1991 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final
The match was held at Croke Park, Dublin, on 1 September 1991, between Tipperary and Kilkenny. The Leinster champions lost to their Munster opponents on a line of 1-16 to 0-15. The All-Ireland hurling final was the match of the 1991 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship. The match was contested by Tipperary and Kilkenny on 1 September 1991 at Croke Park, Dublin and it was Tipperary’s third appearance in the championship decider in four years, having lost and won the respective finals of 1988 and 1989. Kilkenny were lining out in their first final since losing the 1987 decider to Galway, furthermore, it was the first championship meeting of these two great rivals since 1971, when Tipperary were the winners. Tipperary were red-hot favourites and not just because of their traditional hoodoo over their nearest neighbours, the team’s performances in the provincial championship and their comprehensive defeat of Galway in the All-Ireland semi-final resulted in the premier county being given the bookies nod.
Kilkenny had struggles through each of their games and only scraped past Antrim in the All-Ireland semi-final. At 3, 30pm match referee Willie Horgan of Cork threw in the sliotar, on this occasion, they rescued the team from wave after wave of Kilkenny attack. Defensive grit kept Tipperary in the game in the first half, the second-half saw Tipp get the breaks as the vital score of the match had more than a touch of luck about it. Michael Cleary, Tipp’s ultra accurate free-taker, had been impressive all throughout the year, ten minutes into the game he miss-hit a controversial twenty-metre free. The sliotar skewed into the Kilkenny net at the hill 16 end past a flat-footed Kilkenny defence and it was the score that gave Tipperary a lift and took the wind out of ‘the Cats’’ sails. It was his fifth from play as he collected the man of the match award, declan Carr had the honour of collecting the Liam MacCarthy Cup on the occasion of Tipperary’s twenty-fourth All-Ireland victory. MATCH RULES70 minutes Replay if scores level Maximum of 3 substitutions Match Highlights
Hurling, is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The game has prehistoric origins, and has played for 3,000 years. One of Irelands native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players, there is a similar game for women called camogie. It shares a common Gaelic root with the sport of shinty, the sliotar can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the hurley. It can be kicked, or slapped with a hand for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than four steps has to bounce or balance the sliotar on the end of the stick, no protective padding is worn by players. A plastic protective helmet with a faceguard is mandatory for all age groups, including senior level, the game has been described as a bastion of humility, with player names absent from jerseys and a players number decided by his position on the field.
Hurling is played throughout the world, and is popular among members of the Irish diaspora in North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Argentina, in many parts of Ireland, hurling is a fixture of life. It has featured regularly in art such as film, music. A team comprises 15 players, or hurlers, the hurley is generally 24 to 36 inches in length. The ball, known as a sliotar, has a cork centre, the goalkeepers hurley usually has a bas twice the size of other players hurleys to provide some advantage against the fast moving sliotar. A good strike with a hurley can propel the ball over 150 km/h in speed and 110 metres in distance, a ball hit over the bar is worth one point. A ball that is hit under the bar is called a goal and is three points. As of 2010, all players must wear a helmet, a hurling pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. The grass pitch is rectangular, stretching 130–145 metres long and 80–90 m wide. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 6–7 metres high, set 6.5 m apart, a net extending behind the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts.
The same pitch is used for Gaelic football, the GAA, lines are marked at distances of 14 yards,21 yards and 65 yards from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams, teams consist of fifteen players, a goalkeeper, three full backs, three half backs, two midfielders, three half forwards and three full forwards
Croke Park is a GAA stadium located in Dublin, Ireland. Named in honour of Archbishop Thomas Croke, it is often called Croker by some GAA fans and it serves both as the principal stadium and headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association. Since 1884 the site has been used primarily by the GAA to host Gaelic games, most notably the annual All-Ireland finals in football and hurling. Both the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2003 Special Olympics, during the construction of the Aviva Stadium, Croke Park hosted games played by the Ireland national rugby union team and the Republic of Ireland national football team. The area now known as Croke Park was owned in the 1880s by Maurice Butterly and known as the City and Suburban Racecourse, from 1890 it was used by the Bohemian Football Club. In 1901 Jones Road hosted the IFA Cup football final when Cliftonville defeated Freebooters, recognising the potential of the Jones Road sports ground a journalist and GAA member, Frank Dineen, borrowed much of the £3,250 asking price and bought the ground in 1908.
