Olympic-style weightlifting, or Olympic weightlifting simply referred to as weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates. The two competition lifts in order are the clean and jerk; the snatch is a one-move lift. The clean and jerk is a two-move lift; each weightlifter receives three attempts in each, the combined total of the highest two successful lifts determines the overall result within a bodyweight category. Bodyweight categories are different for female competitors. A lifter who fails to complete at least one successful snatch and one successful clean and jerk fails to total, therefore receives an "incomplete" entry for the competition; the clean and press was once a competition lift, but was discontinued due to difficulties in judging proper form. In comparison with other strength sports, which test limit strength, weightlifting tests aspects of human ballistic limits.
While there are few competitive Olympic weightlifters, the lifts performed in the sport of weightlifting, in particular their component lifts, are used by elite athletes in other sports to train for both explosive and functional strength. The sport is controlled by the International Weightlifting Federation. Based in Budapest, it was founded in 1905. Athletes compete in a division determined by their body mass. In Summer of 2018, the IWF approved the current weight categories, specifying which 7 of the 10 total would be contested at the Olympics. Men's weight classes: IWF Categories 55 kg 61 kg 67 kg 73 kg 81 kg 89 kg 96 kg 102 kg 109 kg 109 kg and over Olympic Categories 61 kg 67 kg 73 kg 81 kg 96 kg 109 kg 109 kg and over Women's weight classes: IWF Categories 45 kg 49 kg 55 kg 59 kg 64 kg 71 kg 76 kg 81 kg 87 kg 87 kg and over Olympic Categories 49 kg 55 kg 59 kg 64 kg 76 kg 87 kg 87 kg and over In each weight division, lifters compete in both the snatch and clean and jerk. Prizes are given for the heaviest weights lifted in each and in the overall—the maximum lifts of both combined.
The order of the competition is up to the lifters—the competitor who chooses to attempt the lowest weight goes first. If they are unsuccessful at that weight, they have the option of reattempting at that weight or trying a heavier weight after any other competitors have made attempts at the previous weight or any other intermediate weights; the barbell is loaded incrementally and progresses to a heavier weight throughout the course of competition. Weights are set in 1 kilogram increments. If two athletes lift the same weight, they are both credited with it but in terms of placing the one who listed the weight first gets the highest placing. During competition, the snatch event takes place first, followed by a short intermission, the clean and jerk event. There are two side judges and one head referee who together provide a "successful" or "failed" result for each attempt based on their observation of the lift within the governing body's rules and regulations. Two successes are required for any attempt to pass.
The judges' and referee's results are registered via a lighting system with a white light indicating a "successful" lift and a red light indicating a "failed" lift. This is done for the benefit of all in attendance be they athlete, administrator or audience. In addition, one or two technical officials may be present to advise during a ruling. At local competitions, a "Best Lifter" title is awarded, it is awarded to women's lifters. The award is based on a formula which employs the "Sinclair Coefficient", a coefficient derived and approved by the sport's world governing body and which allows for differences in both gender and bodyweight; when the formula is applied to each lifter's overall total and grouped along with the other competitors' and evaluated, it provides a numeric result which determines the competition's best overall men's and women's lifters. And while the winner of the heaviest weight class will have lifted the most overall weight during the course of a competition, a lifter in a lighter weight class may still have lifted more weight both relative to their own bodyweight, to the Sinclair coefficient formula, thereby garnering the "Best Lifter" award.
Competition to establish who can lift the heaviest weight has been recorded throughout civilization, with the earliest known recordings including those found in Egypt and ancient Greece. Today, the modern sport of weightlifting traces its origins to the European competitions of the 19th century; the first male world champion was crowned in 1891. The first Olympic Games of 1896 included weightlifting in the Field event of the predecessor to today's track and field or athletics event. During the 1900 Olympic Games, there was no weightlifting event. Weightlifting resumed as an event, again in athletics, in 1904 but was omitted from the Games of 1908 and 1912; these were the last Games until after the First World War. In these early Games, a distinction was drawn between lifting with'one hand' only and lifting with't
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature for aesthetic purposes. An individual who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders appear in lineups and perform specified poses for a panel of judges who rank the competitors based on criteria such as symmetry and conditioning. Bodybuilders prepare for competitions through the elimination of nonessential body fat, enhanced at the last stage by a combination of extracellular dehydration and carbohydrate loading, to achieve maximum muscular definition and vascularity, as well as tanning to accentuate the contrast of the skin under the spotlights. Bodybuilders may use other performance-enhancing drugs to build muscles; the winner of the annual IFBB Mr. Olympia contest is recognized as the world's top male professional bodybuilder; the winner of the Women's Physique portion of the competition is regarded as the world's top female professional bodybuilder.
