Arizona's 2nd congressional district
Arizona's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district located in the U. S. state of Arizona. It contains the southeastern corner of the state, including two-thirds of Tucson; when Arizona was divided into congressional districts for the first time after the 1950 Census, the 2nd District comprised the entire state outside of the Phoenix area. Arizona gained a third district after the 1960 Census, the 2nd was cut back to the southern third of the state, stretching border-to-border from New Mexico to California, it ran along the entire length of the border with Mexico. By far the district's largest city was Tucson; the next largest city was Yuma, in the far west. After a mid-decade redistricting in 1967, the district was pushed to the north, picking up a portion of southern Phoenix; this configuration remained unchanged until the 1980 Census, when much of eastern Tucson was drawn into the new 5th District. The 2nd district remained based in southern Arizona until the 2000 Census, when Arizona picked up two districts.
At that time, the old 2nd district became the new 7th District, while most of the old 3rd District became the new 2nd District. Located in the northwestern corner of the state, it stretched into the western suburbs of Phoenix, known as the West Valley, it consisted of all of Peoria and Surprise, most of Glendale and much of western Phoenix in Maricopa County, all of Mohave County, the Hopi Nation in Navajo and Coconino counties. The size and diversity of the 2nd district made. However, over 90 percent of its population lived in the conservative West Valley a safe Republican area; the odd shape of the district was indicative of the use of gerrymandering in its construction. The unusual division was not, drawn to favor politicians. Owing the redistricting to historic tensions between the Hopi and the Navajo Native American tribes and since tribal boundary disputes are a federal matter, it was long believed inappropriate to include both tribes' reservations in the same congressional district. However, the Hopi reservation is surrounded by the Navajo reservation.
In order to comply with current Arizona redistricting laws, some means of connection was required that avoided including large portions of Navajo land, hence the narrow riverine connection. George W. Bush carried the district in 2004 with 61% of the vote. John McCain won the district in 2008 with 60.75% of the vote while Barack Obama received 38.07%. During the Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008 Arizona Democratic Primary, the district was won by Hillary Clinton with 54.52% of the vote while Barack Obama received 35.62% and John Edwards took in 7.43%. In the Arizona Republican Primary, the 2nd District was won by favorite son John McCain with 49.51% while Mitt Romney received 29.51% and Mike Huckabee took in 10.46% of the vote in the district. After the 2012 census, the bulk of the Maricopa County portion of the old 2nd became the 8th District, while the new 2nd District took in most of the territory of the old 8th district; that district, in turn, had been the 5th District from 1983 to 2003. In the 2014 midterms, the district was the last House of Representatives race to be decided, as the official recount began on December 1 due to Republican Martha McSally leading incumbent Democratic congressman Ron Barber by fewer than 200 votes.
In the 2018 midterms, Martha McSally retired to run for the U. S. Senate. Ann Kirkpatrick was elected to replace her. Athabaskan-speaking Native Americans lived in this region long before the arrival of the Europeans who established the Arizona Territory. In the late 19th century, Apache chief Cochise and a band of Chiricahuas built their stronghold on the Dragoon range of mountains; the tribe would ambush and rob passersby as an attempt to keep interlopers off their land. The presence of the tribe deterred the settlement of the area for far longer than the rest of the Arizona Territory; the district, containing a county now called by his name, developed when its varied and valuable resources were found in the 1870s. The discovery of silver mines in 1878 in the Tombstone district spurred much growth and investment in the area; the district is covered by wide valleys. The district is high desert grasslands with elevations from 3500 to 6000 feet. Several mountain ranges run through the district with the highest peak in the Chiricahua Mountains at 9,796 feet.
Southeast Arizona is at an ecological crossroads where habitats and species from the Sierra Madre of Mexico, the Rocky Mountains, the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts can all be found. The abrupt rise of mountains from the surrounding grasslands creates unique habitats harboring rare species and communities of plants and animals; the area has a semi-arid climate with hot summers. Precipitation exceeds one inch in any month other than July and September, when high intensity, but short-lived monsoon storms can occur. Primary job fields of the people in the district include agriculture, livestock and tourism; the main irrigated crops are cotton, corn, sorghum, hay, peaches, grapes, pecans, lettuce and other vegetables. The area has a multitude including several organic farms. Greenhouse tomato and cucumber operations have been completed in the past few years with much success. In Cochise County there is the U. S. Army base numerous military-industrial companies. In suburban and urban areas, Wal-Marts are the most abundant superstores.