In 1913 the GAA came into ownership of the plot when they purchased it from Dineen for £3,500. The ground was renamed Croke Park in honour of Archbishop Thomas Croke, in 1913, Croke Park had only two stands on what is now known as the Hogan stand side and grassy banks all round. In 1917, a hill was constructed on the railway end of Croke Park to afford patrons a better view of the pitch. This terrace was known as Hill 16 as it was built from the ruins of the 1916 Easter Rising, in the 1920s, the GAA set out to create a high capacity stadium at Croke Park. Following the Hogan Stand, the Cusack Stand, named after Michael Cusack from Clare, was built in 1927,1936 saw the first double-deck Cusack Stand open with 5,000 seats, and concrete terracing being constructed on Hill 16. In 1952 the Nally Stand was built in memorial of Pat Nally, seven years later, to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the GAA, the first cantilevered New Hogan Stand was opened. The highest attendance recorded at an All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final was 90,556 for Offaly v Down in 1961.
Since the introduction of seating to the Cusack stand in 1966, during the Irish War of Independence on 21 November 1920 Croke Park was the scene of a massacre by the Royal Irish Constabulary. The Police, supported by the British Auxiliary Division entered the ground, the dead included 13 spectators and Tipperary player, Michael Hogan. Posthumously, the Hogan stand built in 1924 was named in his honour, in 1984 the organisation decided to investigate ways to increase the capacity of the old stadium. The design for an 80,000 capacity stadium was completed in 1991, Gaelic sports have special requirements as they take place on a large field. A specific requirement was to ensure the spectators were not too far from the field of play and this resulted in the three-tier design from which viewing games is possible, the main concourse, a premium level incorporating hospitality facilities and an upper concourse
The county board is responsible for the Wexford inter-county teams. Wexford is one of the few counties to have won the All-Ireland Senior Championship in both football and hurling, Wexford have won five Football Championships, with the most recent in 1918. Hurling has been played in Wexford from medieval times, evidence of this can be found in the hurling ballads of the 15th and 16th centuries. Others have said that King George III shouted come on the yellow bellies at a match near London. Wexford had one of the greatest football teams in the history of the GAA in the 1910s, winning six Leinster, the team was trained by 1900 star James the Bull Roche, who had fought for the World Heavyweight boxing Championship. Ned Wheeler, Aidan Doyle and the OKennedy brothers, the latter was the team captain. The feat of six Leinster titles in a row was only equalled in 1931 when Kildare won the sixth in a sequence began in 1926. Wexfords last major success was winning the Leinster title in 1945. From on, hurling took precedence in Wexford and as a consequence the Wexford footballers suffered, more recently, Wexford have had a strong team.
The team reached the Division 1 League final of 2005 under the management of Pat Roe but were beaten by a strong Armagh team that day. In April 2008, in Jason Ryans first year as manager of the team and this proved to be the first success of what would be a historic year for Wexford football, as they reached their first Leinster final in over 50 years. Along the way they stunned Meath by coming from ten points down to win their quarter-final in Carlow and this was Wexfords 5th consecutive appearance in the provincial semi-final, but their first victory. In the final they were beaten by a strong Dublin team. However, Wexford recovered from their humiliation and came through the door, beating Down by seven points in a shock result to reach the last eight. From here, they produced one of the shocks of the championship and they were beaten by 6 points by Tyrone, having been within two points of the eventual champions in the closing stages. Wexford again reached the Leinster final in the 2011 Leinster Championship, Wexford had an easier run to the final than in 2008, facing Offaly and Carlow.
