McLaren Racing Limited is a British motor racing team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but competes in the Indianapolis 500 and has won the Canadian-American Challenge Cup; the team is the second oldest active Formula One team after Ferrari, where they compete as McLaren F1 Team. They are the second most successful team in Formula One history after Ferrari, having won 182 races, 12 Drivers' Championships and eight Constructors' Championships; the team is a wholly owned subsidiary of the McLaren Group. Founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren, the team won its first Grand Prix at the 1968 Belgian Grand Prix, but their greatest initial success was in Can-Am, which they dominated from 1967 to 1971. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972 and Johnny Rutherford in 1974 and 1976. After Bruce McLaren died in a testing accident in 1970, Teddy Mayer took over and led the team to their first Formula One Constructors' Championship in 1974, with Emerson Fittipaldi and James Hunt winning the Drivers' Championship in 1974 and 1976 respectively.
The year 1974 marked the start of a long-standing sponsorship by Phillip Morris' Marlboro cigarette brand. In 1981, McLaren merged with Ron Dennis' Project Four Racing; this began the team's most successful era: with Porsche and Honda engines, Niki Lauda, Alain Prost, Ayrton Senna took between them seven Drivers' Championships and the team took six Constructors' Championships. The combination of Prost and Senna was dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, the two winning every constructors' title between 1984 and 1994. However, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, the team went three seasons without a win. With Mercedes-Benz engines, West sponsorship, former Williams designer Adrian Newey, further championships came in 1998 and 1999 with driver Mika Häkkinen, during the 2000s the team were consistent front-runners, driver Lewis Hamilton taking their latest title in 2008.
Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing over to long time McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh. However, at the end of 2013, after the team's worst season since 2004, Whitmarsh was ousted. McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz; the team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix. In September 2017, McLaren announced they had agreed on an engine supply with Renault from 2018 to 2020. Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. Bruce was a works driver for the British Formula One team Cooper with whom he had won three Grands Prix and come second in the 1960 World Championship. Wanting to compete in the Australasian Tasman Series, Bruce approached his employers, but when team owner Charles Cooper insisted on using 1.5-litre Formula One-specification engines instead of the 2.5-litre motors permitted by the Tasman rules, Bruce decided to set up his own team to run him and his prospective Formula One teammate Timmy Mayer with custom-built Cooper cars.
Bruce won the 1964 series, but Mayer was killed in practice for the final race at the Longford Circuit in Tasmania. When Bruce McLaren approached Teddy Mayer to help him with the purchase of the Zerex sports car from Roger Penske, Teddy Mayer and Bruce McLaren began discussing a business partnership resulting in Teddy Mayer buying in to Bruce McLaren Motor Racing Limited becoming its largest shareholder; the team was based in Feltham in 1963–1964, from 1965 until 1981 in Colnbrook, England. The team held the British licence. Despite this, Bruce never used the traditional British racing green on his cars. Instead, he used colour schemes. During this period, Bruce drove for his team in sports car races in the United Kingdom and North America and entered the 1965 Tasman Series with Phil Hill, but did not win it, he continued to drive in Grands Prix for Cooper, but judging that team's form to be waning, decided to race his own cars in 1966. Bruce made the team's Grand Prix debut at the 1966 Monaco race.
His race ended after nine laps due to a terminal oil leak. The 1966 car was the M2B designed by Robin Herd, but the programme was hampered by a poor choice of engines: a 3.0-litre version of Ford's Indianapolis 500 engine and a Serenissima V8 were used, the latter scoring the team's first point in Britain, but both were underpowered and unreliable. For 1967 Bruce decided to use a British Racing Motors V12 engine, but due to delays with the engine, was forced to use a modified Formula Two car called the M4B powered by a 2.1-litre BRM V8 building a similar but larger car called the M5A for the V12. Neither car brought the best result being a fourth at Monaco. For 1968, after driving McLaren's sole entry for the previous two years, Bruce was joined by 1967 champion and fellow New Zealander Denny Hulme, racing for McLaren in Can-Am; that year's new M7A car, Herd's final design for the team, was powered by Cosworth's new and soon to be ubiquitous DFV engine and with
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Williams Grand Prix Engineering
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited racing in Formula One as ROKiT Williams Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor. It was founded by team owner Sir Frank Williams and automotive engineer Sir Patrick Head, it is still run by Williams; the team was formed in 1977 after Frank Williams's two earlier unsuccessful F1 operations: Frank Williams Racing Cars and Wolf–Williams Racing. All of Williams F1 chassis are called "FW" a number, the FW being the initials of team owner, Frank Williams; the team's first race was the 1977 Spanish Grand Prix, where the new team ran a March chassis for Patrick Nève. Williams started manufacturing its own cars the following year, Switzerland's Clay Regazzoni won Williams's first race at the 1979 British Grand Prix. At the 1997 British Grand Prix, Canadian Jacques Villeneuve scored the team's 100th race victory, making Williams one of only three teams in Formula One, alongside Ferrari and fellow British team McLaren, to win 100 races.
