1948 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1948 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 2, 1948, as part of the 1948 United States presidential election. State voters chose eight electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president. South Carolina was won by States' Rights Democratic candidate Strom Thurmond, defeating the Democratic candidate, incumbent President Harry S. Truman, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Thurmond won his native state by a margin of 47.77 percent, making him the first third-party candidate to carry the state since Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge in 1860. For six decades South Carolina had been a one-party state dominated by the Democratic Party; the Republican Party had been moribund due to the disfranchisement of blacks and the complete absence of other support bases as the Palmetto State lacked upland or German refugee whites opposed to secession. Between 1900 and 1944, no Republican presidential candidate obtained more than seven percent of the total presidential vote – a vote which in 1924 reached as low as 6.6 percent of the total voting-age population.
This absolute loyalty to the Democratic Party – so strong that Catholic Al Smith in 1928 received over ninety percent of South Carolina's limited vote total at the same time as five former Confederate states bolted to Herbert Hoover – began to break down with Henry A. Wallace's appointment as Vice-President and the 1943 Detroit race riots; the northern left wing of the Democratic Party became as a result of this riot committed to restoring black political rights, a policy vehemently opposed by all Southern Democrats as an infringement upon "states' rights". Tension widened much further when new President Harry Truman, himself a Southerner from Missouri, had described to him a number of horrifying lynchings and racial violence against black veterans, most crucially the beating and blinding of Isaac Woodard three hours after being discharged from the army. Truman viewed as no friend of civil rights, came to believe that racial violence against blacks in the South was a threat to the United States' image abroad and its ability to win the Cold War against the radically egalitarian rhetoric of Communism.
The result was a major Civil Rights plan titled To Secure These Rights a year and a civil rights plank in the 1948 Democratic platform. Southern Democrats were enraged by these proposals and thus sought to form a "States' Rights" Democratic ticket, which would replace Truman as the official Democratic nominee. In South Carolina, Dixiecrats controlled the situation and achieved this, so that Thurmond and Mississippi Governor Fielding Wright were listed as the official "Democratic" nominees. Significant opposition to Thurmond came from the poor whites of the industrial upcountry, who rejected the Dixiecrats' opposition to public works and labor regulation. However, sufficiently few of these poorer whites voted that Thurmond was able to carry South Carolina, winning 44 of the state's 46 counties and over seventy-one percent of the total presidential vote. Thurmond exceeded 72 percent in all but twelve counties, passed ninety percent in ten
1876 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1876 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 7, 1876, as part of the 1876 United States presidential election. Voters chose seven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for the Republican nominee, Rutherford B. Hayes, over the Democratic nominee, Samuel J. Tilden. Hayes won the state by a narrow margin of 0.48%. This would be the last time a Republican presidential candidate would win South Carolina until Barry Goldwater carried the state in 1964. Had Tilden won South Carolina, he would have won the election
1888 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1888 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 6, 1888, as part of the 1888 United States presidential election. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for the Democratic nominee, incumbent President Grover Cleveland, over the Republican nominee, Benjamin Harrison. Cleveland won the state by a landslide margin of 65.11%
James Bond Stockdale was a United States Navy vice admiral and aviator awarded the Medal of Honor in the Vietnam War, during which he was a prisoner of war for over seven years. Commander Stockdale was the senior naval officer held captive in North Vietnam, he had led aerial attacks from the carrier USS Ticonderoga during the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident. On his next deployment, while Commander of Carrier Air Wing Sixteen aboard the carrier USS Oriskany, his A-4 Skyhawk jet was shot down in North Vietnam on September 9, 1965, he served as President of the Naval War College from October 1977 until he retired from the Navy in 1979. As Vice Admiral, Stockdale became the President for The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina. Stockdale held this position from 1979 to 1980. Stockdale was a candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1992 presidential election, on Ross Perot's independent ticket. Stockdale was born in Abingdon, Illinois, on December 23, 1923, the son of Mabel Edith and Vernon Beard Stockdale.