Located within the district is Cochise
Pennsylvania's 2nd congressional district
Pennsylvania's second congressional district includes all of Northeast Philadelphia and parts of North Philadelphia. It has been represented by Brendan Boyle since 2019. Prior to 2018, the district covered West Philadelphia, North Philadelphia, Northwest Philadelphia, as well as parts of South Philadelphia, Center City, western suburbs such as Lower Merion Township in Montgomery County. Before the 113th Congress, the district did not contain Lower Merion Township but instead contained Cheltenham Township; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania redrew the district in February 2018 after ruling the previous map unconstitutional due to partisan gerrymandering. The new second district is the successor to the previous first district; as such, it remained Democratic for the 2018 election and representation thereafter. Brendan Boyle, the incumbent from the previous 13th district, ran for re-election in the new 2nd district. Parts of the previous second district were shifted to the third. Congressman Chaka Fattah represented the district from 1995 to 2016.
On July 29, 2015, Fattah and a group of associates were indicted on federal charges related to their alleged roles in a racketeering and influence peddling conspiracy. On April 26, 2016, Dwight Evans toppled Fattah in a competitive Democratic primary election. Fattah resigned June 23, 2016. Evans won a special election to fill Fattah's seat, he won election for the regular term beginning January 3, 2017. Evans won re-election in the new 3rd congressional district; the district was organized from Pennsylvania's At-large congressional district in 1791. District created in 1795 from the at-large district. Two additional seats were added in 1803; the third seat was eliminated in 1813, the second seat eliminated in 1823. In 1833, the second seat was restored. In 1843, it returned to being a single-member district; as of May 2017, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania's 2nd congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was William H. Gray on July 1, 2013.
The most serving representative to die was Lucien Blackwell on January 24, 2003. List of United States congressional districts Pennsylvania's congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present District map, via nationalatlas.gov Census Bureau profile Congressional redistricting in Pennsylvania
Texas's 3rd congressional district
Texas District 3 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves a suburban area north and northeast of Dallas. It encompasses a large portion of Collin County including McKinney and Frisco, as well as Collin County's share of Dallas itself. Texas has had at least three congressional districts since 1869; the current seat dates from a mid-decade redistricting conducted before the 1966 elections after Texas's original 1960s map was thrown out by Wesberry v. Sanders, it is one of the Dallas -- Fort Worth metroplex. The GOP has held the seat since a 1968 special election; the district's current congressman is Van Taylor. As of the 2010 census, District 3 represents 765,486 people who are predominantly middle-to-upper-class; the district is 73.1 percent White, 15.06 percent Hispanic or Latino, 13 percent Asian, 8.9 percent Black or African American. From 1967 to 2013, the district included a large slice of northern Dallas County, including Garland and much of northern Dallas itself.
However, Collin County's rapid growth since the 1970s resulted in the district's share of Dallas County being reduced. After redistricting in 2012, the Dallas County share of the district was removed altogether. However, it still includes the Dallas precincts located in Collin County. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Texas Secretary of State 2010 General Election Statewide Race Summary
Illinois's 15th congressional district
The 15th Congressional District of Illinois is located in eastern and southeastern Illinois. Republican John Shimkus represents the district; the congressional district covers parts of Bond, Champaign and Madison counties, all of Clark, Clinton, Crawford, Douglas, Edwards, Fayette, Hamilton, Jasper, Lawrence, Massac, Pope, Saline, Vermilion, Washington and White counties. All or parts of Centralia, Danville, Effingham, Glen Carbon and Rantoul will be included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. Republican John Shimkus representing the 19th district, was on the 2012 ballot for the 15th congressional district. Angela Michael, a retired nurse and pro-life activist, ran on a single-issue pro-life Democratic ticket. Shimkus won reelection again, after facing a primary challenge from Illinois State Senator Kyle McCarter with Tea Party backing and funding from the Club for Growth. Shimkus continues to loom large in the 15th, but faces credible Democratic opposition from a local teacher and former Obama campaign worker.
The district included the cities of Charleston, Urbana and Champaign, all or parts of Livingston, Ford, McLean, DeWitt, Vermillion, Piatt, Edgar, Coles, Clark, Lawrence, Edwards, White and Gallatin counties. District created March 4, 1873 As of May 2015, two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 15th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Tim Lee Hall on November 12, 2008. The most serving representative to die was Edward Rell Madigan on December 7, 1994. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2002 Census of Agriculture - 15th Congressional District Profile District map Congressional district profiles Washington Post page on the 15th District of Illinois U.
