations. The Gulf War – Iraq was left in debt after the 1980s war with Iran. President Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of flooding the market with oil, as a result, on 2 August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and conquered Kuwait.
The UN immediately condemned the action, and a force led by the United States was sent to the Persian Gulf. Aerial bombing of Iraq began in January 1991, and a month later, in the aftermath of the war, the Kurds in the north of Iraq and the Shiites in the south rose up in revolt, and Saddam Hussein barely managed to hold onto power. Until the US invasion in 2003, Iraq was cut off much of the world. The Chechen wars break out in the 1990s, The First Chechen War – the conflict was fought between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, during the war Russian forces largely recaptured the separatist region of Chechnya. The campaign largely reversed the outcome of the First Chechen War, the Kargil War – In May 1999, Pakistan sent troops covertly to occupy strategic peaks in Kashmir. A month the Kargil War with India results in a fiasco for Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The incident leads to a coup in October, in which Sharif is ousted by Army Chief Pervez Musharraf. This conflict remains the only war fought between two declared nuclear powers, the Kosovo War, War between Albanian separatists and Yugoslav military and Serb paramilitary forces in Kosovo begin in 1996 and escalates in 1998 with increasing reports of atrocities taking place.
After weeks of bombing, Yugoslavia submits to NATOs demands and NATO forces occupy Kosovo, the Yugoslav Wars would become notorious for numerous war crimes and human rights violations such as ethnic cleansing and genocide committed by all sides. Ten-Day War – a brief conflict between Slovenian TO and the Yugoslav Peoples Army following Slovenias declaration of independence. Bosnian War – the war involved several ethnically defined factions within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks and Croats as well as a smaller Bosniak faction led by Fikret Abdić
The 2010s is the current decade of the Gregorian calendar. It began on 1 January 2010, and will end on 31 December 2019, Two pronunciations are used to mention specific years of the 21st century in English. For example,2010 is either pronounced twenty-ten or two thousand ten, with the exception of ongoing conflicts from prior decades, mostly in Africa and Asia, the 2010s started out with a relatively mild geopolitical climate. However, after the start of the Arab Spring, tensions arose between world powers that gradually worsened in the first few years. In 2014, Russian military intervention in Ukraine triggered a sharp downward trend in Russo-Western relations and that same year, the rise of the jihadist group known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Iraq and Syria prompted renewed intervention in the region. Other Islamist groups, such as Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Boko Haram, relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran, which both vie for regional influence and back opposing sides in the Syrian and Yemeni civil wars, deteriorated.
The rise of China in international affairs has gained momentum, starting in 2015, an influx of migrants caused internal strife in the European Union, which, on 23 June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave. Support for Turkeys EU membership, once considerable, has eroded somewhat after a failed 2016 coup attempt triggered a widespread crackdown by the Turkish government, intensifying Islamophobia and Euroscepticism have overall contributed to a spike in nationalism throughout Europe. Events in the United States have been marked by severe political polarization, the LGBT movements in the United States scored several victories, with the historic Obergefell v. Hodges case legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide. The prominent wars of the include, Israeli–Palestinian conflict – Since 1948. After Israel occupied the West Bank, it began making settlements there, tensions remained high as Hamas, which controls the Gaza Strip, has been launching rockets and cross-border raids into Israeli territory, which Israel has responded with force.
War on Terror – Since the September 11 attacks, the United States, over time the war began to be seen more negatively, with various consequences. However, the Taliban regrouped and began an insurgency in the country, combat operations were declared over on 28 December 2014, though several thousand troops remain in the country to support Afghanistans military. Iraq War – On the pretext that the government of Saddam Hussein had weapons of destruction, the United States. After the invasion, the U. S. occupied the country, the occupation subsequently created an insurgency by jihadist groups opposed to it and sectarian violence between Shiite and Sunni Muslims in the country. At the end of 2011, U. S. forces officially withdrew from Iraq, military intervention in Libya – In Libya, anti-government protests evolved into an armed rebellion after forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi began military operations against protesters. In response to the crackdown, the United Nations authorized an international intervention in support of anti-Gaddafi militias.
