1956 United States presidential election in California
The 1956 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1956 United States presidential election. California voted for the Republican incumbent, Dwight D. Eisenhower, in a landslide over the Democratic challenger, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson; as of 2016, this is the last presidential election in California where the Republican candidate won the counties of Alameda and San Francisco, both of which have become strongholds of the Democratic Party
1920 United States presidential election in California
The 1920 United States presidential election in California took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 General Election in which all 48 states participated. California voters chose thirteen electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting Democratic nominee, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio and his running mate, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York, against Republican challenger U. S. Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio and his running mate, Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts. By the beginning of 1920 skyrocketing inflation and President Woodrow Wilson's focus upon his proposed League of Nations at the expense of domestic policy had helped make the incumbent President unpopular – besides which Wilson had major health problems that had left First Lady Edith Wilson running the nation. Political unrest observed in the Palmer Raids and the "Red Scare" further added to the unpopularity of the Democratic Party, since this global political turmoil produced considerable fear of alien revolutionaries invading the country.
Demand in the West for exclusion of Asian immigrants became stronger than it had been before. Another issue was the anti-Cox position taken by the Ku Klux Klan, Cox's inconsistent stance on newly passed Prohibition – he had been a "wet" but announced he would support Prohibition enforcement in AugustThe West had been the chief presidential battleground since the "System of 1896" emerged following that election. For this reason, Cox chose to tour the entire nation and after touring the Pacific Northwest Cox went to California to defend his proposed League of Nations. Cox argued that the League could have stopped the Asian conflicts – like the Japanese seizure of Shandong – but his apparent defence of Chinese immigrants in the Bay Area was unpopular and large numbers of hecklers attacked the Democratic candidate. Moreover, the only attention Cox received in the Western press was severe criticism. In September, several opinion polls were conducted, all predicting that Harding would carry California, close in the two preceding elections, by over one hundred thousand votes.
By the end of October, although no more opinion polls had been published, most observers were more convinced that the Republicans would take complete control of all branches of government. On election day, Warren Harding carried California by a margin much larger than early polls predicted, winning with 66.20 percent of the vote to James Cox's 24.28 percent. Harding became the first of only two presidential nominees to sweep all of California's counties. Harding's 66.20 percent of the vote was the largest fraction for any presidential candidate in California until Roosevelt won with 66.95 percent in 1936, though his 41.92-percentage-point margin of victory is the largest for any candidate in the state. This was the first time Mariposa County and Colusa County, the only counties in the Pacific States to support Democratic nominee Alton B. Parker in 1904, had voted Republican. Plumas County would never vote Republican again until Ronald Reagan in 1980, Amador, El Dorado and Placer Counties would not vote Republican again until Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952
George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, CIA director; until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was known as George Bush. Bush postponed his university studies after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday, became one of its youngest aviators, he served until September 1945, attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. He moved his family to West Texas where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. After founding his own oil company, Bush was defeated in his first run for the United States Senate in 1964, but won election to the House of Representatives from Texas's 7th congressional district in 1966, he was reelected in 1968 but was defeated for election to the Senate in 1970.
In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, he became Chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed him Chief of the Liaison Office in China and made him the director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan, as Reagan's running mate Bush became vice-president after the ticket's election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed task forces on deregulation and the war on drugs. Bush in 1988 defeated Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency. Bush signed the North American Free Trade Agreement, which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States and Mexico. Domestically, Bush signed a bill to increase taxes, he lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.
After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as President, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived president in U. S. history, a record surpassed by Jimmy Carter on March 22, 2019. George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts on June 12, 1924 to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Bush; the Bush family moved from Milton to Connecticut shortly after his birth. Bush was named after his maternal grandfather George Herbert Walker, known as "Pop", young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake. Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts beginning in 1938, where he held a number of leadership positions which included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams.
Six months after the United States entered World War II following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Bush enlisted in the U. S. Navy after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his 18th birthday, he became a naval aviator. After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him one of the youngest aviators in the Navy. In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 as the photographic officer; the following year, his squadron was based in USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin". During this time, the task force was victorious at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, one of the largest air battles of World War II. Bush was promoted to lieutenant on August 1, 1944, San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands, he piloted one of the four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima on September 2, 1944.