The title is held by Juliana Malacarne, who has won every year since 2014. Since 1950, the NABBA Universe Championships have been considered the top amateur bodybuilding contests, with notable winners such as Reg Park, Lee Priest, Steve Reeves, Arnold Schwarzenegger. Winners go on to become professional athletes. Stone-lifting traditions were practiced in ancient Egypt and Tamilakam. Western weightlifting developed in Europe from 1880 to 1953, with strongmen displaying feats of strength for the public and challenging each other; the focus was not on their physique, they had large bellies and fatty limbs. Bodybuilding developed in the late 19th century, promoted in England by German Eugen Sandow, now considered as the "Father of Bodybuilding", he allowed audiences to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, the men displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through Florenz Ziegfeld.
The Oscar-winning 1936 musical film The Great Ziegfeld depicts the beginning of modern bodybuilding, when Sandow began to display his body for carnivals. Sandow was so successful at flexing and posing his physique that he created several businesses around his fame, was among the first to market products branded with his name, he was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses: machined dumbbells, spring pulleys, tension bands. His image was sold by the thousands in "cabinet cards" and other prints. Sandow was a perfect "Gracilian", a standard of ideal body proportions close to those of ancient Greek and Roman statues. Men's physiques were judged by how they matched these proportions. Sandow organized the first bodybuilding contest on September 14, 1901, called the "Great Competition", it was held at the Royal Albert Hall in London. Judged by Sandow, Sir Charles Lawes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the contest was a great success and many bodybuilding enthusiasts were turned away due to the overwhelming amount of audience members.
The trophy presented to the winner was a gold statue of Sandow sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy. The winner was William L. Murray of Nottingham; the silver Sandow trophy was presented to second-place winner D. Cooper; the bronze Sandow trophy — now the most famous of all — was presented to third-place winner A. C. Smythe. In 1950, this same bronze trophy was presented to Steve Reeves for winning the inaugural NABBA Mr. Universe contest, it would not resurface again until 1977 when the winner of the IFBB Mr. Olympia contest, Frank Zane, was presented with a replica of the bronze trophy. Since Mr. Olympia winners have been awarded a replica of the bronze Sandow. On January 16, 1904, the first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City; the competition was promoted by Bernarr Macfadden, the father of physical culture and publisher of original bodybuilding magazines such as Health & Strength. The winner was Al Treloar, declared "The Most Perfectly Developed Man in the World".
Treloar won a substantial sum at that time. Two weeks Thomas Edison made a film of Treloar's posing routine. Edison had made two films of Sandow a few years before; those were the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century and Charles Atlas continued to promote bodybuilding across the world. Alois P. Swoboda was an early pioneer in America. Many other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to 1930 include: Earle Liederman, Zishe Breitbart, Georg Hackenschmidt, Emy Nkemena, George F. Jowett, Finn Hateral, Frank Saldo, Monte Saldo, William Bankier, Launceston Elliot, Sig Klein, Sgt. Alfred Moss, Joe Nordquist, Lionel Strongfort, Gustav Frištenský, Ralph Parcaut, Alan P. Mead. Actor Francis X. Bushman, a disciple of Sandow, started his career as a bodybuilder and sculptor's model before beginning his famous silent movie career. Bodybuilding became more popular in the 1950s and 1960s with the emergence of strength and gymnastics champions, the simultaneous popularization of bodybuilding magazines, training principles, nutrition for bulking up and cutting down, the use of protein and other food supplements, the opportunity to enter physique contests.