International forces, mainly from NATO countries, began airstrikes and enforced a no-fly zone, the intervention came to an end following the death of Gaddafi in Sirte
Prime Minister of Sweden
The Prime Minister is the head of government in Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested. Louis Gerhard De Geer, the architect behind the new bicameral Riksdag of 1866 that replaced the centuries-old Riksdag of the Estates, the current Prime Minister of Sweden is Stefan Löfven, leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. Before 1876, when the office of a prime minister was created. Historically though, the most senior member of the Privy Council had certain similarities to the office of a head of government. When the office of the Prime Minister was created in 1876, unlike the Minister for Justice, the Minister for Foreign Affairs did however continue to be styled as Excellency, an honour shared only with the Prime Minister. From that time onward, the Prime Minister depended on the support of a majority in the Riksdag, over time, the Prime Minister came to de facto exercise the Royal prerogatives.
However, the Swedish term used for the Government during this period, maj, t, an abbreviation of Kunglig Majestät. Until 1974, the authority in Sweden had been exercised through the King in Council. The Speaker holds consultations with the party leaders and appoints a Prime Minister-designate, if the Prime Minister-designate is approved he or she chooses which and how many members are to be included in his or her government. With the exception of the Prime Minister, cabinet ministers do not need the approval of the Riksdag, if the Prime Minister is forced by a vote of no confidence to resign, the entire cabinet falls, and the process of electing a Prime minister starts over. The Prime Minister can dissolve the Riksdag, even receiving a vote of no confidence. The Instrument of Government requires that the Prime Minister appoint a member of the cabinet as Deputy Prime Minister, however, if a Deputy Prime Minister is absent or has not been appointed, the senior minister in the cabinet becomes acting head of government.
If more than one minister has equal tenure, the eldest assumes the position, on paper, the Prime Ministers position is stronger than that of his counterparts in Denmark and Norway. This is because the Swedish prime minister is an office with duties specifically enumerated in the Instrument of Government. In the two neighboring Scandinavian monarchies, the monarch is the chief executive, but is bound by convention to act on the advice of the ministers. The government offices, including the Prime Ministers office, is located at Rosenbad in central Stockholm, in 1991 Sager House was acquired, and since 1995 it has served as the private residence of the Prime Minister. Harpsund, a house in Flen Municipality, Södermanland County, has served as a country residence for the Prime Minister since 1953
History of Austria
The history of Austria covers the history of Austria and its predecessor states, from the early Stone Age to the present state. The name Ostarrîchi has been in use since 996 AD when it was a margravate of the Duchy of Bavaria, Austria was dominated by the House of Habsburg from 1273 to 1806, when the Holy Roman Empire came to an end. When this empire collapsed in 1918, Austria was reduced to the main German speaking areas of the empire, however this union was forbidden by the Allies at the Treaty of Versailles. Following the First Republic, Austrofascism tried to keep Austria independent from the German Reich, but in 1938 it was annexed by Nazi Germany with the support of the large majority of the Austrian people. After the Second World War Austria again became an independent republic as the Second Republic in 1955, the history of Austria raises a number of questions. Should it be confined to the current Republic of Austria, or to all lands formerly ruled by the rulers of Austria, should Austrian history include 1938–1945 when it did not exist.
Within Austria there are regional variations, and parts of Austria have at various times wished to become part of adjacent countries. Human habitation of current Austria can be traced back to the first farming communities of the early Stone Age. In the late Iron Age it was occupied by a Celtic culture, at the end of the 1st century BC this became part of the Roman Empires lands to the south of the Danube, and was incorporated as the Province of Noricum around 40 AD. The most important Roman settlement was at Carnuntum, in the 6th century, another Germanic people, the Bavarii occupied these lands until it fell to the Frankish Empire in the 9th century. Around 800 AD Charlemagne established the outpost of Avar March in what is now Lower Austria, to hold back advances from Slavs and Avars. In the 10th century an eastern outpost of the Duchy of Bavaria, bordering Hungary, was established as the Marchia orientalis or Margraviate of Austria in 976 and this Eastern March, in German was known as Ostarrîchi or Eastern Realm, hence Austria.
