Rudolf Streicher is a former Austrian politician. He has served in the government of Austria as Minister of Transport and Economy from June 1986 to April 1992. Streicher is a member of the Social Democratic Party of Austria. Born in Wallsee-Sindelburg, Streicher was an apprentice in the Voest Alpine AG, he attended the University of Leoben. While studying in Leoben he studied Music at the Anton Bruckner Private University for Music in Linz. From 1974 to 1980 he was a board member of the Vereinigte Metallwerke Ranshofen Berndorf AG. In addition he served as CEO of AMAG Austria Metall AG from 1981 to 1986. In 1986 Streicher became Minister of the Public Economy and Transport under Chancellor Franz Vranitzky, he held this position in three Vranitzky cabinets and stood down in 1992 to seek the Presidency in which he was considered as the front runner. Streicher won the first round with a margin of more than three percents, but he did not gain enough votes to avoid a runoff election. However, he lost the second round of the election in 1992 to Thomas Klestil and subsequently retired from active politics.
After his political career he served as CEO of Steyr-Daimler-Puch from 1992 to 1998 and of the Austrian State and Industrial Holding Ltd from 1999 to 2001. Streicher was the president of FK Austria Wien from 1997 to October 1999, he worked as a conductor and played with the Wiener Philharmoniker. Streicher is father of one daughter. Streicher became an honorary professor at the University of Leoben
Kurt Josef Waldheim was an Austrian diplomat and politician. Waldheim was the fourth Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1972 to 1981, President of Austria from 1986 to 1992. While he was running for the latter office in the 1986 election, the revelation of his service in Thessaloniki, Greece and in Yugoslavia, as an intelligence officer in Nazi Germany's Wehrmacht during World War II raised international controversy. Waldheim was born in Sankt Andrä-Wördern, near Vienna, on 21 December 1918, his father was a Roman Catholic school inspector of Czech origin named Watzlawick who changed his name that year as the Habsburg monarchy collapsed. Waldheim served in the Austrian Army and attended the Vienna Consular Academy, where he graduated in 1939. Waldheim's father was active in the Christian Social Party. Waldheim himself was politically unaffiliated during these years at the Academy. Three weeks after the German annexation of Austria in 1938, Waldheim applied for membership in the National Socialist German Students' League, a division of the Nazi Party.
Shortly thereafter he became a registered member of the mounted corps of the SA. On 19 August 1944, he married Elisabeth Ritschel in Vienna. A son and another daughter, followed. In early 1941, Waldheim was drafted into the Wehrmacht and posted to the Eastern Front where he served as a squad leader. In December, he was wounded but returned to service in 1942, his service in the Wehrmacht from 1942 to 1945 was the subject of international review in 1985 and 1986. In his 1985 autobiography, he stated that he was discharged from further service at the front and, for the remainder of the war, finished his law degree at the University of Vienna, in addition to marrying in 1944. After publication and witnesses came to light that revealed Waldheim’s military service continued until 1945, during which time he rose to the rank of Oberleutnant. Waldheim's functions within the staff of German Army Group E from 1942 until 1945, as determined by the International Commission of Historians, were: Interpreter and liaison officer with the 5th Alpine Division in April/May 1942 O2 to the 1b with Kampfgruppe West in Bosnia in June/August 1942, Interpreter with the liaison staff attached to the Italian 9th Army in Tirana in early summer 1942, O1 to the 1a in the German liaison staff with the Italian 11th Army and in the staff of the Army Group South in Greece in July/October 1943, O3 to the 1c officer on the staff of Army Group E in Arksali, Kosovska Mitrovica and Sarajevo from October 1943 to January/February 1945.
By 1943, Waldheim was serving in the capacity of an aide-de-camp in Army Group E, headed by General Alexander Löhr. In 1986, Waldheim said that he had served only as an interpreter and a clerk and had no knowledge either of reprisals against local Serb civilians or of massacres in neighboring provinces of Yugoslavia, he said that he had known about some of the things that had happened, had been horrified, but could not see what else he could have done. Much historical interest has centered on Waldheim's role in Operation Kozara in 1942. According to one post-war investigator, prisoners were shot within only a few hundred meters of Waldheim's office, 35 kilometres away at the Jasenovac concentration camp. Waldheim stated that "he did not know about the murder of civilians there". Waldheim's name appears on the Wehrmacht's "honor list" of those responsible for the militarily successful operation; the Nazi puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia, awarded Waldheim the Medal of the Crown of King Zvonimir in silver with an oak branches cluster.