Following a brief period at Monmouth College, he entered the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, in June 1943. On June 5, 1946 he graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree from the Naval Academy with the Class of 1947 due to the reduced schedule still in effect from World War II. Academically he ranked 130th among 821 graduates in his class, his first assignment was assistant gunnery officer aboard the destroyer minesweeper USS Carmick from June to October 1946. He next served aboard the USS Thompson from October 1946 to February 1947, the USS Charles H. Roan from February 1947 to July 1948, the USS Deming from July 1948 to June 1949. Stockdale was accepted for flight training in June 1949 and reported to Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida, he was designated a Naval Aviator at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, in September 1950. He was next assigned for additional training at Naval Air Station Norfolk in Virginia from October 1950 to January 1951. In January 1954, he was accepted into the United States Naval Test Pilot School at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River base in Southern Maryland, he completed his training in July 1954.
There he tutored the U. S. Marine Corps aviator John Glenn in physics, he was a test pilot until January 1957. In 1959, the U. S. Navy sent Stockdale to Stanford University where he earned a Master of Arts degree in international relations and comparative Marxist thought in 1962. Stockdale preferred the life of a fighter pilot over academia, but he credited Stoic philosophy with helping him cope as a prisoner of war. On 2 August 1964, while on a DESOTO patrol in the Tonkin Gulf, the destroyer USS Maddox engaged three North Vietnamese Navy P-4 torpedo boats from the 135th Torpedo Squadron. After fighting a running gun and torpedo battle, in which Maddox fired over 280 5-inch shells, the torpedo boats expended their 6 torpedoes and hundreds of rounds of 14.5mm machinegun fire. As the torpedo boats turned for their North Vietnamese coastline, four F-8 Crusader fighter aircraft from USS Ticonderoga arrived, attacked the retreating torpedo boats. Stockdale, with Lieutenant Richard Hastings attacked torpedo boats T-333 and T-336, while Commander R. F. Mohrhardt and Lieutenant Commander C. E. Southwick attacked torpedo boat T-339.
The four F-8 pilots reported scoring no hits with their Zuni rockets, but reported hits on all three torpedo boats with their 20 mm cannon. Two nights on 4 August 1964, Stockdale was overhead during the second reported attack in the Tonkin Gulf. Unlike the first event, an actual sea battle, no Vietnamese forces were, believed to have been involved in the second engagement. In the early 1990s, he recounted: " had the best seat in the house to watch that event, our destroyers were just shooting at phantom targets—there were no PT boats there.... There was nothing there but black water and American fire power."The next morning, on 5 August 1964, President Johnson ordered bombing raids on North Vietnamese military targets which he announced were retaliation for the alleged incident of 4 August. When Stockdale was awoken in the early morning and was told he was to lead these attacks he responded: "Retaliation for what?" While a prisoner of war, he was concerned that he would be forced to reveal this secret about the Vietnam War.
On 9 September 1965, while flying from USS Oriskany on a mission over North Vietnam, Stockdale ejected from his Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, struck by enemy fire and disabled. He parachuted into a small village, where he was beaten and taken prisoner. Stockdale was held as a prisoner of war in the Hỏa Lò Prison for the next seven-and-a-half years; as the senior Naval officer, he was one of the primary organizers of prisoner resistance. Tortured and denied medical attention for the damaged leg he suffered during capture, Stockdale created and enforced a code of conduct for all prisoners which governed torture, secret communications, behavior. In the summer of 1969, he was locked in leg irons in a bath stall and tortured and beaten; when told by his captors that he was to be paraded in public, Stockdale slit his scalp with a razor to purposely disfigure himself so that his captors could not use him as propaganda. When they covered his head with a hat, he beat himself with a stool until his face was swollen beyond recognition.
When Stockdale was discovered with information that could implicate his friends' "black activities", he slit his wrists so they could not torture h
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
1912 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1912 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 5, 1912, as part of the 1912 United States Presidential Election, held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina was won by the Democratic nominees, New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson and Indiana Governor Thomas R. Marshall. Wilson and Marshall defeated incumbent President William Howard Taft, his running mate Vice President James S. Sherman and Progressive Party candidates, former President Theodore Roosevelt and his running mate California Governor Hiram Johnson. Wilson won South Carolina by a landslide margin of 93.37 percent
1936 United States presidential election in South Carolina
The 1936 United States presidential election in South Carolina was held on November 3, 1936. The state voters chose eight electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Carolina voted for Democratic Party candidate and incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt, over Republican Party candidate incumbent Governor of Kansas Alf Landon. Roosevelt, who won the state by a landslide margin of 97.14 percent, carried all counties with over ninety percent of the vote, his 98.57 percent of the popular vote is the highest for any presidential candidate in South Carolina since popular voting was first used in the 1868 election