His crew included Lt. William White, his aircraft was hit by flak during the attack, but Bush released bombs and scored several hits. With his engine ablaze, he flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member bailed out. Bush spent four hours in his inflated liferaft, protected by fighter aircraft circling above, until the submarine USS Finback came to his rescue, he participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, their livers were eaten by their captors; this experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. By 1944 he had flown 58 combat missions for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, the Presiden
James Danforth Quayle is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 44th vice president of the United States from 1989 to 1993. Quayle was a U. S. representative from 1977 to 1981 and was a U. S. senator from 1981 to 1989 for the state of Indiana. A native of Indianapolis, Quayle spent most of his childhood living in Paradise Valley, a suburb of Phoenix, Arizona, he married Marilyn Tucker in 1972 and obtained his J. D. degree from the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law in 1974. Quayle practiced law in Huntington, Indiana with his wife before his election to the United States House of Representatives in 1976. In 1980, Quayle won election to the U. S. Senate. In 1988, Vice President and Republican presidential nominee George H. W. Bush chose Quayle as his running mate; the Bush/Quayle ticket won the 1988 election over the Democratic ticket of Michael Dukakis and Lloyd Bentsen, Quayle became Vice President in January 1989. As Vice President, Quayle made official visits to 47 countries and was appointed chairman of the National Space Council.
He secured re-nomination for Vice President in 1992, but Democrat Bill Clinton and his vice presidential running mate, Al Gore, defeated the Bush/Quayle ticket. In 1994, Quayle published his memoir entitled Standing Firm, he declined to run for President in 1996. Quayle sought the Republican presidential nomination in 2000, but withdrew from the campaign and supported the eventual winner, George W. Bush. Quayle joined Cerberus Capital Management, a private equity firm, in 1999, he serves as Chairman of Global Investments at Cerberus. Quayle was born in Indiana, to Martha Corinne and James Cline Quayle, he has sometimes been incorrectly referred to as James Danforth Quayle III. In his memoirs, he points out that his birth name was James Danforth Quayle; the name Quayle originates from the Isle of Man. His maternal grandfather, Eugene C. Pulliam, was a wealthy and influential publishing magnate who founded Central Newspapers, Inc. owner of over a dozen major newspapers such as The Arizona Republic and The Indianapolis Star.
James C. Quayle moved his family to Arizona in 1955 to run a branch of the family's publishing empire. After spending much of his youth in Arizona, Quayle returned to his native Indiana and graduated from Huntington North High School in Huntington, in 1965, he matriculated at DePauw University, where he received his B. A. degree in political science in 1969, was a 3-year letterman for the University Golf Team and a member of the fraternity Delta Kappa Epsilon. After receiving his degree, Quayle joined the Indiana Army National Guard and served from 1969 to 1975, reaching the rank of sergeant. While serving in the Guard, he earned a Juris Doctor degree in 1974 at the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law, he met his future wife, taking night classes at the same law school at the time. Quayle became an investigator for the Consumer Protection Division of the Office of the Indiana Attorney General in July 1971; that year, he became an administrative assistant to Governor Edgar Whitcomb.
From 1973 to 1974, he was the Director of the Inheritance Tax Division of the Indiana Department of Revenue. Upon graduating from law school, Quayle worked as associate publisher of his family's newspaper, the Huntington Herald-Press. In 1976, Quayle was elected to the House of Representatives from Indiana's 4th congressional district, defeating eight-term incumbent Democrat J. Edward Roush by a 55%-to-45% margin, he won re-election in 1978 by the greatest percentage margin achieved to date in that northeast Indiana district. In 1980, at age 33, Quayle became the youngest person elected to the Senate from the state of Indiana, defeating three-term incumbent Democrat Birch Bayh by taking 54% of the votes to Bayh's 46%. Making Indiana political history again, Quayle was re-elected to the Senate in 1986 with the largest margin achieved to that date by a candidate in a statewide Indiana race, taking 61% of the vote and defeating his Democratic opponent, Jill Long. In November 1978, Quayle was invited by Congressman Leo Ryan of California to accompany him on a delegation to investigate unsafe conditions at the Jonestown settlement in Guyana, but Quayle was unable to participate.