Decades during the lobbying for his election as U. N. Secretary General, Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito, who had led anti-German forces during the war, awarded Waldheim one of the highest Yugoslav orders. Waldheim denied that he knew war crimes were taking place in Bosnia at the height of the battles between the Nazis and Tito's partisans in 1943. According to Eli Rosenbaum, in 1944, Waldheim reviewed and approved a packet of anti-Semitic propaganda leaflets to be dropped behind Soviet lines, one of which ended: "Enough of the Jewish war, kill the Jews, come over." In 1945, Waldheim surrendered to British forces in Carinthia, at which point he said he had fled his command post within Army Group E, where he was serving with General Löhr, seeking a special deal with the British. Waldheim joined the Austrian diplomatic service in 1945, after finishing his studies in law at the University of Vienna, he served as First Secretary of the Legation in Paris from 1948, in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in Vienna from 1951 to 1956.
In 1956 he was made Ambassador to Canada, returning to the Ministry in 1960, after which he became the Permanent Representative of Austria to the United Nations in 1964. For two years beginning in 1968, he was the Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs for the Austrian People's Party, before going back as Permanent Representative to the U. N. in 1970. Shortly afterwards, he was defeated in the 1971 Austrian presidential elections. After losing the presidential election, Waldheim ran for Secretary-General of the United Nations in the 1971 selection. Waldheim was led the first two rounds of voting. However, he was opposed by China, the United Kingdom, the United States. Waldheim won an accidental victory in the third round of voting when those three permanen
Pamela Rendi-Wagner is an Austrian physician and politician serving as the chairwoman of the Social Democratic Party since November 2018. She is the first woman to lead the SPÖ. From March 2017 to December 2017 Rendi-Wagner was Minister of Women. Since November 2017 she is a member of the National Council and since October 2018 she is the parliamentary leader of her party there. Rendi-Wagner grew up in Vienna's 10th district Favoriten as the daughter of a young single mother, she attended the GRG 12 Erlgasse in Meidling and graduated in 1989. She studied medicine at the University of Vienna and received her doctorate in 1996. Subsequently, she studied at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, where she graduated in 1996/97 and received a master's degree in "Infection and Health". In 1997 she obtained the "Diploma of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine", the Master of Science at the Royal College of Physicians. In 1998 Wagner returned to the University of Vienna and worked between 1998 and 2002 in the Department of Specific Prophylaxis and Tropical Medicine.
As project leader, Rendi-Wagner has established a network for epidemiological surveillance of important infectious diseases. As part of her research, the recommended interval for tick vaccinations has been raised from three to five years. In 2008, she was awarded the qualification of university lecturer in the fields of specific prophylaxis and tropical medicine at the Medical University of Vienna. Subsequently, she worked internationally as a scientist in the fields of infection epidemiology, vaccine prevention and travel medicine. Between 2008 and 2011 Wagner was a guest professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at Tel Aviv University in Israel. Between 2012 and 2017 she worked as a guest professor at the Center for Public Health at the Medical University of Vienna. From 2011 to 2017, Rendi-Wagner took over Section III in the Ministry of Health and was chairwoman of the Office for Safety in Health Care and a member of the Health Commission. In 2012, Rendi-Wagner joined the Association of Social Democratic University Graduates, an organization affiliated with the SPÖ.
In succession of deceased Sabine Oberhauser and interim head of the ministry Alois Stöger, she was appointed Minister of Health and Women on 8 March 2017 by President Van der Bellen, serving in the government of Chancellor Christian Kern. Only shortly before her inauguration, she became a member of the SPÖ. With the change of government after the National Council elections in 2017, she dropped out of the government on 18 December 2017, she didn't make use of her right to return as an official to the Ministry of Health. Since she has been a Member of the National Council and is her party's spokeswoman for health. After Kern announced to stand as the SPÖ's leading candidate for the European elections in May 2019 and to resign as party chairman in November 2018, the party executive board designated Rendi-Wagner as Kern's successor on 22 September 2018. At a convention on 24 November, she was elected the first woman to head the SPÖ in the party's history. Rendi-Wagner's mother was her father a social psychologist.
She has four half-brothers. Pamela Rendi-Wagner is married to the former Austrian ambassador to Israel and cabinet chief of former Chancellery minister Thomas Drozda, Michael Rendi, has two daughters with him
1998 Austrian presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Austria on 19 April 1998. The result was a victory for incumbent president Thomas Klestil, who sought re-election as an independent candidate; the Austrian People's Party, who had put him up in 1992, reluctantly supported him again, while the Austrian Social Democratic Party and the Austrian Freedom Party did not propose any competing candidates. Klestils competitors were Heide Schmidt, leader of the Liberal Forum, Gertraud Knoll, the former Lutheran superintendent of Burgenland, socialite Richard Lugner and Karl Walter Nowak
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Federal Constitutional Law (Austrian act)
The Federal Constitutional Law is the centerpiece of the Austrian Constitution, it comprises the Constitution's most important legal provisions. The act defines Austria to be a democratic parliamentary republic with free multi-party elections and universal suffrage, it characterizes Austria as a federation consisting of nine federal states but vests the supposed states it creates with comparatively little autonomy. The Law does not include a comprehensive bill of rights; the act was drafted following the 1918 collapse of Austria-Hungary and promulgated in 1920. It underwent significant revisions in 1925 and 1929, the latter reform changing the system of government from purely parliamentary to semi-presidential; the act was superseded by the authoritarian Ständestaat constitution in 1934, which itself became void with the 1938 incorporation of Austria into Nazi Germany. It was reestablished when the nation regained independence from Germany in 1945; the Law was restored to force with the end of the Allied occupation in 1955 and has remained in force since.
