In baseball, a no-hitter is a game in which a team was not able to record a single hit. Major League Baseball defines a no-hitter as a completed game in which a team that batted in at least nine innings recorded no hits. A pitcher who prevents the opposing team from achieving a hit is said to have "thrown a no-hitter"; this is a rare accomplishment for a pitcher or pitching staff: only 299 have been thrown in Major League Baseball history since 1876, an average of about two per year. In most cases in MLB, no-hitters are recorded by a single pitcher; the most recent no-hitter by a single pitcher was thrown on May 8, 2018 by James Paxton of the Seattle Mariners against the Toronto Blue Jays at Rogers Centre. The most recent combined no-hitter was thrown on May 4, 2018 by Walker Buehler, Tony Cingrani, Yimi Garcia, Adam Liberatore of the Los Angeles Dodgers against the San Diego Padres at Estadio de Béisbol Monterrey, it is possible to reach base without a hit, most by a walk, error, or being hit by a pitch.
A no-hitter in which no batters reach base at all is a much rarer feat. Because batters can reach base by means other than a hit, a pitcher can throw a no-hitter and still give up runs, lose the game, although this is uncommon and most no-hitters are shutouts. One or more runs were given up in 25 recorded no-hitters in MLB history, most by Ervin Santana of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim in a 3–1 win against the Cleveland Indians on July 27, 2011. On two occasions, a team still lost the game. On a further four occasions, a team has thrown a no-hitter for eight innings in a losing effort, but those four games are not recognized as no-hitters by Major League Baseball because the outing lasted fewer than nine innings, it is theoretically possible for opposing pitchers to throw no-hitters in the same game, although this has never happened in the majors. Two pitchers, Fred Toney and Hippo Vaughn, completed nine innings of a game on May 2, 1917 without either giving up a hit or a run. A no-hitter is defined by Major League Baseball as follows: "An official no-hit game occurs when a pitcher allows no hits during the entire course of a game, which consists of at least nine innings."
This definition was specified by MLB's Committee for Statistical Accuracy in 1991, causing recognized no-hitters of fewer than nine innings or where the first hit had been allowed in extra innings to be stricken from the official record books. Games lost by the visiting team in 8½ innings but without allowing any hits do not qualify as no-hitters, as the visiting team has only pitched eight innings. Major League Baseball has recognized 299 no-hitters thrown since 1876. Two no-hitters have been thrown on the same day twice: Ted Breitenstein and Jim Hughes on April 22, 1898. Eight no-hitters were thrown by major league pitchers in the 1884 season. In the modern era, seven no-hitters were thrown in 1990, 1991, 2012, 2015; the longest period between any two no-hitters in the modern era is 3 years, 44 days between Bobby Burke on August 8, 1931, Paul "Daffy" Dean on September 21, 1934. There was a drought of 3 years, 11 months, without a no-hitter after the first National League no-hitter on July 15, 1876, pitched by George Bradley.
The most recent year without any no-hitters is 2005. The greatest span of games without a no-hitter anywhere in the Major Leagues is 6,364, between Randy Johnson's perfect game on May 18, 2004, for the Arizona Diamondbacks, Aníbal Sánchez's no-hitter on September 6, 2006, for the Florida Marlins; the previous record was a 4,015-game streak without a no-hitter from September 30, 1984, to September 19, 1986. The pitcher who holds the record for the most no-hitters is Nolan Ryan, who threw seven in his long career, his first two came two months apart, while he was with the California Angels: the first on May 15, 1973, the second on July 15. He had two more with the Angels on September 28, 1974, June 1, 1975. Ryan's fifth no-hitter with the Houston Astros on September 26, 1981, broke Sandy Koufax's previous record, his sixth and seventh no-hitters came with the Texas Rangers on June 1, 1990, May 1, 1991. When he tossed number seven at age 44, he became the oldest pitcher to throw a no-hitter. Only Ryan, Sandy Koufax, Cy Young, Bob Feller, Larry Corcoran have pitched more than two no-hitters.