Wushu, or Chinese Kungfu, is a hard and soft and complete martial art, as well as a full-contact sport. It has a long history in reference to Chinese martial arts, it was developed in China after 1949 in an effort to standardize the practice of traditional Chinese martial arts, yet attempts to structure the various decentralized martial arts traditions date back earlier, when the Central Guoshu Institute was established at Nanking in 1928. "Wushu" is the Chinese term for "martial arts". In contemporary times, Wushu has become an international sport through the International Wushu Federation, which holds the World Wushu Championships every two years; the World Kungfu Championships are held every four years subset International Wushu Federation, as well. Competitive Wushu is composed of two disciplines: sanda, but it has other disciplines, like self defense, breaking hard objects, other related practices, that are not performed in competitions. Taolu involves martial art patterns, acrobatic movements and techniques for which competitors are judged and given points according to specific rules.
The forms comprise basic movements based on aggregate categories of traditional Chinese martial art styles, can be changed for competitions to highlight one's strengths. Competitive forms have time limits that can range from 1 minute, 20 seconds for some external styles, to over five minutes for internal styles. Sanda is a full contact sport. Sanda contains boxing and wrestling, it has all the combat aspects of wushu. Sanda appears much like Kickboxing, Boxing or Muay Thai, but includes many more grappling techniques. Sanda fighting competitions are held alongside taolu. In 1958, the government established the All-China Wushu Association as an umbrella organization to regulate martial arts training; the Chinese State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports took the lead in creating standardized forms for most of the major arts. During this period, a national Wushu system that included standard forms, teaching curriculum, instructor grading was established. Wushu was introduced at both university level.
This new system seeks to incorporate common elements from all styles and forms as well as the general ideas associated with Chinese martial arts. Stylistic concepts such as hard, internal, external, as well as classifications based on schools such as Shaolin, Taiji and others were all integrated into one system. Wushu became; the push for standardization continued leading to widespread adaptation. In 1979, the State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports created a special task force to teaching and practice of Wushu. In 1986, the Chinese National Research Institute of Wushu was established as the central authority for the research and administration of Wushu activities in China. Changing government policies and attitudes towards sports in general lead to the closing of the State Sports Commission in 1998; this closure is viewed as an attempt to de-politicize organized sports and move Chinese sport policies towards a more market-driven approach. As a result of these changing sociological factors within China, both traditional styles and modern Wushu approaches are being promoted by the International Wushu Federation.
Wushu events are performed using individual routines in competition. Compulsory routines are those routines that have been created for the athlete, resulting in each athlete performing the same set. Individual routines are routines that an athlete creates with the aid of his/her coach, while following certain rules for difficulty. In addition to events for individual routines, some wushu competitions feature dual and group events; the dual event called duilian, is an event in which there is some form of sparring with weapons, or without weapons or using bare hands against weapons. The dual event is spectacular and actions are choreographed beforehand; the group event known as jiti, requires a group of people to perform together and smooth synchronization of actions are crucial. The group event allows instrumental music to accompany the choreography during the performance; the carpet used for the group event is larger than the one used for individual routines. International wushu competitions most used compulsory routines, while high-level competitions in China most used individual routines.
However, after the 2003 Wushu World Games in Macau it was decided to opt for individual routines in international competition with nandu integrating a maximum 2 point nandu score into the overall maximum score of 10. There is some controversy concerning the inclusion of nandu in wushu because many of the movements created for the specific events are not movements used in those styles. In addition the number of injuries which have resulted from the inclusion of these nandu have caused many people to question their inclusion; those who support the new difficulty requirements follow the assertion that they help to progress the sport and improve the overall physical quality of the athletes. Chángquán refers to long-range extended wushu styles like Chāquán, Huaquan and Shaolinquan, but this wushu form is a modernized style derived from movements of these and other traditional styles. Changquan is the most seen of the wus
Former National Stadium, Singapore
The former Singapore National Stadium was located in Kallang. The stadium opened in July 1973 and closed on 30 June 2007, was demolished in 2010–2011 to make way for the Singapore Sports Hub and the new Singapore National Stadium, which opened in 2014. For six to seven years between 2007 and 2014, sports events were temporarily held at the Marina Bay Floating Stadium; the stadium played host to many sporting, cultural and national events, such as the Southeast Asian Games when it was hosted in Singapore, the Singapore Armed Forces Day, the Singapore Youth Festival Opening Ceremony, the finals of the 2004 Tiger Cup. The National Stadium was the venue for the National Day Parade 18 times. Since the stadium opened in 1973, the Singapore national football team played its home matches there; the stadium hosted the final of the Singapore Cup since 1996. Additionally, the stadium was the home of the Singapore Lions that participated in domestic football in Malaysia; the National Stadium had an eight-lane running track and football field in addition to other miscellaneous facilities such as table tennis tables, a weights room and an auditorium, housed underneath the spectator stands.