In the final they faced Dublin again, but ran them much closer, Wexford entered Round 4 of the qualifiers where they faced Limerick, but they were beaten by a single point, on a score of 1–18 to 1–17. This is in evidence in several one-sided results over the years, the Antrim team were beaten by 12–17 to 2–3 in a 1954 All-Ireland semi-final
D. J. Carey
Denis Joseph D. J. Carey is an Irish retired hurler who played as a left wing-forward for the Kilkenny senior team. Born in Gowran, County Kilkenny, Carey first played competitive hurling whilst at school in St. Kierans College and he arrived on the inter-county scene at the age of seventeen when he first linked up with the Kilkenny minor team, before lining out with the under-21 side. He made his debut in the 1989-90 National Hurling League. Carey went on to play a key part for Kilkenny over the decade and a half. He was an All-Ireland runner-up on three occasions, as a member of the Leinster inter-provincial team at various times, Carey won two Railway Cup medals. At club level he won two Kilkenny Senior Hurling Championship medals with Young Irelands, Careys career tally of 34 goals and 195 points ranks him as Kilkennys third highest championship scorer of all-time. Throughout his career Carey made 57 championship appearances and he announced his retirement from inter-county hurling on 1 June 2006.
Careys granduncle, Paddy Phelan, is regarded as one of the greatest hurlers of all-time and his aunt, Peggy Carey, won four All-Ireland medal with the Kilkenny camogie team. Careys brother, was sub goalkeeper on the Kilkenny for a number of years, Carey is widely regarded as one of the greatest hurlers in the history of the game. During his playing days he won nine All-Star awards, as well as being named Texaco Hurler of the Year on two occasions. He has been voted onto teams made up of the sports greats, including on the Kilkenny Hurling Team of the Century in 2000. Careys omission from the Hurling Team of the Millennium was seen as controversial at the time, in retirement from playing Carey has become involved in team management and coaching. At club level he has trained the Young Irelands junior hurling team, denis Joseph Carey was born in Kilkenny, in 1970. He was born into a family, with three brothers and three sisters. One of his sisters, Catriona, is a player on the Irish field hockey team.
His brother, Martin Carey, was a member of the Kilkenny hurling panel as a goalkeeper for a number of years. Carey was always destined to be a hurler as many of his relatives had already shown great skill at the game, Carey was educated at St. Kierans College, Kilkenny where his hurling skills were first developed. Ironically, when he had the choice of playing either hurling or football at under-12 level with Kilkenny, when it became apparent to him that football was the lesser of the two Gaelic games in Kilkenny, Carey soon made the switch to hurling
1992 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship
The All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship of 1992 was the 106th staging of Irelands premier hurling knock-out competition. Kilkenny won the championship, beating Cork 3-10 to 1-12 in the final at Croke Park, quarter-final, This is a lone match between the first two teams drawn from the province of Leinster. One team is eliminated at this stage, while the advance to the semi-finals. Semi-finals, The winners of the lone quarter-final join three other Leinster teams to make up the semi-final pairings, two teams are eliminated at this stage, while two teams advance to the final. Final, The winners of the two semi-finals contest this game, one team is eliminated at this stage, while the winners advance to the All-Ireland semi-final. Semi-final, This is a match between the first two teams drawn from the province of Ulster. One team is eliminated at this stage, while the advance to the final. Final, The winners of the lone quarter-final join another Ulster team to contest this game, one team is eliminated at this stage, while the winners advance to the All-Ireland semi-final.