Williams won nine Constructors' Championships between 1980 and 1997. This stood as a record until Ferrari surpassed it in 2000. Drivers for Williams have included Australia's Alan Jones; each of these drivers, with the exception of Senna and Button, have captured one Drivers' title with the team. Of those who have won the championship with Williams, only Jones and Villeneuve defended their title while still with the team. Piquet moved to Lotus after winning the 1987 championship, Mansell moved to the American-based Indy Cars after winning the 1992 championship, Prost retired from racing after his 4th World Championship in 1993, while Hill moved to Arrows after winning in 1996. No driver who has won a drivers' title with Williams has managed to win a title again. Williams have worked with many engine manufacturers, most with Renault, winning five of their nine Constructors' titles with the French company. Along with Ferrari, McLaren and Renault, Williams is one of a group of five teams that won every Constructors' Championship between 1979 and 2008 and every Drivers' Championship from 1984 to 2008.
Williams F1 has business interests beyond Formula One racing. Based in Grove, Oxfordshire, UK, Williams has established Williams Advanced Engineering and Williams Hybrid Power which take technology developed for Formula One and adapt it for commercial applications. In April 2014, Williams Hybrid Power were sold to GKN. Williams Advanced Engineering had a technology centre in Qatar until it was closed in 2014. Frank Williams started the current Williams team in 1977 after his previous outfit, Frank Williams Racing Cars, failed to achieve the success he desired. Despite the promise of a new owner, Canadian millionaire Walter Wolf, the team's rebranding as Wolf–Williams Racing in 1976, the cars were not competitive. Williams left the rechristened Walter Wolf Racing and moved to Didcot to rebuild his team as "Williams Grand Prix Engineering". Frank recruited young engineer Patrick Head to work for the team, creating the "Williams–Head" partnership. Reuters reported on 20 November 2009 that Williams and Patrick Head had sold a minority stake in the team to an investment company led by Austrian Toto Wolff who said that it was purely a commercial decision.
In February 2011, Williams F1 announced plans to raise capital through an initial public offering on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in March 2011, with Sir Frank Williams remaining the majority shareholder and team principal after the IPO. As of December 2017, ownership is as follows: Frank Williams. Williams entered a custom March 761 for the 1977 season. Lone driver Patrick Nève appeared at 11 races that year, starting with the Spanish Grand Prix; the new team failed to score a point. For the 1978 season, Patrick Head designed his first Williams car: the FW06. Williams signed Australian Alan Jones, who had won the Austrian Grand Prix the previous season for a devastated Shadow team following the death of their lead driver, Tom Pryce. Jones's first race for the team was the Argentine Grand Prix where he qualified the lone Williams car in 14th position, but retired after 36 laps with a fuel system failure; the team scored its first championship points two rounds at the South African Grand Prix when Jones finished fourth.
Williams managed their first podium position at the United States Grand Prix, where the Australian came second, some 20 seconds behind the Ferrari of future Williams driver Carlos Reutemann. Williams ended the season in tenth place in the Constructors' Championship, with a respectable 16 points, while Alan Jones finished 12th in the Drivers' Championship. Towards the end of 1978 Frank Williams recruited Frank Dernie to join Patrick Head in the design office. Head designed the FW07 for the 1979 season with Frank Dernie picking up the aerodynamic development and skirt design; this was the team's first ground effect car, a technology first introduced by Colin Chapman and Team Lotus. Williams obtained membership of the Formula One Constructors' Association which expressed a preference for teams to run two cars, so Jones was partnered by Swiss driver Clay Regazzoni, it was not until the seventh round of the championship, the Monaco Grand Prix, that they achieved a points-scoring position. Regazzoni came close to taking the team's first win but finished second, less than a second behind race winner Jody Scheckter.