Corcoran was the first pitcher to throw a second no-hitter in a career, as well as the first to throw a third. Thirty-six pitchers have thrown more than one combined no-hitters not counting. Randy Johnson has the longest gap between no-hitters: he threw a no-hitter as a member of the Seattle Mariners on June 2, 1990, a perfect game as an Arizona Diamondback on May 18, 2004; the pitcher who holds the record for the shortest time between no-hitters is Johnny Vander Meer, the only pitcher in history to throw no-hitters in consecutive starts, while playing for the Cincinnati Reds in 1938. Besides Vander Meer, Allie Reynolds, Virgil Trucks and Max Scherzer are the only other major leaguers to throw two no-hitters in the same regular season. Jim Maloney had two no-hitters under the previous rules in the 1965 season
The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or the American League, is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada. It developed from the Western League, a minor league based in the Great Lakes states, which aspired to major league status, it is sometimes called the Junior Circuit because it claimed Major League status for the 1901 season, 25 years after the formation of the National League. At the end of every season, the American League champion plays in the World Series against the National League champion. Through 2018, American League teams have won 66 of the 114 World Series played since 1903, with 27 of those coming from the New York Yankees alone; the New York Yankees have won 40 American League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics and the Boston Red Sox. A minor league known as the Western League which existed 1885 to 1899, with teams in Great Lakes states, the newly organized Western League developed into a rival major league after the previous American Association disbanded after ten seasons as a competitor to the older National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, founded in 1876.
In its early history of the late 1880s, the minor Western League struggled until 1894, when Ban Johnson became the president of the league. Johnson led the Western League into elevation as claiming major league status and soon became the president of the newly renamed American League of Professional Baseball Clubs in 1901; the American League was founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin at the former Republican Hotel by five Irishmen. George Herman Ruth, noted as one of the most prolific hitters in Major League Baseball history, spent the majority of his career in the American League with the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees; the American League has one notable difference versus the rival National League, in that in modern times since 1973 it has had the designated hitter rule. Under the rule, a team may use a batter in its lineup, not in the field defensively, replacing the pitcher in the batting order, compared to the old rule that made it mandatory for the pitcher to bat. In the last two decades, the season schedule has allowed occasional interleague play.
Until the late 1970s, league umpires working behind home plate wore large, balloon-style chest protectors worn outside the shirt or coat, while their brethren in the National League wore chest protectors inside the shirt or coat. In 1977, new umpires had to wear the inside chest protector, although those on staff wearing the outside protector could continue to do so. Most umpires made the switch to the inside protector, led by Don Denkinger in 1975 and Jim Evans the next year, although several did not, including Bill Haller, Lou DiMuro, George Maloney, Jerry Neudecker, who became the last MLB umpire to use the outside protector in 1985. In 1994, the league, along with the National League, reorganized again, into three divisions and added a third round to the playoffs in the form of the American League Division Series, with the best second-place team advancing to the playoffs as a wild-card team, in addition to the three divisional champions. In 1998, the newly franchised Tampa Bay Devil Rays joined the league, the Arizona Diamondbacks joined the National League: i.e. each league each added a fifteenth team.
An odd number of teams per league meant that at least one team in each league would have to be idle on any given day, or alternatively that odd team out would have had to play an interleague game against its counterpart in the other league. The initial plan was to have three five-team divisions per league with inter league play year-round—possibly as many as 30 interleague games per team each year. For various reasons, it soon seemed more practical to have an number of teams in both leagues; the Milwaukee Brewers agreed moving from the AL Central to the NL Central. At the same time, the Detroit Tigers were moved from the AL East to the AL Central, making room for the Devil Rays in the East. Following the move of the Houston Astros, in the NL for 51 years since beginning as an expansion team in 1962, to the American League in 2013, both leagues now consist of 15 teams, a far cry from their original 8 for the first half-century of the 20th century. For the first 96 years, American League teams faced their National League counterparts only in exhibition games or in the World Series.
Beginning in 1997, interleague games have been played during the regular season and count in the standings. As part of the agreement instituting interleague play, the designated-hitter rule is used only in games where the American League team is the home team. There were eight charter teams in 1901, the league's first year as a major league, the next year the original Milwaukee Brewers moved to St. Louis to become the St. Louis Browns; these franchises constituted the league for 52 seasons, until the Browns moved to Baltimore and took up the name Baltimore Orioles. All eight original franchises remain in the American League, although only four remain in the original cities; the eight original teams and their counterparts in the "Classic Eight" were: original Baltimore Orioles (went b
Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award
In Major League Baseball, the Rookie of the Year Award is annually given to one player from each league as voted on by the Baseball Writers' Association of America. The award was established in 1940 by the Chicago chapter of the BBWAA, which selected an annual winner from 1940 through 1946; the award became national in 1947. One award was presented for both leagues in 1947 and 1948; the award was known as the J. Louis Comiskey Memorial Award, named after the Chicago White Sox owner of the 1930s; the award was renamed the Jackie Robinson Award in July 1987, 40 years after Jackie Robinson broke the baseball color line. Of the 140 players named Rookie of the Year, 16 have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame—Jackie Robinson, five American League players, ten others from the National League; the award has been shared twice: once by Butch Metzger and Pat Zachry of the National League in 1976. Members of the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers have won the most awards of any franchise, twice the total of the New York Yankees, members of the Philadelphia and Oakland Athletics, who have produced the most in the American League.