Quarter-final, These are two matches between the first four teams drawn from the province of Munster. Two teams are eliminated at this stage, while two teams advance to the semi-finals, semi-finals, The winners of the two quarter-finals join the other two Munster teams to make up the semi-final pairings. Two teams are eliminated at this stage, while two teams advance to the final, The winners of the two semi-finals contest this game. One team is eliminated at this stage, while the advance to the All-Ireland semi-final. Quarter-final, This is a match between Galway and the All-Ireland B champions. One team is eliminated at this stage, while the advance to the All-Ireland semi-final where they play the Leinster champions. Semi-finals, The Munster and Leinster champions will play the winners of the lone quarter-final, the Munster and Leinster winners will be in opposite semi-finals. Two teams are eliminated at this stage, while the two advance to the All-Ireland final. Final, The two semi-final winners will contest the All-Ireland final, Eoghan, The GAA Book of Lists.
Donegan, The Complete Handbook of Gaelic Games, All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship 1992 Results
It is one of the constituent counties of Munster GAA. Cork is one of the few counties in Ireland, competing in a similar level in both gaelic football and hurling. As of the end of the 2015 National Leagues, Cork compete in the top division of both sports, by comparison, Cork has only won All-Ireland Senior Football Championship seven times. Traditionally football is strongest in the half of the county. Hurling is the dominant sport in the east, with such as Sarsfields. Naturally, there are exceptions to this rule of thumb, with hurling pockets in football areas, one example is Fermoy in east Cork, which has seven Cork football titles to its name. As well as this, the St. Finbarrs club in the city has eight Cork football titles and 25 in hurling, Corks current GAA crest is based on the traditional coat of arms of Cork city. Like the coat of arms, the crest features the Kings old castle, the centre foreground of the crest features a ship, as does the coat of arms. This is due to Corks history as a city, shown in the city motto Statio Bene Fida Carinis.
The badge features two footballs, along with a pair of hurleys. Corks traditional colours are red and white, but this was not always the case, in its early days of competing, the county wore a blue jersey with a saffron-coloured C emblazoned on the chest. This was changed in 1919 when the Cork hurlers were preparing to play Dublin in the All-Ireland Final, in the week leading up to the game, British forces broke into the county board offices on Maylor Street in the city centre and seized the Cork jerseys. Because of the loss of their kit, the county board borrowed jerseys from the now-defunct Father OLeary Temperance Association team, Cork went on to win the game, ending a sixteen-year spell without a trophy. Following this win Cork decided to wear the red jerseys in their future games. This red and white colour scheme has led to the Cork strip being nicknamed the blood, a colour clash with Louth in the 1957 All-Ireland Football Final saw Cork wear the blue jerseys again, but this occasion saw the team wear the blue jersey of the province of Munster.
In 1976 Corks footballers became involved in an incident known as the three stripes affair, before the Munster football final Cork were offered a set of Adidas jerseys. The use of these jerseys caused controversy as it seemed to undermine the promotion of Irish manufacturers, Corks alternative colours are traditionally white jerseys and white shorts. These alternate colours were worn in the 1973 All-Ireland Football Final when Cork defeated Galway to claim their fourth title and they were worn again in the 2010 Final when Cork defeated Down for their seventh title
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Dublin is in the province of Leinster on Irelands east coast, the city has an urban area population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area, as of 2016, was 1,904,806 people, founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Irelands principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800, following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, renamed Ireland. Dublin is administered by a City Council, the city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of Alpha-, which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, economy, the name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, dubh /d̪uβ/, alt.
/d̪uw/, alt /d̪u, / meaning black and lind /lʲiɲ pool and this tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from Dublin County show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn /d̪ˠi, other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b and those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Irish-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning town of the ford, is the common name for the city in modern Irish.
Áth Cliath is a name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, there are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, which is Anglicised as Hurlford. Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times and he called the settlement Eblana polis. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay, the Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships, the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew, the Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle
Referee (association football)
In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match. At higher levels of play the referee may be assisted by an official who supervises the teams technical areas. Referees remuneration for their services varies between leagues, Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials, the local national organisation determines the manner of training and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches. The referees powers and duties are described by Law 5 of the Laws of the Game, as per Law 9 of the game, if during the game the ball hits the referee there is no stoppage in play. However the officials would be expected to position themselves such that this would be unlikely to occur.
