Frederick Carlton Carl Lewis is an American former track and field athlete who won nine Olympic gold medals, one Olympic silver medal, and 10 World Championships medals, including eight gold. His career spanned from 1979 to 1996 when he last won an Olympic event and he is one of only three Olympic athletes who won a gold medal in the same event in four consecutive Olympic Games. Lewis was a dominant sprinter and long jumper who topped the rankings in the 100 m,200 m. He set world records in the 100 m,4 ×100 m and 4 ×200 m relays and his 65 consecutive victories in the long jump achieved over a span of 10 years is one of the sports longest undefeated streaks. Over the course of his athletics career, Lewis broke ten seconds for the 100 meters 15 times and 20 seconds for the 200 meters 10 times, Lewis long jumped over 28 feet 71 times. After retiring from his athletics career, Lewis became an actor and has appeared in a number of films, in 2011, he attempted to run for a seat as a Democrat in the New Jersey Senate, but was removed from the ballot due to the states residency requirement.
Lewis owns a marketing and branding company named C. L. E. G, which markets and brands products and services including his own. Frederick Carlton Lewis was born in Birmingham, Alabama, on July 1,1961 and he grew up in a family of athletes. His mother was a hurdler on the 1951 Pan-Am team and his parents ran a local athletics club that provided a crucial influence on both Carl and his sister Carol. She became a long jumper, finishing 9th at the 1984 Olympics. Lewis was initially coached by his father, who coached other athletes to elite status. He achieved the ranking of fourth on the all-time World Junior list of long jumpers, many colleges tried to recruit Lewis, and he chose to enroll at the University of Houston where Tom Tellez was coach. Tellez would thereafter remain Lewis coach for his entire career, days after graduating from high school in 1979, Lewis broke the high school long jump record with a leap of 8.13 m. By the end of 1979, Lewis was ranked fifth in the world for the jump, according to Track.
An old knee injury had flared up again at the end of the school year. Though his focus was on the jump, he was now starting to emerge as a talent in the sprints. Comparisons were beginning to be made with Jesse Owens, who dominated sprint, Lewis qualified for the American team for the 1980 Olympics in the long jump and as a member of the 4 ×100 m relay team. The Olympic boycott precluded Lewis from competing in Moscow, he participated in the Liberty Bell Classic in July 1980
Colin Ray Jackson, CBE is a Welsh former sprint and hurdling athlete who specialised in the 110 metres hurdles. His world record of 12.91 seconds for the 110m hurdles stood for over a decade, Jackson won his first major medal, a silver, in the 110 m hurdles, at the age of nineteen at the 1986 Commonwealth Games. He soon established himself on the scene, taking bronze at the 1987 World Championships in Athletics. After winning another silver in the 60 metres hurdles at the 1989 IAAF World Indoor Championships, he won European and Commonwealth gold medals in 1990. The 1993 season saw him reach the pinnacle of his sport, after a silver at the 1993 Indoor Worlds and this mark was unbeaten for almost thirteen years and remains the world championship record. Jackson helped the British 4×100 metres relay team to the silver medal. This period was perhaps Jacksons most successful – he had a streak of 44 races undefeated between 1993 and 1995, in addition to European and Commonwealth golds outdoors in 1994, he set another world record, running 7.30 seconds in the 60 m hurdles.
A double gold at the 1994 European Athletics Indoor Championships in the 60 m hurdles, injury affected his 1995–1996 seasons and he finished only fourth at the 1996 Olympics. He returned to the podium in 1997 but took silver twice – behind Anier García at the Indoor World Championships. After winning the European Championships for a consecutive time in 1998 he became world champion indoors. He finished fifth at the 2000 Summer Olympics and his last major medals came in 2002, taking European indoor and outdoor gold, after a period of sports management and coaching, he now works as a sports commentator for athletics and television presenter. He has appeared in Strictly Come Dancing in 2005, as well as a number of entertainment and factual TV shows. Jackson, born in Cardiff, South Wales, is of Jamaican, Taino and he is the brother of actress Suzanne Packer who played Tess Bateman in the BBC One hospital drama Casualty. Jackson grew up in Birchgrove, attending Birchgrove Primary School and Llanedeyrn High School and he played football and cricket for the county and rugby union and basketball for his school and joined the athletics club Birchgrove Harriers, which nurtured his talent.