Fred Lynn and Ichiro Suzuki are the only two players who have been named Rookie of the Year and Most Valuable Player in the same year, Fernando Valenzuela is the only player to have won Rookie of the Year and the Cy Young Award in the same year. Sam Jethroe is the oldest player to have won the award, at age 32, 33 days older than 2000 winner Kazuhiro Sasaki. Shohei Ohtani of the Los Angeles Angels and Ronald Acuña Jr. of the Atlanta Braves are the most recent winners. From 1947 through 1956, each BBWAA voter used discretion as to. In 1957, the term was first defined as someone with fewer than 75 at bats or 45 innings pitched in any previous Major League season; this guideline was amended to 90 at bats, 45 innings pitched, or 45 days on a Major League roster before September 1 of the previous year. The current standard of 130 at bats, 50 innings pitched or 45 days on the active roster of a Major League club before September 1 was adopted in 1971. Since 1980, each voter names three rookies: a first-place choice is given five points, a second-place choice three points, a third-place choice one point.
The award goes to the player. Edinson Vólquez received three second-place votes in 2008 balloting despite no longer being a rookie under the award's definition; the award has drawn criticism in recent years because several players with experience in Nippon Professional Baseball have won the award, such as Hideo Nomo in 1995, Kazuhiro Sasaki in 2000, Ichiro Suzuki in 2001, Shohei Ohtani in 2018. The current definition of rookie status for the award is based only on Major League experience, but some feel that past NPB players are not true rookies because of their past professional experience. Others, believe it should make no difference since the first recipient and the award's namesake played for the Negro Leagues prior to his MLB career and thus could not be considered a "true rookie"; this issue arose in 2003. Jim Souhan of the Minneapolis Star Tribune said he did not see Matsui as a rookie in 2003 because "it would be an insult to the Japanese league to pretend that experience didn't count."
The Japan Times ran a story in 2007 on the labeling of Daisuke Matsuzaka, Kei Igawa, Hideki Okajima as rookies, saying "hese guys aren't rookies." Past winners such as Jackie Robinson, Don Newcombe, Sam Jethroe had professional experience in the Negro Leagues. Esurance MLB Awards Best Rookie Players Choice Awards Outstanding Rookie Baseball America Rookie of the Year Sporting News Rookie of the Year Award Rookie of the Month Topps All-Star Rookie Teams Baseball awards Rookie of the Year Award Rookie of the Year General Inline citations
2005 Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The 2005 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 76th playing of the midseason exhibition baseball game between the all-stars of the American League and National League, the two leagues comprising Major League Baseball. The game was held on July 12, 2005 at Comerica Park in Detroit, the home of the Detroit Tigers of the American League; the game resulted in the American League defeating the National League 7–5, thus awarding an AL team home-field advantage in the 2005 World Series. The game was. Players in italics have since been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame. Notes a Player was unable to play. B Player replaced vacant spot on roster. FV Player was voted onto roster via the All-Star Final Vote. National League: Tony LaRussaAmerican League: Terry Francona A superchoir consisting of three choirs from Windsor, sang "O Canada", the Canadian National Anthem. A moment of silence for the victims of the July 7 London bombings, which took place a few days before the game, followed by the Detroit Symphony Orchestra Brass Players' performance of "God Save the Queen", the national anthem of the United Kingdom.
Brian McKnight sang The Star-Spangled Banner, the U. S. National Anthem; the colors presentation was by the Camp Grayling color guard, accompanied by University of Toledo ROTC officers who presented the flags in the outfield. In the first inning, starters Mark Buehrle and Chris Carpenter each induced a double play, from Carlos Beltrán and Manny Ramírez to end early threats; the American League would score in the bottom of the second, when the game's MVP, Miguel Tejada, crushed a shot off John Smoltz to give the AL a 1–0 lead. The AL would score two more in the third, on the strength of a David Ortiz RBI single, an RBI groundout by Tejada, his second RBI in as many innings; the NL wasted a scoring opportunity in the top of the fourth, when with two runners on, Aramis Ramírez grounded into a double play to end that threat. In the bottom of that inning, Ichiro Suzuki hit a broken-bat, bloop single to score two, but was picked off first base by Liván Hernández. In the bottom of the sixth, Mark Teixeira, a switch-hitter, hit an opposite field, two-run homer off Dontrelle Willis, his first home run off a left-hander that season, opening the AL's lead to 7–0.