The decision saved Quayle's life, because Ryan and his entourage were subsequently murdered at the airstrip in Jonestown as the party tried to escape the massacre. In 1986, Quayle was criticized for championing the cause of Daniel Anthony Manion, a candidate for a federal appellate judgeship, in law school one year above Quayle; the American Bar Association had evaluated Manion as "qualified/unqualified", its lower passing grade. Manion was nominated for the Seventh Circuit of the U. S. Court of Appeals by President Ronald Reagan on February 21, 1986, confirmed by the Senate on June 26, 1986. On August 16, 1988, at the Republican convention in New Orleans, George H. W. Bush chose Quayle to be his running mate in the 1988 United States presidential election; the choice became controversial. Outgoing President Ronald Reagan praised Quayle for his "energy and enthusiasm". Press coverage of the convention was dominated with questions about "the three Quayle problems", in the phrase of a conservative group that monitors television coverage.
The questions involved his military service, a golf trip to Florida with Paula Parkinson, whether he had enough experience to be vice president. Quayle seemed at times rattled and at other times uncertain or evasive as he tried to handle the questions. Delegates to the convention blamed television and newspapers for the focus
James Bond Stockdale was a United States Navy vice admiral and aviator awarded the Medal of Honor in the Vietnam War, during which he was a prisoner of war for over seven years. Commander Stockdale was the senior naval officer held captive in North Vietnam, he had led aerial attacks from the carrier USS Ticonderoga during the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident. On his next deployment, while Commander of Carrier Air Wing Sixteen aboard the carrier USS Oriskany, his A-4 Skyhawk jet was shot down in North Vietnam on September 9, 1965, he served as President of the Naval War College from October 1977 until he retired from the Navy in 1979. As Vice Admiral, Stockdale became the President for The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina. Stockdale held this position from 1979 to 1980. Stockdale was a candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1992 presidential election, on Ross Perot's independent ticket. Stockdale was born in Abingdon, Illinois, on December 23, 1923, the son of Mabel Edith and Vernon Beard Stockdale.
Following a brief period at Monmouth College, he entered the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, in June 1943. On June 5, 1946 he graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from the Naval Academy with the Class of 1947 due to the reduced schedule still in effect from World War II. Academically he ranked 130th among 821 graduates in his class, his first assignment was assistant gunnery officer aboard the destroyer minesweeper USS Carmick from June to October 1946. He next served aboard the USS Thompson from October 1946 to February 1947, the USS Charles H. Roan from February 1947 to July 1948, the USS Deming from July 1948 to June 1949. Stockdale was accepted for flight training in June 1949 and reported to Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida, he was designated a Naval Aviator at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, in September 1950. He was next assigned for additional training at Naval Air Station Norfolk in Virginia from October 1950 to January 1951. In January 1954, he was accepted into the United States Naval Test Pilot School at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River base in Southern Maryland, he completed his training in July 1954.
There he tutored the U. S. Marine Corps aviator John Glenn in physics, he was a test pilot until January 1957. In 1959, the U. S. Navy sent Stockdale to Stanford University where he earned a Master of Arts degree in international relations and comparative Marxist thought in 1962. Stockdale preferred the life of a fighter pilot over academia, but he credited Stoic philosophy with helping him cope as a prisoner of war. On 2 August 1964, while on a DESOTO patrol in the Tonkin Gulf, the destroyer USS Maddox engaged three North Vietnamese Navy P-4 torpedo boats from the 135th Torpedo Squadron. After fighting a running gun and torpedo battle, in which Maddox fired over 280 5-inch shells, the torpedo boats expended their 6 torpedoes and hundreds of rounds of 14.5mm machinegun fire. As the torpedo boats turned for their North Vietnamese coastline, four F-8 Crusader fighter aircraft from USS Ticonderoga arrived, attacked the retreating torpedo boats. Stockdale, with Lieutenant Richard Hastings attacked torpedo boats T-333 and T-336, while Commander R. F. Mohrhardt and Lieutenant Commander C. E. Southwick attacked torpedo boat T-339.
