1991 NHL Entry Draft

The 1991 NHL Entry Draft was held on June 22 at the Memorial Auditorium in Buffalo, New York. A total of 264 players were drafted; the worst team in the previous 1990–91 season, the Quebec Nordiques, was given the first overall pick while the expansion San Jose Sharks held the second overall pick. The draft was famous for the controversy surrounding star first overall draft pick, touted by some observers to be The Next One, Eric Lindros, drafted by the Quebec Nordiques but refused to sign a contract. What followed was one of the biggest trades in NHL history, which the Philadelphia Flyers used to acquire Lindros, in the process trading away future superstar Peter Forsberg. Club teams in North America unless otherwise noted. 1991 NHL Supplemental Draft 1991 NHL Dispersal and Expansion Drafts 1991–92 NHL season List of NHL players 1991 NHL Entry Draft player stats at The Internet Hockey Database

José Hilario López

José Hilario López Valdés was a Colombian politician and military officer. He was the President of Colombia between 1849 and 1853; the son of José Casimiro López and Rafaela Valdés y Fernández, José, completed his primary education in the seminary of Popayán under the supervision of scholar, José Félix de Restrepo. At age 14, he ended his education to join the revolutionary army. López joined the revolutionary army as a cadet, at the age of 14, he participated in military combat in the battle of Alto Palacé, the battle of Calibío, battle of Tacines and the battle of Pasto. During the battle of La Cuchilla del Tambo, López was taken prisoner by the Spanish Army. López was sent to Bogotá, where he was tried by court martial and was found guilty of treason against the Crown and sentenced to death, his death sentence was commuted in exchange for his service to the royal army. As a prisoner of war, he was assigned to the cobblestone duty of the Plaza Mayor de Bogotá and in the shooting squadron to execute insurgent leaders.

On 28 June 1819, López was promised his freedom after his aunt Eusebia Caicedo intervened on his behalf. But it was not until 24 July 1819 that he was freed. In 1820, López met General Simón Bolívar, who appointed him lieutenant of the newly created "Boyacá Battalion". While in the town of La Mesa, López saw his former prison mate, Vicente Azuero, among the prisoners of war and interceded for his release. López was promoted to the rank of lieutenant mayor and subsequently, captain. In that capacity, López participated in the "Northern Campaign" offensive in what is now Venezuelan territory. Once the campaign ended in February 1823, López returned to Bogotá and was appointed by General Francisco de Paula Santander as military chief of the province of Cauca. On 6 April 1823, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. After the Conspiración Septembrína of 1828, while being military chief of the Azuay province, López rebelled against General Simón Bolívar and joined the army of Colonel José María Obando.

Shortly after, the Gran Colombia-Peru War broke out, Bolívar headed south to confront the Peruvians and join forces with Field Marshal Antonio José de Sucre, in wait for him. By the end of January 1829, Bolívar came to an agreement with the rebel commanders and pardoned them after the Pact of Juanambú was signed on 2 March 1829. Bolívar explained his decision to ignore the Constitution of Cúcuta, after General José Antonio Páez’ actions in Venezuela. Under the military government of Rafael Urdaneta in September 1830, López and Obando rebelled once again and started a campaign to destabilize the government, their forces took control of the town of Popayán. López advanced to Tocaima, where he confronted General Rafael Urdaneta, but both reached a ceasefire that followed the "Apulo Agreement", signed on 28 April 1831; the following year, during the government of Francisco de Paula Santander, López was appointed military chief of Bogotá, two years in 1834 was appointed governor of Cartagena. After these posts, López assumed other offices such as the Secretary of War and Navy, Ambassador of Colombia to the Vatican City State, Secretary of Foreign Relations, state advisor and senator.

On 7 March 1849, López was elected President of Colombia with the support of the artisans and their democratic society clubs, having taken advantage of the divisions among the conservatives. His government abolished slavery, created the agrarian law, supported the separation between church and state, freedom of the press and the federalization of the state. Resistance against abolition provoked a conservative uprising in the Cauca region, led by Julio Arboleda; the revolt was soon crushed by Lopez' government forces. In Cali, confrontations between landowners and the commoners became harshly violent; the defeat suffered by the landowners sparked an uprising of former slaves and peasants, who sabotaged and vandalized farms, to the point of taking physical vengeance over their former masters by whipping them with the same whips used on them. López administration authorized the dissolution of the Resguardos for Amerindians and prohibited any businesses regarding this practice, going against the will of their main supporters, the Democratic Societies, allowing the elites to benefit from the newly liberated laborers who searched for work in their tobacco plantations.