The next round at Dijon is remembered for
Alain Marie Pascal Prost OBE is a retired French racing driver and a four-time Formula One Drivers' Champion. From 1987 until 2001 Prost held the record for most Grand Prix victories and is considered as one of the greatest F1 drivers ever. Michael Schumacher surpassed Prost's total of 51 victories at the 2001 Belgian Grand Prix. In 1999, Prost received the World Sports Awards of the Century in the motor sport category. Prost discovered karting at the age of 14 during a family holiday, he progressed through motor sport's junior ranks, winning the French and European Formula Three championships, before joining the McLaren Formula One team in 1980 at the age of 24. He finished in the points on his Formula One début at the San Martin Autodrome in Buenos Aires and took his first race victory at his home Grand Prix in France a year driving for the factory Renault team. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Prost formed a fierce rivalry with Ayrton Senna, but Nelson Piquet and Nigel Mansell. In 1986, at the last race of the season, he beat Mansell and Piquet of Williams to the title after Mansell retired late on in the race, Piquet was pulled in for a late precautionary pit stop.
Senna joined Prost at McLaren in 1988 and the two had a series of controversial clashes, including a collision at the 1989 Japanese Grand Prix that gave Prost his third Drivers' Championship. A year at the same venue they collided again, but this time Prost, driving for Ferrari, lost out. Before the end of a winless 1991 season Prost was fired by Ferrari for his public criticism of the team. After a sabbatical in 1992, Prost joined the Williams team, prompting reigning Drivers' Champion Mansell to leave for CART. With a competitive car, Prost won the 1993 championship and retired from Formula One driving at the end of the year. In 1997, Prost took over the French Ligier team, running it as Prost Grand Prix until it went bankrupt in 2002. From 2003 to 2012 he competed in the Andros Trophy, an ice racing championship, taking 38 race victories and winning the championship 3 times. Prost employed a smooth, relaxed style behind the wheel, deliberately modelling himself on personal heroes like Jackie Stewart and Jim Clark.
He was nicknamed "The Professor" for his intellectual approach to competition. Though it was not a name he cared for, he would admit that it was an appropriate summation of his approach to his racing. Skilled at setting up his car for race conditions, Prost would conserve his brakes and tyres early in a race, leaving them fresher for a challenge at the end. Alain Prost was born near the town of Saint-Chamond, close to the cities of Lyon and Saint-Etienne in the département of Loire, France, to André Prost and Marie-Rose Karatchian, born in France of Armenian descent. Prost had one younger brother called Daniel, who died of cancer in September 1986. Although short, standing at 1.67 m Prost was an active, athletic child, who enthusiastically took part in diverse sports, including wrestling, roller skating and football. In doing so he broke his nose several times, he considered careers as a gym instructor or a professional footballer before he discovered kart racing at the age of 14 while on a family holiday.
This new sport became his career of choice. Prost was married to Anne-Marie, they have two sons and Sacha Prost. Prost has a daughter, Victoria. From 2014 to 2018, Nicolas raced in Formula E for e.dams Renault, a team run by his father. Prost lived in his hometown, Saint-Chamond, until he and his Renault team fell out in the early 1980s. In April 1983 the Prost family moved to Sainte-Croix and shortly after to Yens, Switzerland, they moved to Switzerland after Renault workers went to Prost's house in France and burned his Mercedes-Benz and another one of his road cars. They lived there until November 1999. In December 2015, Prost became a grandfather with the birth of Nicolas Prost's son Kimi. In 1985 Prost was awarded the Légion d'Honneur by President François Mitterrand. Prost won several karting championships in his teens. In 1974 he left school to become a full-time racer, supporting himself by tuning engines and becoming a kart distributor, his prize for winning the 1975 French senior karting championship was a season in French Formula Renault, a category in which he won the title and all but one race in 1976.