The first mention of Ostarrîchi occurs in a document of that name dated 996 CE, from 1156 the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa created an independent duchy under the House of Babenberg, until its extinction in 1246, corresponding to modern Lower Austria. The 15th and early 16th century saw expansion of the Habsburg territories through diplomacy and marriages to include Spain. This expansionism, together with French aspirations and the resultant Habsburg-French or Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry were important factors shaping European History for 200 years, by 1526 Ferdinand had inherited the kingdoms of Bohemia, and Hungary after the Battle of Mohács which partitioned the latter. However the Ottoman Empire now lay directly adjacent to the Austrian lands, even after the unsuccessful first Siege of Vienna by the Turks in 1529, the Ottoman threat persisted for another one and a half centuries. The 16th Century saw the spread of the Reformation, from around 1600 the Habsburg policy of recatholicisation or Catholic Renewal eventually led to the Thirty Years War.
Originally a religious war, it was a struggle for power in central Europe, eventually the pressure of the anti-Habsburg coalition of France and most Protestant German states contained their authority to the Austrian and Czech lands in 1648
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Carl XVI Gustaf is the King of Sweden. He ascended the throne upon the death of his grandfather, King Gustaf VI Adolf on 15 September 1973 and he is the youngest child and only son of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, and Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The Kings heir apparent, upon passage on 1 January 1980 of a new law establishing absolute primogeniture, is Crown Princess Victoria, Carl Gustaf was born on 30 April 1946 at 10,20 in Haga Palace in Solna, Stockholm County. He was the youngest of five children and the son of Swedens Prince Gustaf Adolf. He was christened at the Royal Chapel on 7 June 1946 by the Archbishop of Uppsala and he was baptized in Charles XIs baptismal font, which stood on Gustav IIIs carpet and he lay in Charles XIs cradle with Oscar IIs crown beside him. The same christening gown in white linen batiste which the prince carried had been worn by his father in 1906, Prince Carl Gustaf was given the title of the Duke of Jämtland. His father, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, was killed in a crash on 26 January 1947.
His fathers death had left the prince second in line for the throne, behind his grandfather. When his great-grandfather Gustaf V died in 1950, the prince became the heir apparent of Sweden. Carl Gustaf was seven years old before he was told about his fathers death, after graduating from high school, Carl Gustaf completed two and a half years of education in the Royal Swedish Army, the Royal Swedish Navy, and the Royal Swedish Air Force. He received his commission as an officer in all three services in 1968, and he rose to the rank of captain and lieutenant. He has completed his studies in history, political science, tax law. In addition, he studied the affairs of the Riksdag, Government. On 15 September 1973, Carl Gustaf became King of Sweden upon the death of his grandfather, on September 19, he took the required regal assurance during an extraordinary meeting of the cabinet. Afterwards, he appeared before the parliament, diplomatic corps, both the cabinet meeting and ceremony at the Hall were broadcast live on television.
Following the ceremonies, he appeared on the balcony to acknowledge gathered crowds, at the cabinet meeting, the King declared that his name would be Carl XVI Gustaf and that his title would be King of Sweden. He adopted, For Sweden – With the times as his personal motto, when Carl Gustaf ascended the throne, plans were already in place to replace the 1809 Instrument of Government which gave the King extensive involvement with government. Though the King was a near-autocrat on paper, the Riksdags authority grew steadily into the early 20th century, in 1914, Gustaf V made a speech which resulted in what is known as the Courtyard Crisis wherein he was accused of interfering with politics
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
1991 in Sweden
17 May – Göthe Grefbo, actor 5 June – Carl-Erik Holmberg, football player 30 June – Curt Weibull, cyclist. 5 July – Sandro Key-Åberg, writer,30 September – Sven Barthel, journalist 9 November – Hans Liljedahl, sport shooter, Olympic medalist 1952. 10 November – Gunnar Gren, footballer,10 November – Curt Weibull, historian 16 November – Gustav Wetterström, football player Olle Hansson, cross country skier Torsten Löwgren, painter Åke Åkerström, archaeologist
History of Czechoslovakia
However, the gap between cultures was never fully bridged, and this discrepancy played a disruptive role throughout the seventy-five years of the union. The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century, after 1526, Bohemia came under the control of the House of Habsburg as their scions first became the elected rulers of Bohemia, the hereditary rulers of the country. Subject peoples all over the Austro-Hungarian empire wanted to be free from the rule of the old aristocracy and the imperial family. Although the Czechs and Slovaks speak languages that are very similar, the reason was the differing attitude and position of their overlords – the Austrians in Bohemia and Moravia, and the Hungarians in Slovakia – within Austria-Hungary. Bohemia was the most industrialized part of Austria and Slovakia was the most industrialized part of Hungary – however at different levels of development. Furthermore, the Hungarians were far more determined to assimilate the Slovaks than the Austrians were to assimilate the Czechs, despite cultural differences, the Slovaks shared similar aspirations with the Czechs for independence from the Habsburg state.
