Secretary of State for Scotland
Her Majestys Principal Secretary of State for Scotland is the principal minister of Her Majestys Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland representing Scotland. He heads the Scotland Office, a government department based in London, the post was created soon after the Union of the Crowns, but was abolished in 1746, following the Jacobite rebellion. Scottish affairs thereafter were managed by the Lord Advocate until 1827, in 1885 the post of Secretary for Scotland was re-created, with the incumbent usually in the Cabinet. In 1926 this post was upgraded to a full Secretary of State appointment, the role of Secretary of State for Scotland has been diminished. A recent Scottish Secretary, Des Browne, held the post whilst simultaneously being Secretary of State for Defence, the current Secretary of State for Scotland is David Mundell. John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar had served as Secretary of State of an independent Scotland since 1705, following the Acts of Union 1707, he remained in office.
The post of Secretary of State for Scotland existed briefly after the Union of the Parliament of Scotland, after the rising, responsibility for Scotland lay primarily with the office of the Home Secretary, usually exercised by the Lord Advocate. The Secretary for Scotland was chief minister in charge of the Scottish Office in the United Kingdom government,1885 saw the creation of the Scottish Office and the post of Secretary for Scotland. From 1892 the Secretary for Scotland sat in cabinet, the Secretary for Scotland post was upgraded to full Secretary of State rank as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1926. All Secretaries for Scotland held the post of Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, the post of Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland was held ex officio by Secretaries of State for Scotland from 1926 to 1999. Secretaries of State for Scotland since Donald Dewar have not been Keepers of the Great Seal, with the rise of the SNP in the Scottish and British parliaments and the resultant interest in Scottish Independence, the Secretary of states role has subsequently increased in prominence.
The Scotland office itself has received an increase in budget of 20% from 2013 to 2017 with a 14. 4% increase in 2015/16 alone. The UK governments website lists the Secretary of State for Scotlands responsibilities as being, The main role of the Scottish Secretary is to promote, other responsibilities include promoting partnership between the UK government and the Scottish government, and relations between the 2 Parliaments. This seeming lack of responsibility has in recent years seen calls for the scrapping of the role and the wider department of the Scottish office itself by opposition MPs
Politics of Scotland
Scotland is a country which is part of the United Kingdom. The UK is de jure a unitary state, and the Parliament of the United Kingdom, located at Westminster, London, is sovereign over the whole state. However, since the late 1990s, a system of devolution has emerged in the UK, under which Scotland, Scotland entered into a political union with England in 1707, and since has sent representatives to the Palace of Westminster, which became the British parliament. In 1999, an 129-member Scottish Parliament was established in Edinburgh, it has power to make law in Scotland. In the UK government, Scottish affairs are represented by the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Scottish Government is headed by a First Minister, who is the leader of the political party with the most support in the Scottish Parliament, currently Nicola Sturgeon MSP. The head of state in Scotland is the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as the UK is part of the European Union, Scotland elects six Members to sit in the European Parliament.
Scotland can best be described as having a multi-party system, in the Scottish Parliament, the centre-left pro-independence Scottish National Party is the party which forms the government, it currently holds a plurality of seats in the parliament. Opposition parties include the Scottish Labour Party, the Scottish Conservative Party, the Scottish Liberal Democrats, elections are held once every five years, with 73 Members being elected to represent constituencies, and the remaining 56 elected via a system of proportional representation. At Westminster, Scotland is represented by 56 MPs from the Scottish National Party, and 1 MP each from the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, the creation of an independent Scotland outside the United Kingdom remains a prominent issue. On 18 September 2014, the people of Scotland voted in a referendum on whether to become independent, the party with the largest number of seats in the Scottish Parliament is the Scottish National Party, which campaigns for Scottish independence.
The current First Minister of Scotland is SNP leader Nicola Sturgeon, the previous First Minister, Alex Salmond, led the SNP to an overall majority victory in the May 2011 general election, which was lost in 2016 and now forms a minority government. Other parties represented in the parliament are the Labour Party, Conservative Party which form the opposition, Liberal Democrats. The next Scottish Parliament election is due to be held in May 2021 and this has been done on a number of occasions where it has been seen as either more efficient, or more politically expedient to have the legislation considered by Westminster. The Scotland Office is a department of the United Kingdom government, the current Secretary of State for Scotland is David Mundell MP, a Conservative. Until 1999, Scottish peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, the main political debate in Scotland tends to revolve around attitudes to the constitutional question. Under the pressure of growing support for Scottish independence a policy of devolution had been advocated by all three GB-wide parties to some degree during their history.
Now that devolution has occurred, the argument about Scotlands constitutional status is over whether the Scottish Parliament should accrue additional powers. To clarify these issues, the SNP-led Scottish Executive published Choosing Scotlands Future, the programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen the divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, support for the monarchy remains high.
Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved.
During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession
The Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup, commonly known as the Scottish Cup, is an annual association football knock-out cup competition for mens football clubs in Scotland. The competition was first held in 1873–74, entry is open to all clubs with full or associate membership of the Scottish Football Association. The competition is called the William Hill Scottish Cup for sponsorship reasons and it was first presented to Queens Park, who won the final match of the inaugural tournament in March 1874. The current holder is Hibernian, who won the tournament for the time by defeating Rangers 3–2 in the 2016 final. The tournament starts at the beginning of the Scottish football season in August or September, the Scottish Cup Final is usually the last game of the season, taking place at the end of May. Participating teams enter the tournament at different stages depending on their league ranking, the lowest ranked clubs enter the tournament at the first round whilst the highest ranked, those that compete in the Scottish Premiership, enter at the fourth round stage.
The competition is a knock-out tournament, in each round of games the teams are paired at random, with the first team drawn listed as the home team. Every game lasts 90 minutes plus any additional stoppage time, the winner of each game advances to the next round, whilst the loser is eliminated from the tournament. If a game ends in a draw, the fixture is replayed at the ground of the other team at a date. If the replay ends in a draw,30 minutes of time is played followed by a penalty shoot-out if there is still no clear winner. In the semi-final and final rounds, if the ends in a draw there is no replay. The competition has a staggered entry system, Scottish League One and six Scottish Championship clubs started in the third round, while the remaining four Championship clubs and all 12 Scottish Premiership clubs entered in the fourth round. Any club that is a full or associate member of the Scottish Football Association is entitled to compete in the tournament, every team that plays in the Scottish Professional Football League is therefore eligible.
Between 1895 and 2007, clubs that were SFA members but not competitors in the professional football leagues could only qualify for the tournament by winning the Scottish Qualifying Cup. Clubs that are not members of the SFA may still qualify for the tournament by winning the Highland League, Lowland League, three junior clubs, Banks O Dee and Linlithgow Rose are SFA members and therefore qualify automatically. From 2015, the winners of the Scottish Amateur Cup are eligible to qualify, players that are registered with a competing club are eligible to play. However, players are not entitled to play for more than one club during the same tournament, each club names eleven players and up to five substitutes before every match. In order to play in the match, a player must have been registered to compete in the semi-final round for the same club
Ian Lang, Baron Lang of Monkton
On 29 September 1997 Lang was raised to the peerage. Lang was educated at Lathallan School, Rugby School and Sidney Sussex College of The University of Cambridge, Lang first stood for Parliament for Central Ayrshire in 1970, but was unsuccessful. In the February 1974 general election he was defeated by Labours James White contesting Glasgow Pollok, following this he became MP for Galloway from 1979 to 1983 and for Galloway and Upper Nithsdale from 1983 to 1997 and was a minister for a number of years. He served as a Government whip from 1981 to 1986, Under-Secretary of State for Employment, Under-Secretary of State for Scotland and he joined the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Scotland from 1990 to 1995, and President of the Board of Trade until 1997. He was closely involved in John Majors re-election campaign as leader of the Conservative Party in July 1995, Lang lost his seat in the 1997 general election, one of seven Cabinet members to do so. Following the loss of his seat Lang was raised to the peerage in the 1997 Prime Ministers Resignation Honours as Baron Lang of Monkton, of Merrick and the Rhinns of Kells in Dumfries and Galloway.
He has remained a member of the House of Lords and, since 25 May 2016, has been Chairman of the Constitution Committee. Previously Lang served as Chair of the Advisory Committee on Business Appointments from 2009 to 2014, since 1997, Lang has been a member of the Board of Directors of Marsh & McLennan Companies, becoming Chairman in May 2011. Lang has been a Non-Executive Director of Charlemagne Capital Limited, since 2006, on 30 January 2014 Lang stated that if Scotland voted for independence, it would dishonour the sacrifice of those who died fighting for Great Britain in the First World War
He or she is the chief public prosecutor for Scotland and all prosecutions on indictment are conducted by the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, nominally in the Lord Advocates name. The officeholder is one of the Great Officers of State of Scotland, the current Lord Advocate is The Rt Hon. James Wolffe, QC. The office of Advocate to the monarch is an ancient one, the first recognised Lord Advocate was Sir John Ross of Montgrenan, recorded in 1483 as serving King James III. Her Majestys Government is now advised on Scots law by the Advocate General for Scotland, the Lord Advocate is not head of the Faculty of Advocates, that position is held by the Dean of the Faculty of Advocates. Until devolution in 1999, all Lord Advocates were, by convention, members of the United Kingdom government, since devolution, the Lord Advocate has been an automatically ex officio member of the Scottish Government. From 1999 until 2007, the Lord Advocate attended the weekly Scottish Cabinet meetings, after the 2007 election, the new First Minister Alex Salmond decided that Lord Advocate would no longer attend the Scottish Cabinet, stating he wished to de-politicise the post.