Prost went on to win the 1977 Formula Renault European championship before moving up to Formula Three in 1978. In 1979 he won both the French and European F3 championships, by which time he was on the shopping lists of several Formula One teams. After considering his options, he chose to sign with McLaren for 1980, he surprised the British team by declining their offer of a race drive in a third car at the final race of the 1979 season at Watkins Glen — reasoning that the token effort would benefit neither him nor the team. Prost began his career with McLaren in 1980 alongside Ulsterman John Watson. On his debut in Buenos Aires he finished in sixth place earning one point, something achieved by only a handful of drivers. Prost added four more points to his tally during the season, scoring points at Interlagos, Brands Hatch and Zandvoort. Prost finished the year 15th in the Drivers' Championship, equalling points with former world champion Emerson Fittipaldi. Despite the encouraging debut season, Prost had several accidents, breaking his wrist during practice at Kyalami and suffering a concussion during practice at Watkins Glen.
He retired from the Canadian round in Montreal a week earlier because of rear suspensio
Benetton Formula Ltd. referred to as Benetton, was a Formula One constructor that participated from 1986 to 2001. The team was owned by the Benetton family who run a worldwide chain of clothing stores of the same name. In 2000, the team competed as Benetton for the 2000 and 2001 seasons. In 2002, the team became Renault F1; the Benetton Formula team was chaired by Alessandro Benetton from 1988 to 1998. The Benetton Group entered Formula One as a sponsor company for Tyrrell in 1983 Alfa Romeo in 1984 and 1985 and Toleman in 1985. Benetton Formula Ltd. was formed at the end of 1985 when the Toleman team was sold to the Benetton family. The team began with BMW engines and later switched to Ford Renault and Playlife; the team was managed by Peter Collins from 1986 to 1989 and Flavio Briatore from 1990 until 1997. In about 1991, TWR acquired a one-third stake in the team, bringing in Tom Walkinshaw and Ross Brawn to run the engineering operations. Rocco Benetton, the youngest son of Luciano Benetton joined the team as Chief Executive in 1998 and fired Briatore.
He replaced him with Prodrive boss David Richards, who lasted only for a year when he too was fired, due to a disagreement with the Benetton family about future strategy. Following Richards's departure, Rocco Benetton managed the team for three years until its sale to Renault; the Benetton team is best known for its success with Michael Schumacher, who accounts for 19 of the team's 27 career victories and their 2 Drivers' Championships. After switching to Renault engines, they won the Constructors' Championship in 1995 with Schumacher and Johnny Herbert. After 1995, Schumacher moved to Ferrari along with Ross Brawn, Rory Byrne and 11 other key figures from his two championship winning seasons with Benetton. On 16 March 2000, the team was sold to Renault for $120 million US; as part of their restructuring, Renault brought back Flavio Briatore as team manager. The team still used the Playlife engines; the drivers were Alexander Wurz. The team scored 20 points, as well as 3 podium finishes in 2000 at Brazil and Canada.
During their final season in 2001 the drivers, Jenson Button and Giancarlo Fisichella, were on the back two rows of the grid. This was in part attributed to the new 111-degree wide angle engine, but continued development allowed Benetton to leave Formula 1 on something of a high, the cars' performance lifted. Button and Fisichella scored 10 points for the team, including a podium finish for Fisichella in Belgium. During the 1994 season, some rival teams claimed Benetton had found a way to violate the FIA-imposed ban on electronic aids, including traction control and launch control. On investigation, the FIA discovered "start sequence" software in the Benetton B194 cars, a variety of illegal software in rival teams' cars as well. FIA had no evidence the software was used, so teams found with the software received little to no punishment. No traction control software was found to be in the Benetton cars, however. Flavio Briatore, Benetton's chief in 1994, said in 2001 that "Our only mistake was that at the time we were too young and people were suspicious".
During the 1994 season Benetton removed a fuel filter from the refueling rig used during pit stops. This resulted in a fire; this resulted in further inquiries by the FIA, during which, the refuelling rig manufacturer made clear that in their opinion the modification would have resulted in 10% higher flow rates than the rules allowed. Benetton Team had a British licence from 1986 to 1995 and an Italian licence from 1996 to 2001, thus becoming only the second constructor to change its nationality; the Benetton family wanted this change of nationality in order to have an F1 team of their own country. Benetton remains the only constructor to have achieved victory while racing under two different nationalities; the team was based in the UK throughout. Firstly at the old Toleman factory, in Witney, Oxfordshire and in 1992 moving to a new, bigger factory at Enstone. Benetton drivers: Gerhard Berger – joined the team from Arrows for its first season in 1986. Scored the team's first and last wins, at the 1986 Mexican Grand Prix and 1997 German Grand Prix.