S. Census Bureau - 15th District Fact Sheet
D. French Slaughter Jr.
Daniel French Slaughter Jr. was an American politician and member of the United States House of Representatives from January 3, 1985, until his resignation on November 5, 1991. Daniel Slaughter Jr. was born in Culpeper and attended public schools in Culpeper County. He attended Virginia Military Institute and graduated in 1953 with a B. A. and LL. B. from the University of Virginia, where he was a member of the Raven Society and of St. Anthony Hall. Slaughter served in the United States Army in combat infantry from 1943 to 1947 and was awarded the Purple Heart, he was admitted to the bar and practiced law in Culpeper. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1958 to 1978, serving as a Democrat until 1974, when he became an independent. In the early 1960s, he supported "massive resistance" to court-ordered school integration, he was a member of the board of visitors of the University of Virginia from 1978 to 1982, where he served as rector from 1980 to 1982. From 1981 to 1984 he served as aide to John Otho Marsh Jr. the Secretary of the Army.
Slaughter was elected from the 7th congressional district in 1984 as a Republican. He was reelected three more times. However, he resigned on November 1991, due to a series of strokes, he died in Charlottesville, Virginia, on October 2, 1998. 1984. S. House of Representatives with 56.5% of the vote, defeating Democrat Lewis M. Costello and Independent R. E. Frazier. 1986. 1988. 1990. United States Congress. "D. French Slaughter Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Virginia House of Delegates bio for D. Slaughter Washington Post's obituary for Slaughter Appearances on C-SPAN
Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U. S. Constitution; the Speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, is the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, the institution's administrative head. Speakers perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the Speaker does not preside over debates; that duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the Speaker participate in floor debates; the Constitution does not require the Speaker to be an incumbent member of the House of Representatives, although every Speaker thus far has been. The Speaker is second in the United States presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and ahead of the President pro tempore of the Senate.
The current House Speaker, Democrat Nancy Pelosi of California, was elected to the office on January 3, 2019. Pelosi served as speaker from January 4, 2007 to January 3, 2011, she has the distinction of being the first woman to serve as Speaker, is the first former Speaker to be returned to office since Sam Rayburn in 1955. The House elects its speaker at the beginning of a new Congress or when a speaker dies, resigns or is removed from the position intra-term. Since 1839, the House has elected speakers by roll call vote. Traditionally, each party's caucus or conference selects a candidate for the speakership from among its senior leaders prior to the roll call. Representatives are not restricted to voting for the candidate nominated by their party, but do, as the outcome of the election determines which party has the majority and will organize the House. Moreover, as the Constitution does not explicitly state that the speaker must be an incumbent member of the House, it is permissible for representatives to vote for someone, not a member of the House at the time, non-members have received a few votes in various speaker elections over the past several years.
Every person elected speaker has been a member. Representatives that choose to vote for someone other than their party's nominated candidate vote for someone else in their party or vote "present". Anyone who votes for the other party's candidate would face serious consequences, as was the case when Democrat Jim Traficant voted for Republican Dennis Hastert in 2001. In response, the Democrats stripped him of his seniority and he lost all of his committee posts. To be elected speaker a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes cast, as opposed to an absolute majority of the full membership of the House – presently 218 votes, in a House of 435. There have only been a few instances during the past century where a person received a majority of the votes cast, thus won the election, while failing to obtain a majority of the full membership, it happened most in 2015, when John Boehner was elected with 216 votes. Such a variation in the number of votes necessary to win a given election might arise due to vacancies, absentees, or members being present but not voting.
If no candidate wins a majority of the "votes cast for a person by name" the roll call is repeated until a speaker is elected. Multiple roll calls have been necessary only 14 times since 1789. Upon winning election the new Speaker is sworn in by the Dean of the United States House of Representatives, the chamber's longest-serving member; the first Speaker of the House, Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania, was elected to office on April 1, 1789, the day the House organized itself at the start of the 1st Congress. He served two non-consecutive terms in the Speaker's chair, 1789–1791 and 1793–1795; as the Constitution does not state the duties of the Speaker, the speaker’s role has been shaped by traditions and customs that evolved over time. A partisan position from early in its existence, the speakership began to gain power in legislative development under Henry Clay. In contrast to many of his predecessors, Clay participated in several debates, used his influence to procure the passage of measures he supported—for instance, the declaration of the War of 1812, various laws relating to Clay's "American System" economic plan.