While the facilities were used for high-profile sporting events, they could be used by members of the public and other local organizations for a nominal fee. For example, when not otherwise used, the running track could be used by joggers for S$0.50 per entry. The headquarters of the Singapore Sports Council used to be located at 15 Stadium Road. Soon after the end of the Second World War, as Singapore moved towards self-government and independence, the clamour began for a national stadium. A state-owned lottery company, Singapore Pools, was set up in 1968 to raise funds for the stadium. Proceeds from the Singapore Sweep and TOTO were used to pay a substantial part of the construction bill. Between 1968 and 1976, the company contributed S$14.5 million towards the project. Singapore Pools helped the stadium repay a government loan of $7.8 million meant as start-up money for a stadium management corporation. Following the completion of the National Stadium, Singapore Pools remained a major sponsor of stadium, as well as the National Day Parade.
On 7 December 1966, in the year that Singapore celebrated its first National Day, Othman drove the first pile into the ground. For the next three and a half years, piling was done to lay the foundations. Work had to be delayed due to bad weather for about a month. By the end of 1970, the stadium was three-quarters completed and was starting to take its definitive shape. Thirty-six steps, each 76 metres wide, formed an impressive entrance. By the end of June 1973 when the stadium was completed, 300,000 bags of cement, 3,000,000 bricks and 4,500 tons of steel and timber had been used; the new stadium was opened to the public for the first time on 19 July 1973. Plans were made to demolish the stadium and build a multipurpose, 35.6 hectares Singapore Sports Hub in its place. Demolition works began in the second half of 2007, the new Sports Hub was completed in 2014. Three finalist consortia submitted redevelopment plans; the 2007 ASEAN Football Championship was the last major event held at the National Stadium before its redevelopment.
On 30 June 2007, a closing ceremony titled Field of Dreams – A Tribute to the National Stadium was held at the stadium. 45,000 people attended the event, together with President S R Nathan, members of the Cabinet and Singapore athletes and present. Before the ceremony, a football match featuring ex-internationals from Singapore and Malaysia like Quah Kim Song, Terry Pathmanathan, Samat Allapitchay, V. Sundramoorthy, David Lee, Dollah Kassim, Soh Chin Aun, Santokh Singh, Chow Siew Wai and K. Gunalan was played; the match was followed by the highlight of the evening, an international friendly between ASEAN champions Singapore and the Asian Cup bound Australian team, the Socceroos. The Australians won 3-0 with goals scored by English Premier League players Mark Viduka and Harry Kewell; this was not the last football match to be played in the stadium as it was subsequently used for 11 football matches. The last goal scored at the stadium was scored by Gholamreza Rezaei of Iran in a 1-3 loss for the hosts against the Iranian national team in an Asian Cup qualifying match on 6 January 2010.
In 29 September 2010: The former National Stadium started its demolition to make way for the construction of the Sports Hub. Its demolition had since completed by February 2011. In February 2013, uniquely designed benches made from the wooden planks from the former National Stadium were presented to the public, as a meaningful way to commemorate this historic landmark; these designs were part of the bench project organized by local creative practice FARM, jointly presented by Urban Redevelopment Authority and the Singapore Furniture Industries Council. Five of the designs were winning entries of the design competition which invited the public to submit designs for benches using the seating planks from the former National Stadium; the rest of the designs were specially created by commissioned local designers from various design fields. The benches can now be found in various public spaces such as Singapore River, Marina Bay, Gillman Barracks, Gardens by the Bay and the URA Centre; the new National Stadium was opened in 30 June 2014 on the site of the Former National Stadium.