He scored the team's first podium finish at the 1986 San Marino Grand Prix. Berger ended his Formula One career with Benetton in 1997. Recorded the fastest speed trap time by a turbocharged F1 car when he pushed his BMW powered Benetton B186 to 352.22 km/h during qualifying for the 1986 Italian Grand Prix at Monza. Drove for both Ferrari and McLaren between stints at Benetton, he is the only driver to win a race for Benetton while the team was racing as an Italian team. Teo Fabi – a driver when the team was known as Toleman in 1985. Scored the team's first pole position at the 1986 Austrian Grand Prix, he scored the team's first back to back pole positions when he scored pole at the next race in Italy. Fabi ended his Formula One career with Benetton after the 1987 Australian Grand Prix. Thierry Boutsen – drove for the team in 1987 and 1988, he finished 4th in the Drivers' Championship in 1988 with five 3rd-place finishes. He was the highest placed "atmo" driver at the end of the season. Left Benetton after 1988 to join Williams where he would score his three career wins.
Alessandro Nannini – started with the team in 1988 after two seasons with Minardi and scored two third-place finishes at the British and Spanish Grands Prix, as well as recording the fa
Gerhard Berger is an Austrian former Formula One racing driver. He competed in Formula One for 14 seasons, twice finishing 3rd overall in the championship, both times driving for Ferrari, he won ten Grands Prix, achieved 48 podiums, 12 poles and 21 fastest laps. With 210 starts he is amongst the most experienced Formula One drivers of all time, he led 33 of the 210 races he retired from 95 of them. His first and last victories were the first and last victories for the Benetton team, with eleven years separating them, he was a race winner with Ferrari and with McLaren. When at McLaren, Berger drove alongside Ayrton Senna, contributing to the team's 1990 and 1991 constructors titles. Between 2006 and 2008 Berger owned 50% of the Scuderia Toro Rosso Formula One team. In 2008 Red Bull became the 100% owner of Toro Rosso having bought back the 50% stake it sold to Berger two years before. Gerhard Berger was born in Austria, his father Johann worked in his own truck company with Gerhard working for his father and before being promoted to a driver.
Berger, a multiple race winner in European Formula Three, moved up to Formula One in 1984 driving for the ATS team. Berger was fortunate to be alive after a serious road accident shortly after entering Formula One. A week after the 1984 season ended, he was driving home in his BMW 323i through the hills above Salzburg when his car was rammed from behind, resulting in it cartwheeling off a cliff. Berger, at that time not wearing the seatbelt, was thrown clear of the BMW through the rear window. By chance, the first car on the crash scene was occupied by two surgeons who specialised in back injuries; the doctors realised the extent of his injuries and made sure he was not moved until special equipment arrived. Following emergency surgery, a stay in hospital in Innsbruck, he made a full recovery. A full season for Arrows followed in 1985, though both Berger and teammate Thierry Boutsen were hampered by the Arrows A8, not the best chassis on the grid and did not allow either to exploit the immense power of the BMW M12 engine.
Although he had some good drives, Berger would finish the season in 20th place having scored 3 points in the last two races of the year in South Africa and Australia. It was not until joining Benetton in 1986. In a car that allowed him to exploit both his talent and the exceptional power of the BMW turbo engine, coupled with a clever Pirelli tyre strategy, Berger won his first Grand Prix in Mexico using the Benetton B186. Berger was on course for an easy victory at his home race, the 1986 Austrian Grand Prix before being forced into the pits from a comfortable lead with a flat battery. Berger out-qualified teammate Teo Fabi 12–4 in 1986 though Fabi, who as a Rookie had qualified on the pole for the 1983 Indianapolis 500, took pole at the faster Österreichring and Monza circuits. Berger established himself as a fast driver in Formula One that year, recording the fastest speed trap of the season, clocking an incredible 351.22 km/h at the Italian Grand Prix at Monza. This remains the fastest straight line speed attained by a turbocharged car in the first turbo era.