Modern day referees and their assistants wear a uniform consisting of a jersey, badge and socks, since then, most referees have worn either yellow or black, but the colours and styles adopted by individual associations vary greatly. For international contests under the supervision of FIFA, Adidas uniforms are worn because Adidas is the current sponsor, FIFA allows referees to wear five colours, red, yellow and blue. Along with the jersey, referees are required to wear shorts, black socks. The badge, which displays the referees license level and year of validity, is affixed to the left chest pocket. All referees carry a whistle, a watch, penalty cards, a wallet with pen and paper. Most are encouraged to have more than one of each on them in case they drop a whistle or a pen runs out, referees utilize two watches so that they can use one to calculate time lost for stoppages for the purposes of added time. In matches with goal-line technology, the referee will have on their person a device to receive the systems alerts, Referees use a whistle to help in match control.
The whistle is sometimes needed to stop, start or restart play but should not be used for all stoppages, fIFAs Laws of the Game document gives guidance as to when the whistle should and should not be used. Overuse of the whistle is discouraged since, as stated in the Laws, the whistle is an important tool for the referee along with verbal and eye communication. Before the introduction of the whistle, referees indicated their decisions by waving a white handkerchief, the whistles that were first adopted by referees were made by Joseph Hudson at Mills Munitions in Birmingham, England. The Acme Whistle Company first began to mass-produce pea whistles in the 1870s for the Metropolitan Police Force, Referees in football are first described by Richard Mulcaster in 1581
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
The Kilkenny County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland and is responsible for Gaelic Games in County Kilkenny. The county board has its office and main grounds at Nowlan Park and is responsible for Kilkenny inter-county teams in all codes at all levels. The Kilkenny branch of the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in 1887, Brian Cody has been manager of the Kilkenny senior hurling team since the 1999 championship. Mark Bergin will be senior hurling captain for the 2017 season, in 1922 Kilkenny won their sixteenth Leinster title before lining out in the All-Ireland final against Tipperary. In an exciting game Tipperary were winning by three points with three minutes to go, but Kilkenny fought back to two goals to secure the victory. It would be years before Kilkenny would beat Tipperary in the championship again. Further Leinster titles soon followed, Galway accounted for ‘the Cats’ in the All-Ireland semi-finals, in 1926 Kilkenny faced Cork on a snow-covered Croke Park in the All-Ireland final, victory on that occasion went to ‘the Rebels’.
The 1930s proved to be one of Kilkenny’s most successful decades, the 1930s saw ‘the Cats’ battle it out with Limerick for the title of team of the decade. In 1931 Kilkenny were back as Leinster champions before squaring up to Cork in the All-Ireland final, at half-time Cork lead, Kilkenny fought back to secure a draw. The replay saw Lory Meagher give one of his most outstanding displays on the hurling field, once again Cork lead at half-time, Kilkenny fought back to force a second draw. In the third game of the thrilling series Kilkenny were without the services of Meagher. On that occasion Cork secured the victory by seven points,1932 saw Kilkenny back in the All-Ireland final. Clare, surprise winners in Munster, provided the opposition, in an exciting game ‘the Cats’ won by a goal and claimed their first championship in a decade. The following year Kilkenny were back in their third championship decider. Once again, the game was an affair, however. In 1935 Kilkenny regained their Leinster crown before lining out in the All-Ireland final, Limerick provided the opposition once again.
In a close game Kilkenny beat the Munster men by a single point,1936 saw an All-Ireland rematch between Kilkenny and Limerick, however, on this occasion Limerick had the measure of ‘the Cats’ and trounced them by 5–6 to 1–5. The following year Kilkenny had a chance to redeem themselves in their third championship decider