Under coach and close friend Malcolm Arnold, Jackson started out as a promising decathlete before switching to high hurdles and he won gold at the 1986 World Junior Championships and he soon switched to the senior ranks. Following a silver medal in the 1986 Commonwealth Games, he won the 110m hurdles silver at the 1988 Olympic Games behind Roger Kingdom, in 1992 he was restricted by a minor injury and could only finish 7th, and in 1996 he came fourth and in 2000, fifth. He set his record for the 110 metres hurdles on 20 August 1993, winning his first World Championships gold medal in Stuttgart. The new mark shaved 0.88 s, Jackson remains sole holder of the indoor world record at the 60 metres hurdles with a time of 7.30 seconds set in Sindelfingen, Germany on 6 March 1994
1995 World Championships in Athletics
The 5th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations, were held at the Ullevi Stadium, Sweden on 5–13 August 1995. This edition featured 1804 athletes from 191 nations and this competition saw the women run the 5000 m event at the World Championships for the first time. The race replaced the 3000 m event which had run at all previous World Championships. This fate Sweden shares only with Canada and South Korea
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Frank Frankie Fredericks is a former track and field athlete from Namibia. Running in the 100 metres and 200 metres, he won four medals at the Olympic Games, making him Namibias first. He won medals at the World Championships, World Indoor Championships, All-Africa Games. He is the world indoor record-holder for 200 metres, with a time of 19.92 seconds set in 1996, Fredericks has broken 20 seconds for the 200 metres 24 times. He holds the third-fastest non-winning time for the 200 metres, in August 1996, Fredericks ran 19.68 seconds in the Olympic final in Atlanta, Georgia. He is the oldest man to have broken 20 seconds for the 200 metres, on 12 July 2002 in Rome, Fredericks won the 200 metres in a time of 19.99 seconds at the age of 34 years 283 days. He is currently serving as a member in the IAAF. On March 3,2017, Fredericks was implicated in the IAAF corruption scandal, born in Windhoek on 2 October 1967, Frankie Fredericks was awarded a scholarship at Brigham Young University in the US in 1987.
During his college career, Fredericks earned numerous All-American citations and won three NCAA championships, in 1990, after his country had become independent of South Africa, Fredericks could participate in international competition. At the World Championships in 1991, Fredericks won a medal in the 200 m, finishing behind Michael Johnson. The following year, at the Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics, Fredericks became Namibias first Olympic medalist when he finished second in both the 100 m and 200 m. He won the medal in the mens 100-meter dash, with a time of 10.02 seconds. In 1993, in Stuttgart, he became the nations first World Champion, at the 1994 Commonwealth Games, he won gold in the 200 m and bronze in the 100 m. His time of 19.97 seconds in the 200 metres is the current Commonwealth Games record, at the 1995 World Championships 100 m, after crossing the line he immediately went to help his friend Linford Christie who pulled a muscle in the race and signalled for help. This act of kindness endeared him to many athletics fans, for the 1996 Summer Olympics, Fredericks was among the title favourites for both the 100 m and 200 m.
He reached both finals, and again finished second in both, in the 100 m, he was beaten by Donovan Bailey, who set a new World Record, and in the 200 m he was beaten by Michael Johnson, who set a new World Record. At the time, Frederickss second-place run was the third fastest run in history, at the 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur, Frankie once again missed out on the chance of gold in the 100 m, he was beaten by Ato Boldon of Trinidad and Tobago. Suffering from injuries, Fredericks had to withdraw from the 1999 and 2001 World Championships, Fredericks won the 200 m at the inaugural Afro-Asian Games in 2003
Linford Cicero Christie OBE is a Jamaican-born British former sprinter. He was the first European to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m and he is a former world indoor record holder over 200 metres, and a former European record holder in the 60 metres,100 m and 4 ×100 metres relay. Christie was born in Saint Andrew, where he was brought up by his grandmother, at the age of seven he followed his parents, who had emigrated to Acton, England, five years before. He was educated at Henry Compton Secondary School in Fulham, London and he competed in the very first London Youth Games in 1977 for the borough of Hammersmith & Fulham. He joined the Air Training Corps in 1978,336 Squadron and he did not take up athletics seriously until he was 19. Christies early track career was not promising and he failed to make the Great Britain team for the 1984 Summer Olympics, not even being included in the sprint relay squad. It was not until he began to work in earnest under the coaching of Ron Roddan that he began to fulfill his potential.