The four F-8 pilots reported scoring no hits with their Zuni rockets, but reported hits on all three torpedo boats with their 20 mm cannon. Two nights on 4 August 1964, Stockdale was overhead during the second reported attack in the Tonkin Gulf. Unlike the first event, an actual sea battle, no Vietnamese forces were, believed to have been involved in the second engagement. In the early 1990s, he recounted: " had the best seat in the house to watch that event, our destroyers were just shooting at phantom targets—there were no PT boats there.... There was nothing there but black water and American fire power."The next morning, on 5 August 1964, President Johnson ordered bombing raids on North Vietnamese military targets which he announced were retaliation for the alleged incident of 4 August. When Stockdale was awoken in the early morning and was told he was to lead these attacks he responded: "Retaliation for what?" While a prisoner of war, he was concerned that he would be forced to reveal this secret about the Vietnam War.
On 9 September 1965, while flying from USS Oriskany on a mission over North Vietnam, Stockdale ejected from his Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, struck by enemy fire and disabled. He parachuted into a small village, where he was beaten and taken prisoner. Stockdale was held as a prisoner of war in the Hỏa Lò Prison for the next seven-and-a-half years; as the senior Naval officer, he was one of the primary organizers of prisoner resistance. Tortured and denied medical attention for the damaged leg he suffered during capture, Stockdale created and enforced a code of conduct for all prisoners which governed torture, secret communications, behavior. In the summer of 1969, he was locked in leg irons in a bath stall and tortured and beaten; when told by his captors that he was to be paraded in public, Stockdale slit his scalp with a razor to purposely disfigure himself so that his captors could not use him as propaganda. When they covered his head with a hat, he beat himself with a stool until his face was swollen beyond recognition.
When Stockdale was discovered with information that could implicate his friends' "black activities", he slit his wrists so they could not torture h
1856 United States presidential election in California
In the 1856 United States presidential election, California voted for the Democratic nominee, former Secretary of State James Buchanan, over the American Party nominee, former Whig President Millard Fillmore, the Republican nominee, former U. S. Senator and Military Governor of California John C. Frémont. None of the three candidates took to the stump; the Republican Party opposed the extension of slavery into the territories — in fact, its slogan was "Free speech, free press, free soil, free men, Frémont and victory!" The Republicans thus crusaded against the Slave Power. Democrats counter-crusaded by warning; the Republican platform opposed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise through the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which enacted the policy of popular sovereignty, allowing settlers to decide whether a new state would enter the Union as free or slave. The Republicans accused the Pierce administration of allowing a fraudulent territorial government to be imposed upon the citizens of the Kansas Territory, thus engendering the violence that had raged in Bleeding Kansas.
They advocated the immediate admittance of Kansas as a free state. Along with opposing the spread of slavery into the continental territories of the United States, the party opposed the Ostend Manifesto, which advocated the annexation of Cuba from Spain. In sum, the campaign's true focus was against the system of slavery, which they felt was destroying the Republican values that the Union had been founded upon; the Democratic platform supported popular sovereignty. The party supported the pro-slavery territorial legislature elected in Kansas, opposed the free-state elements within Kansas, castigated the Topeka Constitution as an illegal document written during an illegal convention; the Democrats supported the plan to annex Cuba, advocated in the Ostend Manifesto, which Buchanan helped devise while serving as minister to Britain. The most influential aspect of the Democratic campaign was a warning that a Republican victory would lead to the secession of numerous southern states; this would prove the last occasion the Democratic Party carried Alameda County until Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1932, the last in which the Democrats carried Santa Cruz County and Placer County until Woodrow Wilson in 1916, the last when Napa and Marin Counties voted Democratic until Wilson in 1912.