The stadium's 44-year history is as follows: 1966 December: Work begins on the S$50 mi
Gymnastics is a sport that includes exercises requiring balance, flexibility, agility and endurance. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, shoulders, back and abdominal muscle groups. Alertness, daring, self-confidence and self-discipline are mental traits that can be developed through gymnastics. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, from circus performance skills The most common form of competitive gymnastics is artistic gymnastics which consists of floor, vault and uneven bars. For boys they have floor, rings, parallel bars and horizontal bar. Other FIG disciplines include rhythmic gymnastics and tumbling, acrobatic gymnastics, aerobic gymnastics and parkour. Disciplines not recognized by FIG include wheel gymnastics, aesthetic group gymnastics, men's rhythmic gymnastics, TeamGym and mallakhamba. Participants can include children as young as 1 years old doing kindergym and children's gymnastics, recreational gymnasts of ages 2 and up, competitive gymnasts at varying levels of skill, world-class athletes.
The word "gymnastics" derives from the common Greek adjective γυμνός, by way of the related verb γυμνάζω, whose meaning is to "train naked", "train in gymnastic exercise" "to train, to exercise". The verb had this meaning, because athletes in ancient times exercised and competed without clothing, it came into use in the 1570s, from Latin gymnasticus, from Greek gymnastikos "fond of or skilled in bodily exercise," from gymnazein "to exercise or train". Gymnastics developed in ancient Greece, in Sparta and Athens, was used as a method to prepare men for warfare. In Sparta, among the activities introduced into the training program was the Agoge or exhibition gymnastics made up of gymnastic elements in the form of the Pyrrhic-a dance in a military style-performed for state dignitaries in the final year of a student's training; the maneuvers were performed naked except for the tools of war. Athens combined this more physical training with the education of the mind. At the Palestra, a physical education training center, the discipline of educating the body and educating the mind were combined allowing for a form of gymnastics, more aesthetic and individual and which left behind the form that focused on strictness, the emphasis on defeating records, focus on strength.
Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano, was born on February 19, 1770, in Valencia and died on August 8, 1848, in Paris. He was a Spanish colonel, the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. John promoted the use of parallel bars and high bars in international competition; the Federation of International Gymnastics was founded in Liege in 1881. By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first "modern" Olympic Games in 1896. From on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric, that included, for example, synchronized team floor calisthenics, rope climbing, high jumping and horizontal ladder. During the 1920s, women participated in gymnastics events; the first women's Olympic competition was limited, only involving synchronized calisthenics and track and field. These games were held in Amsterdam. By 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, uniform grading structures had been agreed upon.
At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues. Television has helped initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. In 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine; the B Score, is the score for execution, is given for how well the skills are performed. The following disciplines are governed by FIG. Artistic Gymnastics is divided into Men's and Women's Gymnastics. Men compete on six events: Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Still Rings, Parallel Bars, Horizontal Bar, while women compete on four: Vault, Uneven Bars, Balance Beam, Floor Exercise. In some countries, women at one time competed on the rings, high bar, parallel bars. In 2006, FIG introduced a new points system for Artistic gymnastics in which scores are no longer limited to 10 points.
The system is used in the US for elite level competition. Unlike the old code of points, there are two separate scores, an execution score and a difficulty score. In the previous system, the "execution score" was the only score, it was and still is out except for short exercises. During the gymnast's performance, the judges deduct this score only. A fall, on or off the event, is a 1.00 deduction, in elite level gymnastics. The introduction of the difficulty score is a significant change; the gymnast's difficulty score is based on what elements they perform and is subject to change if they do not perform or complete all the skills, or they do not connect a skill meant to be connected to another. Connection bonuses are where deviation happens most common between the intended and actual difficulty scores, as it can be difficult to connect multiple flight elements, it is ha
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t