Until devolution, all Lord Advocates were, by convention, members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords to allow them to speak for the Government and those who were not already members of either house received a life peerage on appointment. Appointments as Senators of the College of Justice were formerly made on the nomination of the Lord Advocate, every Lord Advocate between 1842 and 1967 was appointed to the bench, either on demitting office or at a date. Many Lord Advocates in fact nominated themselves for appointment as Lord President of the Court of Session or as Lord Justice Clerk, the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service is headed by the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor General for Scotland, and is the public prosecution service in Scotland. It carries out functions which are equivalent to the coroner in common law jurisdictions. Incorporated within the Crown Office is the Legal Secretariat to the Lord Advocate, the Crown Agent is the principal legal advisor to the Lord Advocate on prosecution matters.
He or she acts as Chief Executive for the Department. At trials in the High Court in Edinburgh, they attend as instructing solicitor and they are assisted by other senior legal and administrative staff. Whilst the Lord Advocate and Solicitor General continue as public prosecutors the principle of separation of powers seems compromised, the potential for a conflict of interest always exists. Resolution of these circumstances would entail an amendment of the contained within the Scotland Act 1998. The judges of Scotlands highest court came to share this view and they noted various ways in which the Lord Advocates roles had caused problems for the judicial system, including the ability to challenge. Virtually any act of a prosecutor has led to a plethora of disputed issues, with delays to the holding of trials and to the hearing. While not specifically favouring any of the three, they noted that the proposal was radical enough to generate considerable controversy
1991 in Ireland
Events from the year 1991 in Ireland. President, Mary Robinson Taoiseach, Charles Haughey 1 January – Limerick city celebrated 300 years of the Treaty of Limerick,17 January – there was controversy as the Government allowed United States military aircraft bound for the Gulf War to refuel at Shannon Airport. 24 January – the new Government Buildings in the renovated College of Science were officially opened,7 February – the Provisional Irish Republican Army fired mortar bombs at 10 Downing Street in London. 14 March – after being jailed for 16 years, the Birmingham Six were freed. 15 March – the Sugar Act provided for privatization of Cómhlucht Siúicre Éireann, Teoranta,16 March – Dublin was officially inaugurated as the years European Capital of Culture. She was the head of state in Europe to meet with him during his European trip. The Dalai Lamas first visit to Ireland was in 1973,26 June – the wrongful convictions of the Maguire Seven were quashed. 6 November – Kildare TD Seán Power proposed a motion in Charles Haugheys leadership.
7 November – the Minister for Finance, Albert Reynolds, was dismissed from the government over his intention to support the no-confidence motion,13 November – Jim McDaid, the new Defence Minister, resigned following criticism from the opposition over his attendance at an IRA funeral. 21 November – three crew members of the M. V, Kilkenny are drowned as a result of a collision between the Kilkenny the M. V. 25 May – opening of the Irish Museum of Modern Art at the Royal Hospital Kilmainham, November – opening of the Dublin Writers Museum. Corcadorca Theatre Company established in Cork, roddy Doyles novel The Van, last of The Barrytown Trilogy, was published. Anne Enrights short story collection The Portable Virgin was published and won the Rooney Prize for Irish Literature, frank OMara won the world indoor 3,000 metre championship for the second time. 19 October – Sean Kelly won the Giro di Lombardia, the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship final finished on a score of Down GAA 1–16 Meath GAA 1–14.
Carrolls Irish Open was won by Nick Faldo, the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship final finished on a score of Tipperary GAA 1–16 Kilkenny GAA 0–15. Eddie Jordan entered his Jordan team in the World Formula One Championship,28 February – Sarah Bolger, actress. 16 August – Evanna Lynch, actress,5 January – Hubert Butler and historian 29 January – Joe Stynes, Irish Republican and sportsman. 19 February – Thekla Beere, civil servant,20 April – Seán Ó Faoláin, short story writer
Dundee United F.C.
Dundee United Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in the city of Dundee. Formed in 1909, originally as Dundee Hibernian, the changed to the present name in 1923. United are nicknamed The Terrors or The Tangerines and the supporters are known as Arabs, the club has played in tangerine kits since the 1960s and have played at the present ground, Tannadice Park, since their foundation in 1909. United were founder members of the Scottish Premier League in 1998 and were ever-present in the competition until it was abolished in 2013 to make way for the SPFL structure, United were relegated in 2016 to the Scottish Championship, which is the second tier of the SPFL. Domestically, the club has won the Scottish Premier Division on one occasion, the Scottish Cup twice, United appeared in European competition for the first time in the 1966–67 season, going on to appear in Europe in 14 successive seasons from 1976. They reached the European Cup semi-finals in 1984 and the UEFA Cup final in 1987, the club has a 100% record in four matches against Barcelona in competitive European ties.