During the seventh-inning stretch, Brian McKnight sang God Bless America. The NL got on the board in the next inning, when Andruw Jones launched a two-run shot just inside the foul pole off Kenny Rogers to close the NL to within five, they scored another run in the eighth. In the top of the ninth, Luis Gonzalez scored Andruw Jones with a double off of Baltimore closer B. J. Ryan, scored himself on an RBI groundout by Carlos Lee. Mariano Rivera came on to stop the NL's potential rally. Rivera struck out Morgan Ensberg to end the threat, the game, securing a 7–5 win for the AL. Hall-of-Famer and former Tigers outfielder Al Kaline joined the ceremonial first pitch ceremonies. In this event, the eight competitors each came from a different nation; this format dovetailed with the announcement of the launch of the World Baseball Classic the week before, as of the following year. All-Star Game Home Page Home Run Derby July 12, 2005 All-Star Game at Comerica Park Box Score and Play by Play - Baseball-Reference.com
Intentional base on balls
In baseball, an intentional base on balls referred to as an intentional walk and denoted in baseball scorekeeping by IBB, is a walk issued to a batter by a pitcher with the intent of removing the batter's opportunity to swing at the pitched ball. A pitch, intentionally thrown far outside the strike zone for this purpose is referred to as an intentional ball. Beginning with the 2017 season, Major League Baseball has removed the requirement to throw four intentional balls. In MLB and in amateur baseball, such as high school and college games, in most levels of Little League Baseball, the manager of the team on the field now asks the plate umpire to let the batter go to first base; the purpose of an intentional walk is to bypass the current batter in order to face the following batter, whom the defensive team expects to be easier to put out. The penalty under the rules is that the current batter becomes a baserunner which, on average, makes it more that the team at bat will score. Situations that call for the intentional walk include the following: With one out and a runner on second or third base, converting a powerful batter to a runner on first base means that a subsequent ground ball may become a double play that ends the scoring threat.
With a runner on second, this move lets fielders put the lead runner out using a force play rather than the more difficult tag play. In the bottom of the ninth or an extra inning, having a runner on first base might not affect the outcome of the game at all. For example, if the game is tied and there is a runner on third base, the game is over if that runner scores; the intentional walk disfavors a team that has one batter, much better than the others, as it lets opponents "take the bat out of his hands" and opt to pitch to the next batter. An intentional base on balls — whether achieved through intentional balls or through declaration — has the effect of any other base on balls; the batter is entitled to take first base without being put out. Any runner on first base is awarded second base, so on. Statistically, receiving an intentional base on balls does not count as an official at bat for a batter, but does count as a plate appearance and a base on balls. An intentional ball is counted as a ball in the count of the pitcher's strikes thrown.
In leagues where a team can walk a batter by declaration, the pitcher may be instructed to "pitch around" the batter. The manager defers the decision to intentionally walk the pitcher to see whether the batter swings at bad pitches. If the count goes to three balls, where the pitcher would have to deliver an attractive pitch to hit, the manager elects the intentional base on balls. A base on balls counts as an intentional base on balls if and only if the final pitch thrown in the plate appearance is an intentional ball. Pitching an intentional ball, like point after touchdown in football and a free throw in basketball, is designed not to be automatic; the pitcher aims several feet outside the strike zone, but the catcher must be in the catcher's box when it is thrown. The catcher must shift position to catch an intentional ball. A balk or a wild pitch could occur, enabling runners to advance who would not have advanced from the base award to the batter; the batter can not leave the batter's box to follow the pitch.
Swinging is to the batter's advantage. In the Major Leagues, there were 12 cases from 1900 through 2011 of a batter making contact with an intentional ball. In 9 of these cases, the batter reached first base safely; the batter's team won in all nine of those instances. Most on September 10, 2016, the Tampa Bay Rays opted to walk Gary Sanchez of the hosting New York Yankees, he drove an intentional ball to left field for a sacrifice fly. Before the 1920 season, the catcher was allowed to set up anywhere within a 14 by 20 feet right triangle behind home plate, the back line being 10 feet behind the plate; the catcher could stand at a corner of this triangle to receive the four wide pitches, too far away for the batter to have any chance at hitting the ball. As the intentional walk became more frequent following the end of the dead ball era, batters such as Babe Ruth complained about the unfairness of it. To give the batter a better chance, major league baseball team owners attempted to ban the intentional base on balls by instituting a penalty that an intentional ball be counted as a balk.