Berger was successful in Group A touring cars during this time, racing for the rated German Schnitzer BMW team, driving the competitive BMW 635 Csi in the European Touring Car Championship. He won the 1985 Spa 24 Hours partnering Italian touring car ace Roberto Ravaglia and fellow Formula One driver, Marc Surer of Switzerland; until the mid-1980s when teams began stopping their drivers competing in other categories of racing, it was not uncommon for a Grand Prix driver to race in sports and touring cars. However, by 1985 Formula One drivers were not permitted race in any other category within 24 hours of the start of a Grand Prix. At the season ending 1985 Australian Grand Prix in Adelaide, Berger had to obtain permission from the FIA, FOCA, from Arrows team to race in a Group A touring car race, a support category for the weekend, he needed the permission as the Grand Prix was scheduled to start at 2 pm on Sunday, 3 November and the Group A race was to start at 3 pm on the Saturday. Driving an ex-Schnitzer BMW 635 CSi for Australian racing legend and millionaire Bob Jane, Berger qualified 2nd on the grid but his race lasted just 3 laps before he was punted into the gravel trap at the end of the pit straight by the Holden Commodore V8 of local veteran John Harvey.
For the 1987 season, Berger signed for Ferrari, partnering the Italian Michele Alboreto and replacing Stefan Johansson. After mechanical failures robbed him of the chance to perform, Berger came on in the latter half of 1987, winning the final two rounds of the season; the 1987 Ferrari F1/87 benefitted from the work of ex-McLaren designer John Barnard although the car was designed by Austrian Gustav Brunner. Ferrari were back competing for race honours for the first time since mid-1985 from the Hungarian Grand Prix onwards. Berger was running a close second to Nigel Mansell at the Hungaroring before he was forced to retire. At Estoril for the Portuguese Grand Prix Berger dominated the race from pole position before spinning in the latter stages to finish second after pressure from Alain Prost; the Austrian looked to be heading for a second consecutive victory at the Hermanos Rodriguez circuit for the Mexican Grand Prix as he once again dominated the race but mechanical problems forced him to retire when leading.
Success at both Suzuka and Adelaide for the Japanese and the Australian Grands Pri
The McLaren MP4/6 is a Formula One racing car designed by Neil Oatley for use by the McLaren team in the 1991 Formula One season. It was driven by reigning World Champion, Brazilian Ayrton Senna, Austria's Gerhard Berger; the MP4/6 was the first McLaren to be powered by a Honda V12 engine, rated at 725 bhp. The car was tested by Berger in the off-season, but he was unimpressed with the new engine, feeling it was underpowered compared to the 690 bhp V10 engine used in the 1990 car, the MP4/5B; when Senna returned for pre-season testing he and Berger, along with Honda, knuckled down to try to solve the engine's problems. McLaren's domination in the early part of the year was due to the lack of reliability of the 700 bhp Renault V10-powered Williams FW14; the MP4/6 raced throughout 1991 with a manual "H" pattern gearbox. A semi-automatic transmission was tested during the season but was never regarded as good enough to be used in a race; the MP4/6 would go down as the last Formula One car to win a World Championship using a manual transmission or a V12 engine.
Senna won the first four races of the season, in the United States, San Marino and Monaco, before Williams and Nigel Mansell found their feet with the FW14, which dominated in mid-season. Consistent podium finishes throughout the year helped McLaren, but Senna insisted that Honda step up their engine development program and demanded further improvements to the car before it was too late. Honda responded with an updated version of the V12 engine, while Oatley redesigned various features of the car the sidepods and wings. Senna won in Hungary and Belgium before clinching his third and final Drivers' Championship in Japan with second place behind Berger. McLaren continued with the MP4/6, upgraded to'B' specification, for the first two races of 1992, Senna finishing third in South Africa; the car was replaced with the official 1992 car, the MP4/7A, though three MP4/6Bs were brought to the 1992 Brazilian Grand Prix as spares. The MP4/6 was considered by some to be the most competitive car in the Formula One field until Williams sorted the FW14, aerodynamically and technically more advanced.
In all, the MP4/6 took eight Grand Prix wins and ten pole positions, scored 148 points. The car brought a close to McLaren's domination of the sport. In July 2017, Codemasters confirmed that the car will be appearing as one of the classic cars in the game F1 2017. * Only 9 points scored with the MP4/6B. Remaining points scored with MP4/7A