Furthermore, when no candidate received an Electoral College majority in the 1824 presidential election causing the President to be elected by the House, Speaker Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams instead of Andrew Jackson, thereby ensuring Adams' victory. Following Clay's retirement in 1825, the power of the speakership once again began to decline, despite speakership elections becoming bitter; as the Civil War approached, several sectional factions nominated their own candidates making it difficult for any candidate to attain a majority. In 1855 and again in 1859, for example, the contest for Speaker lasted for two months before the House achieved a result. During this time, Speakers tended to have short tenures. For example, from 1839 to 1863 there were eleven Speakers, only one of whom served for more than one term. To date, James K. Polk is the only Speaker of the House elected President of the United States. Towards the end of the 19th century, the office of Speaker began to develop into a po
Mayor of Dallas
The Mayor of the City of Dallas is the head of government for the city. The current mayor is Mike Rawlings, who has served as mayor for two consecutive terms since 2011 and is the 59th elected mayor to serve the position; the city of Dallas operates under a council-manager government type, putting the city of Dallas in a unique position as being one of the largest cities in the United States to utilize this municipal government structure. Unlike the more common form of government used by large cities known as the mayor-council government - where the mayor serves the chief-executive position of the city - the council-manager government of the city of Dallas gives the chief-executive position to the appointed City Manager; as a result, the mayor is elected at-large and serves a ceremonial position fulfilling a handful of key duties. The mayor serves as a member of the city council, presides over city council meetings and official ceremonies, serves as a representative to the City of Dallas at a local, state and international level.
It is not uncommon for mayors of the city of Dallas to serve as members or heads of other committees while in office, further representing the interests of the people and city of Dallas in organizations and committees. The Office of Mayor was created with the formation of the Dallas City Charter in 1856 providing for the mayor six aldermen, a treasurer, recorder and a constable. In the charter, it was stated. In the reorganization of 1876, the mayor was elected to the office for a term of two years; the office was first elected in the election of 1856, in which Dr. Samuel B. Pryor defeated A. D. Rice for the position. A. D. Rice would go on to serve as the 4th mayor of the city. For much of the 19th century, mayors of the city of Dallas only served as much as one term after the reorganization of 1876; this precedence was broken at the end of Winship C. Connor's term, who – after serving three consecutive terms from 1887 to 1894 – was the longest-serving mayor of the city at the time, his success was accredited to the development of the city's first water and streetcar systems.
The municipal government of Dallas underwent two significant changes in its structure during its history. The first change was made in 1907 where the city voted to change from an alderman structure to a commission form of government. Stephen J. Hay was the first mayor elected in this new form of government, demonstrating the success of the debated commission form of government and contributing to the development of White Rock Lake in response to a water shortage in 1910; the second major government change was made in 1930, altering the commission form of government to be a council-manager form. The mayor to serve following that change was Tom Bradford, a successful grocer, a significant financial contributor to the Bradford Memorial Hospital for Babies, the preliminary institution to the Children's Medical Center Dallas, he died after suffering a major heart attack in 1932 and was the first mayor of Dallas to die in office. Woodall Rodgers was mayor of Dallas from 1939 to 1947, with his tenure as mayor being one of the longest in the history of the city.
He was mayor during World War II and ran during the rampant manufacturing of aircraft and weapon goods in a industrializing Dallas, along with the neighboring city of Fort Worth. At the time, Dallas Love Field was used as a joint USAAF base and training ground and saw expansion of its hub and runways at the end of the war to soon become the major jet-age airport of the city, he was mayor when the Mercantile National Bank Building was constructed, the only highrise structure built in the United States during World War II and was the tallest building in the city of Dallas until the completion of Republic Center Tower I in 1954. The economic success contributed by his work in office is commemorated today by several namesakes throughout the city, most notably the Woodall Rodgers Freeway that passes underneath Klyde Warren Park and over the Trinity River along the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge. Earle Cabell served as 48th mayor from 1961 to 1964 and was mayor during the Assassination of John F. Kennedy.
The image of the city of Dallas was immensely tarnished by the assassination of the President. Following Earle Cabell was Mayor J. Erik Jonsson who funded and supported the proposed Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport; as mayor, he went on to support and open public works such as developing the new Dallas City Hall, the Dallas Convention Center, the Dallas Central Library, now named in his honor. He was followed by Wes Wise who went on to further improve the city's image during his term from 1971 to 1973. However, he stepped down to pursue a political career in United States Congress before the end of his term, his pro-term mayoral successor, Adlene Harrison, stepped in and became acting mayor for the remainder of his term. She was the city's first female mayor, the first female Jewish mayor in the United States. Although Dianne Feinstein is recognized as the first female Jewish mayor in the United States, Adlene Harrison's position as acting mayor predates Feinstein's start in office by two years.
Adlene began serving as acting mayor on February 11, 1976, while Feinstein began her mayoralty on December 4, 1978. Adlene would go on to serve as a member of several environmental committees and organizations after her short tenure, including the Environmental Protection Agency; the city's second female mayor, Annette Strauss, coincidentally was the city's second female Jewish mayor. She was the first woman to be elected mayor in her own right. Ron Kirk was the first African-American mayor of the City of D