Veteran NL umpire Hank O'Day argued against the proposal and the owners succeeded only in mandating that "the catcher must stand with both feet within the lines of the catcher's box until the ball leaves the pitcher's hand," a rule still in force today. The newly-redrawn catcher's box reduced the back line from 10 to 8 feet behind the plate, with sides 3 1/2 feet apart. Intentional walks have only been an tracked statistic since 1955. Prior to the 2017 season, as part of Major League Baseball's efforts to improve the pace of play, the rules were amended to allow a manager to order an intentional walk by signaling the umpire. Barry Bonds holds most of the records for intentional walks, including four in a nine-inning game, 120 in a season, 668 in his career—more than the next two players on the all-time list, Albert Pujols and Hank Aaron, combined— and 21 in the postseason. Bonds, a prolific home run hitter, was a common target for the intentional walk. Many times the decision
1889 College Football All-America Team
The 1889 College Football All-America team was the first College Football All-America Team. The team was published in This Week's Sports; the team selected by Whitney in 1889 marked the origin of the "All-America" teams that have since appeared in every collegiate sport from men's ice hockey to women's gymnastics. All eleven members of the 1889 All-America team played for three teams—Harvard, Princeton or Yale known as the "Big Three" of college football; some sources indicate that Walter Camp assisted Whitney with the selection of the 1889 All-American team, while others indicate that Camp did not become involved in the selection process until some time in the 1890s. The first All-America team included the legendary football coach Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pudge Heffelfinger, "Snake" Ames, Edgar Allan Poe, Arthur Cumnock, Roscoe Channing. Amos Alonzo Stagg: Yale's All-American end, Stagg became a legendary football coach at the University of Chicago from 1892 to 1932 and the University of the Pacific from 1933 to 1946.
Stagg's teams won seven Big Ten Conference championships. William Heffelfinger: Yale's guard, "Pudge" Heffelfinger was a native of Minnesota, considered the greatest lineman of his time. Heffelfinger was paid $500 in 1892 to play for the Allegheny Athletic Association, making him the first professional football player, he was the head football coach at the University of California, Lehigh University, the University of Minnesota. He published an annual booklet called "Heffelfinger's Football Facts" and was one of the charter inductees into the College Football Hall of Fame. Knowlton Ames: A native of Chicago, Princeton's All-America fullback "Snake" Ames set an unofficial collegiate scoring record in his time with 730 points, including 62 touchdowns and 176 points after touchdown. Ames is credited with being the first player to execute a fake punt and part of the first team to develop the "power sweep." Ames moved west to coach Purdue University from 1891 to 1892. Hector Cowan: Princeton's tackle, "Hec" Cowan helped lead the 1889 Princeton team to a perfect 10–0 record.
Pudge Heffelfinger said of Cowan, "He had the strongest shoulders and arms I've been up against and his stubby legs drove like pistons when he carried the ball. Hector could carry a couple of tacklers on his back, yet he was plenty fast in the open." He served as the coach at the University of Kansas from 1894 to 1896. Edgar Allan Poe: Princeton's quarterback, Poe was named after his relative and celebrated poet Edgar Allan Poe. After Princeton beat Harvard, 41–15, a Harvard man asked a Princeton alumnus whether Poe was related to the great Edgar Allan Poe. According to the story, "the alumnus looked at him in astonishment and replied,'He is the great Edgar Allan Poe.'" Poe graduated Phi Beta Kappa and served as the Attorney General of the State of Maryland from 1911 to 1915. Arthur Cumnock: Harvard's Cumnock was known as a fierce tackler and has been ranked by one author as the greatest player in that school's long football tradition. Cumnock went into the cotton mill business and was the treasurer of one of the largest corporations in New England.
Roscoe Channing: Princeton's halfback Channing served with Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders in the Spanish–American War. For many years, he was the President of Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Company, a copper mining company in Flin Flon, Canada. Charles O. Gill: Yale's Gill coached at the University of California in 1894. EndsAmos Alonzo Stagg, Yale Arthur Cumnock, HarvardTacklesHector Cowan, Princeton Charles O. Gill, Yale GuardsPudge Heffelfinger, Yale John Cranston, HarvardCenterWilliam George, PrincetonQuarterbackEdgar Allan Poe, PrincetonHalfbacksRoscoe Channing, Princeton James P. Lee, HarvardFullbackKnowlton Ames, Princeton