In 1916, during World War I, Tomáš Masaryk created the Czechoslovak National Council together with Edvard Beneš, Masaryk in the United States, Štefánik in France, and Beneš in France and Britain worked tirelessly to secure Allied recognition. About 1.4 million Czech soldiers fought in World War I,150,000 of which died, at times they controlled much of the Trans-Siberian railway, and they were indirectly involved in the shooting of the Russian tsar and his family in 1918. Their goal was to win the support of the Allies for the independence of Czechoslovakia, the independence of Czechoslovakia was officially proclaimed in Prague on 28 October 1918 in Smetana Hall of the Municipal House, a physical setting strongly associated with nationalist feeling. The Slovaks officially joined the two days in the town of Martin. A temporary constitution was adopted, and Tomáš Masaryk was declared president on 14 November, the Treaty of St. Germain, signed in September 1919, formally recognized the new republic.
Ruthenia was added to the Czech lands and Slovakia by the Treaty of Trianon in June 1920, there were various border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia due to the anexion of Zaolzie region. The new state was characterized by problems with its diversity, the separate histories of the Czech and Slovak peoples and their greatly differing religious, cultural. The Germans and Magyars of Czechoslovakia openly agitated against the territorial settlements, the new republic saw the passage of a number of progressive reforms in areas such as housing, social security, and workers’ rights. Still, the Czech lands were far more industrialized than Slovakia, most light and heavy industry was located in the German-dominated Sudetenland and most industrial concerns there were controlled by Germans and German-owned banks. Subcarpathian Ruthenia was essentially without industry, in 1929, the gross domestic product increased by 52% and industrial production by 41% as compared to 1913. In 1938, Czechoslovakia held 10th place in the world for industrial production, the Czechoslovak state was conceived as a parliamentary democracy.
The constitution identified the Czechoslovak nation as the creator and principal constituent of the Czechoslovak state and established Czech, the operation of the new Czechoslovak government was distinguished by its political stability
Store norske leksikon
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language encyclopedia. The SNL was created in 1978 when the two publishing houses Aschehoug and Gyldendal merged their encyclopedias and created the company Kunnskapsforlaget, the name translates into English as Great Norwegian encyclopedia. Up until 1978 the two publishing houses of Aschehoug and Gyldendal, Norways two largest, had published Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon and Gyldendals konversasjonsleksikon, the respective first editions were published in 1907–1913 and 1933–1934. The fourth edition consists of 16 volumes, a total of 12,000 pages and 280,000 entries, on 12 March 2010 Store Norske Leksikon announced that from 1 July 2010 there would be no new editions of Store Norske Leksikon, because of lacklustre sales. The main reason behind this decision was stated to be Wikipedia, SNL became available online since 2000 and had several hundred thousand subscribers, both private and institutional. The number of articles is about 150,000.
Since 25 February 2009, the encyclopedia has been free. The online version of the Store norske leksikon
Jan Arnald is a Swedish novelist and literary critic, who uses the pen name Arne Dahl when writing crime fiction. He is a writer in Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter. The books are translated into several languages, the first five books were made into 180-minute films, screened as two 90-minute episodes per story. The first, was screened on SVT1 in Sweden on 27 and 28 December 2011, the series was picked up by BBC Four and screened on British television on Saturday nights as part of BBC Fours foreign crime series season starting in April 2013. Elva, Eleven The ten Intercrime novels have all been dramatized by Swedish production company Filmlance, the first five in 2011, Filmlance is responsible for the series Bron and for the Martin Beck detective programmes. Each story has been dramatized in the form of a two-part miniseries, a 2011 TV adaptation of five of the Arne Dahl stories was produced by Filmlance International (in co-production with several other European companies. Outside Sweden, the series was broadcast in the UK on BBC Four between April–June 2013, along with other countries.
The series is currently being broadcast in the United States through MHz Networks, the last five novels in the Intercrime series were adapted for Series 2 of the popular Arne Dahl TV series, produced by Filmlance. They premiered in February 2015 in Sweden, the BBC began airing the second season on BBC Four in October 2015