California's electoral votes would never be again carried by the Democratic Party until 1880
2008 United States presidential election in California
The 2008 United States presidential election in California took place on November 4, 2008, in California as part of the 2008 United States presidential election. Voters chose 55 electors, the most out of any of the 50 states, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. California was won by Democratic nominee Barack Obama with a 24.1% margin of victory. No Republican has carried the state in a presidential election since 1988; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last time the Democratic candidate carried Trinity and Butte counties in a presidential election. For other parties, see California state elections, February 2008. On February 5, 2008, presidential primaries were held by all parties with ballot access in the state; the 2008 California Democratic primary took place on February 5, 2008 known as Super Tuesday. California was dubbed the "Big Enchilada" by the media because it offers the most delegates out of any other delegation. Hillary Clinton won the primary.
In the primary, 370 of California's 441 delegates to the Democratic National Convention were selected. The remaining delegates were superdelegates not obligated to vote for any candidate at the convention. Of these delegates, 241 were awarded at the congressional district level, the remaining 129 were awarded to the statewide winner. Candidates were required to receive at least 15% of either the district or statewide vote to receive any delegates. Registered Democrats and Decline to State voters were eligible to vote; the latest six polls were averaged. The California Republican primary, 2008 was held on February 5, 2008, with a total of 173 national delegates at stake; the delegates represented California at the Republican National Convention. There were three delegates to fourteen bonus delegates; the winner in each of the 53 congressional districts was awarded all of that district's delegates. The statewide winner was awarded 11 of the 14 bonus delegates, with the 3 remaining delegates assigned to party leaders.
Voting in the primary was restricted to registered Republican voters. Early polls showed Rudy Giuliani in the lead. Polls showed Mitt Romney or John McCain as the favored candidate; the American Independent Party held its primary February 5, 2008 The Green Party held its primary February 5, 2008. The Libertarian Party held its primary February 5, 2008; the Peace and Freedom Party held its primary February 5, 2008. Obama won. In the final three polls he averaged 59%, while McCain averaged 34%. Obama raised a total of $124,325,459 from the state. McCain raised a total of $26,802,024; the Obama campaign spent $5,570,641. The McCain campaign spent $1,885,142. Obama visited the state six times. McCain visited the state eight times. California was once a Republican stronghold, supporting Republican candidates in every election from 1952 through 1988, except in 1964. However, since the 1990s, California has become a reliably Democratic state with a diverse ethnic population and liberal bastions such as the San Francisco Bay Area and Los Angeles County.
The last time the state was won by a Republican candidate was in 1988 by George H. W. Bush. Obama won with 61.01 % of the votes. The last time the margin was higher in the state was in 1936 when Franklin D. Roosevelt won with 66.95% of the vote. In San Francisco and Alameda County, four out of five voters backed the Democratic candidate. Elsewhere in the Bay Area, Obama won every county by a three to greater. In Los Angeles County, Obama won 70% of the votes, his combined margin in the Bay Area and Los Angeles County would have been more than enough to carry the state. Obama made considerable headway in Republican areas of the state. Fresno County, for example, a populated county in the Central Valley, went from giving Bush a 16% margin to a 1% margin for Obama. San Diego County moved from a six-percent margin for Bush to a 10-point margin for Obama—only the second time since World War II that a Democrat has carried this military-dominated county. San Bernardino and Riverside went from double-digit Republican victories to narrow Democratic wins.
Ventura County moved from Republican to Democratic. Orange County one of the most Republican suburban counties in the nation, went from a 21-point margin for Bush to only a 2.5-point margin for McCain. Voter turnout was fairly higher in the election; the 79% turnout of registered voters was the highest since the 1976 presidential election. Despite the Democratic landslide in California, during the same election, a ballot proposition to ban same-sex marriage narrowly passed. A number of counties that had voted for Obama voted yes for it, as it was supported by Hispanics and African Americans. Though Obama considered marriage to be between a man and a woman at the time, he opposed the "divisive and discriminatory efforts to amend the California Constitution... the U. S. Constitution or those of other states". Arnold Schwarzenegger, the state's Republican governor and a supporter of McCain, opposed the proposition, though McCain supported it; the following are official results from the California Secretary of State.
The results below are compiled from the final reports available from the Secretary of State. The "others" category includes write-in votes. Obama carried 42 congressional districts in California, including all 34 districts held by Democrats and eight districts held by Republicans in the U. S. House of Representatives. Technically the voters of California cast their ballots for electors: representatives t