The club was formed as Dundee Hibernian in 1909, playing from the outset at Tannadice Park and they were voted into the Scottish Football League in 1910. After being saved from going out of business in October 1923, between 1925 and 1932 United were promoted and relegated three times, winning the Second Division title in 1925 and 1929. The club achieved little success until Jerry Kerr became manager in 1959. Kerrs team won promotion in his first season in charge and became established in the top flight, Jim McLean took over from Kerr in 1971 and his youth policy led to the most successful era in the clubs history. United won the Scottish League Cup in 1979 and 1980 and the Premier Division title in 1982–83, the club were successful in Europe, reaching the European Cup semi-finals in 1984 and the 1987 UEFA Cup Final. The latter featuring another elimination of Barcelona, despite losing to IFK Gothenburg in the final, the club won a FIFA Fair Play Award. McLean retired as manager in 1993, but remained as club chairman, United won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1994 under McLeans successor Ivan Golac, but were relegated in 1995, returning a year later.
Shortly after Leveins departure, the won the Scottish Cup for a second time in 2010 under the management of Peter Houston. After several relatively successful seasons, a slump in form led to United being relegated in 2016, for a complete pictorial history of playing kit, see the Historical Football Kits site. After persuasion by the wife of manager Jerry Kerr, the colour would soon be adopted as the own in 1969 to give the club a brighter. The new colour was paraded for the first time in a friendly against Everton in August. When founded as Dundee Hibernian, they had followed the example of clubs of similar heritage by adopting the traditionally Irish colours of green shirts
Alan Rodger, Baron Rodger of Earlsferry
Alan Ferguson Rodger, Baron Rodger of Earlsferry FRSE FBA PC was a Scottish lawyer and Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. He served as Lord Advocate, the senior Law Officer of Scotland, before becoming Lord Justice General and Lord President of the Court of Session, the head of the countrys judiciary. He was appointed a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and became a Justice of the Supreme Court when the functions of the House of Lords were transferred to that Court. He studied at the University of Glasgow, graduating with an MA and he became an advocate in 1974 and was Clerk of the Faculty of Advocates from 1976 to 1979. He was a Member of the Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland from 1981 to 1984, and was appointed Queens Counsel in 1985. Rodger was appointed a Senator of the College of Justice, a judge of the High Court of Justiciary and Court of Session, in 1995, He became Lord Justice General and he was appointed a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary in 2001, upon the retirement of Lord Clyde.
He and nine other Lords of Appeal in Ordinary became Justices of the Supreme Court upon that bodys inauguration on 1 October 2009. He was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and an Honorary Bencher at Lincoln’s Inn in 1992, hon. Fellow, American Coll. of Trial Lawyers,2008. He has received degrees of Doctor of Laws from the Universities of Glasgow, Aberdeen. Lord Rodger of Earlsferry died on 26 June 2011 after a short illness, Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond, who provoked fury after criticising Rodger less than a month earlier, said he had made an outstanding contribution to Scottish public life. Lord Rodger of Earlsferry and Bibliography
Archie Elliott, Lord Elliott
Archibald Elliott, Lord Elliott MC was a Scottish lawyer and judge. In 1971, he became the first President of the newly established Lands Tribunal for Scotland, since then, both offices have been held concurrently. Elliott was born in London into a prosperous family and he was educated at Eton and began studying History at Trinity College, but interrupted his studies to join the Army in 1943. After the War, he completed his studies at Cambridge before returning to Scotland, Elliott saw active service in the Second World War as an officer in the 2nd Battalion Scots Guards. He joined up in August 1943, and on 11 September that year led a platoon in an attack on a factory in Salerno. Captured by German troops, he escaped into the mountains and was awarded an immediate Military Cross for bravery and he wrote two books based on his experiences, Us and Them, a study of group consciousness, and Esprit de Corps. On completing his studies at Edinburgh in 1950, Elliott was called to the Bar of England and Wales at the Inner Temple and he took up practice in Scotland, and was appointed Queens Counsel in 1963.
In 1971, he was appointed a Chairman of the Medical Appeal Tribunals, in 1978, he was appointed Chairman of the Scottish Land Court, retaining his position as President of the Lands Tribunal. Since his retirement in 1992, the positions have always held together. He was succeeded by Alexander Philip, Lord Philip, Elliott married Susan Isobel Mackenzie Ross in 1954, with whom he had two sons and Michael Elliott. He died on 9 August 2008
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne.
In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services.
Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition.
Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War II