The Federal Constitutional Law stipulates a bicameral parliament as the national legislature, the two chambers being the National Council and the Federal Council. Law is created by the National Council; the Federal Council has certain veto powers but can be overruled by a National Council supermajority on most matters. Members of the National Council are chosen in nationwide free elections with universal suffrage; the Law does not prescribe any particular voting system. Austria has been using party-list proportional representation, but nothing in the Federal Constitutional Law prevents the legislature from moving, for example, to single-member legislative districts with first-past-the-post voting. National Council elections are held at least once every five years. Members of the Federal Council are chosen by the federal states, seats being apportioned to the states according to population. Executive power lies with the cabinet; the president is elected in a nationwide free election using a simple two-round system.
The president's term of office is six years. In theory, it is the president; as a practical matter, a cabinet that does not command the confidence of the National Council is unable to govern. The National Council can submit parliamentary inquiries, it can form special parliamentary investigation committees with sweeping powers. As a matter of simple law, the National Council can make acts of government subject to National Council assent that the constitution places in the executive purview; the National Council can force the president to dismiss the cabinet, or specific individual cabinet members, through a vote of no confidence. In concert with the Federal Council, it can impeach the President before the Constitutional Court or call for a referendum to have the President removed by the electorate; the President can dissolve the National Council Acting on the advice of his or her cabinet, the President can dissolve state legislatures Legislative and administrative acts of government are subject to judicial review.
The Constitutional Court reviews statutes and secondary legislation, striking laws and regulations it deems unconstitutional. The Constitutional Court resolves demarcation conflicts between other courts, between courts and the executive branch, or between the national government and the states. A system of Administrative Courts reviews executive acts; the Austrian army is a militia. The republic established by the Federal Constitutional Law is an unusual hybrid of federal and unitary state; the country's provinces are defined to be "federal states" but have neither their own judiciaries nor their own law enforcement structures in general. They do not have any significant legislative authority. All courts are "federal" courts. All police departments answer to the "federal" ministry of the interior, all prosecutors to the "federal" ministry of justice. Most legislation of everyday relevance, from family law to trade regulation and from education to the criminal code, is in the "federal" purview; the provinces do have substantial executive responsibilities, however.
Much of the nation's executive powers and duties are discharged through its system of district administrative authorities, which are "state" rather than "federal" institutions according to the Federal Constitutional Law. The national government decides who can apply for a marriage permit, for example, but when applying for one the resident is interacting with a province employee in a province facility; the provinces have some limited ability to collect their own taxes and could in theory issue their own bonds, but these powers are circumscribed and do not result in meaningful fiscal autonomy. Only the national government can raise payroll taxes, capital gains taxes, corporate taxes, value-added taxes, or inheritance taxes, or tax real estate and other forms of property; the provinces, depend on money doled out to them by the national government to meet basic obligations. The Federal Constitutional Law demands that Austria be governed according to the rule of law, prescribes the separation of judiciary and administra
Federal Assembly (Austria)
The Federal Assembly is the name given to a formal joint session of the two houses of the bicameral Austrian Parliament, the National Council and the Federal Council. It is chaired by the presidents of the two parliamentary chambers taking turns presiding over its sessions. According to the Federal Constitutional Law, the Federal Assembly does not function as a legislative body. Since 1945, the assembly has only met to swear the elected President of Austria into office. While during the pre-war First Austrian Republic, the Assembly convened to elect the Austrian president, a direct election was implemented by a 1929 amendment; this provision however did not become effective until 1951, when Theodor Körner became the first president directly elected by the Austrian people. Since the principal responsibility is to convene for the ceremonial swearing-in of the president, it met at the inauguration of Alexander Van der Bellen's first term as Austrian President on 26 January 2017. In theory, the Federal Assembly functions as an instrument of checks and balances.
The assent of the Assembly would be required for the president's immunity against criminal prosecution to be withdrawn. Furthermore, it is responsible for declaring war. Neither of these powers, has so far been exercised. Official web site