This meant that the produce produced by the no-longer cheap labor skyrocketed the inflation rate. A year after finishing his term as President of Colombia, in 1854, López joined the conservative and liberal armies against the “Artisans Revolution” and deposed General José Maria Melo from the presidency. During the civil war of 1859, López enrolled in the army of the “radical liberals”, who defended the Federation and autonomy of the states. López was elected as President of Tolima and assumed office in the city of Neiva in July 1863. In 1865 he was postulated as candidate to lead the Colombian Union, but was defeated by President Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera. In 1867, President Mosquera closed down the National Congress and, because of this, was deposed in reprisal. López was named Army Chief by the new interim government of Santos Acosta. After these, he returned to his farms until the day of his death. Presidencia de Colombia.

Sebastiano Serlio

Sebastiano Serlio was an Italian Mannerist architect, part of the Italian team building the Palace of Fontainebleau. Serlio helped canonize the classical orders of architecture in his influential treatise variously known as I sette libri dell'architettura or Tutte l'opere d'architettura et prospetiva. Born in Bologna, Serlio went to Rome in 1514, worked in the atelier of Baldassare Peruzzi, where he stayed until the Sack of Rome in 1527 put all architectural projects on hold for a time. Like Peruzzi, he began as a painter, he left little mark on the city. Serlio's model of church façade was a regularized version, cleaned up and made more classical, of the innovative method of providing a facade to a church with a high vaulted nave flanked by low side aisles, providing a classical face to a Gothic form, first seen in Alberti's Santa Maria Novella in Florence; the idea was in the air in the 1530s: several contemporary churches compete for primacy, but Serlio's woodcut put the concept in every architect's hands.

As a civil engineer he designed fortifications. Serlio's publications, rather than any spectacular executed work, attracted the attention of François I. Serlio's career took off when the king invited him to France, to advise on the construction and decoration of the Château of Fontainebleau, where a team of Italian designers and craftsmen were assembled. Serlio took several private commissions, but the only one that has survived in any recognizable way is the Chateau of Ancy-le-Franc, built about 1546 near Tonnerre in Burgundy. Serlio died around 1554 after spending his last years in Lyon. Tutte l'opere d'architettura et prospetiva is Serlio's practical treatise on architecture. Although Leon Battista Alberti produced the first book-length architectural treatise of the Renaissance, it was unillustrated, written in Latin, designed to appeal as much to learned humanists and potential patrons as to architects and builders. Serlio pioneered the use of high quality illustrations to supplement the text.

He wrote in some of his books being published with parallel texts in Italian and French. His treatise catered explicitly to the needs of architects and craftsmen; the treatise is composed of eight books, the sixth of, lost for some centuries and the eighth of, not published until recently. The eighth book is not always considered to be part of the treatise; the first five books cover Serlio's works on geometry, Roman antiquity, the orders and church design. The sixth illustrates domestic designs ranging from peasant huts to royal palaces, providing a unique record of Renaissance house types, including up-to-date fortresses for tyrants and mercenaries as well as Serlio's unbuilt design for the Louvre; the seventh book illustrates a range of common design problems ignored by past theorists, including how to remodel, or'restore', Gothic façades following antique principles of symmetry and proportion. The eighth book, called "Castrametation of the Romans", reconstructs a Roman encampment after the description by Polybius, followed by a military city and monumental bridge built by the Emperor Trajan.

With its forum, consul's palace and baths, the book is part-fantasy and part-archaeology, quite unlike Serlio's other more practical works. In the introduction to Book IV, Serlio credits his deceased mentor for much of its content: "As for all the pleasant things which you will find in this book, you should give the credit not to me but to my teacher, Baldassare Peruzzi from Siena..." The extent of Peruzzi's contribution to the treatise is unknown. "Peruzzi had been the guiding spirit in the detailed study of the remains of antiquity, he had left his drawings to Serlio. Vasari and Cellini would give most of the credit for the book to Peruzzi, but more recent writers defend Serlio's part in the study and his good faith in completing the work of his companion." By 1537, when the earliest of his books was published, Serlio had been working on the treatise for at least a decade and had organized it as a work in seven books. Although Serlio completed all seven projected books, only the first five books were published during his lifetime.

The sixth remained in manuscript until the 20th century. He composed two additional books, which can be thought of as appendices: the Extraordinary Book of Doors, the last book he saw through the press, it is not certain what title, if any, Serlio intended for the work as a whole—possibly General Rules of Architecture, as is given on the first-published book, but this soon became attached to that book. Various collections were known as the Five or Seven Books on Architecture, depending on their content, it is referred to as Serlio's Architettura, several significant editions take the title Tutte l'opere d'architettura et prospetiva. Although the books appeared more or less in Serlio's desired publication order, his nominal order provides a distinct flow from general to specific: Serlio's reader moves from: first, the Euclidean'heaven' composed of the definitions of geo