In 1986, he was the winner of the 100 m at the European Championships and finished second in the same event at the Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh. Christies time was 9.97 seconds, a new European record by 0.03 seconds and only the time anyone had ever broken the ten-second barrier. Christie faced a disciplinary hearing himself in Seoul because of a drug test for the banned stimulant pseudoephedrine after he ran in the heats of the 200 m. The hearing panel decided by a vote to give Christie the benefit of the doubt. In the absence of his great rival Lewis, Christie ran 9.96 s in the final, and at the age of 32 years 121 days became the oldest Olympic 100 m champion by four years 38 days. In 1993, he became the first man in history to hold the Olympic, European and he was voted BBC Sports Personality of the Year. After 1994, he was less successful, Christie was disqualified in the 1996 Olympic final after two false starts. He retired from international competition in 1997, although he continued to make appearances at invitation meetings.
In February 1999, Christie competed in a meet in Dortmund. A routine unannounced drug test found the banned substance nandrolone, after a six-month delay, a disciplinary hearing was convened by the British Athletic Federation which found Christie to be not guilty. But the IAAF overruled and confirmed a two-year suspension, Christie is banned for life from British Olympic Association teams
International Association of Athletics Federations
The International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for the sport of athletics. It was founded on 17 July 1912 as the International Amateur Athletic Federation by representatives from 17 national athletics federations at the organizations first congress in Stockholm, since October 1993, it has been headquartered in Monaco. Beginning in 1982, the IAAF passed several amendments to its rules to allow athletes to receive compensation for participating in international competitions. However, the organization retained the word amateur in its name until its 2001 congress, the IAAFs president is Sebastian Coe of the United Kingdom. He was elected at the 2015 congress before the 2015 World Championships in Athletics in Beijing, the process to found the IAAF was started at a meeting in Stockholm, Sweden on July 17,1912 soon after the completion of the 1912 Summer Olympics in that city. The congress that started on August 20,1913 in Berlin is when the foundation of the IAAF was formally completed, in 2015, a whistleblower leaked IAAFs blood test records from major competitions.
After reviewing the results, Robin Parisotto, a scientist and leading anti-doping expert, said, so many athletes appear to have doped with impunity, and it is damning that the IAAF appears to have idly sat by and let this happen. Craig Reedie, president of the World Anti-Doping Agency, said his organisation was very disturbed by these new allegations, which will, once again, shake the foundation of clean athletes worldwide, and that its independent commission will investigate the claims. On 1 November 2015, former IAAF president Lamine Diack was arrested in France and is under investigation on suspicion of corruption, Diack allegedly accepted $1.2 million from the Russian athletics federation to cover up the positive doping tests of at least six Russian athletes in 2011. The report continued that the IAAF allowed the conduct to occur and must accept its responsibility and that corruption was embedded in the organization. In January 2016, as a result of the scandal and WADAs report. The BBC reported that as a result the IAAF would lose $33 million worth of revenue, the 11-year sponsorship deal with Adidas was due to run until 2019.
World-record holding sprinter, Michael Johnson, described the scandal as more serious than that faced by FIFA, in February,2016, Nestle announced that it was ending its IAAF sponsorship. In June 2016, following a meeting of the IAAFs ruling council, in Ferbuary 2017, All-Russia Athletic Federation disqualified by decision of the IAAF Council for 8 years for the creation of a doping system. Since the establishment of the IAAF, it has had six presidents, The IAAF has a total of 215 member federations divided into 6 area associations