Alexandra "Aleka" Papariga is a communist Greek politician who served the Communist Party of Greece as its General Secretary from 1991 to 2013. She is the first woman who has taken on the office of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of KKE, thus becoming the first woman to head a major political party in Greece. Papariga was born in Athens in 1945, her parents, Nikos Drosos and Kiki Drosou were National Resistance fighters and members of KKE, of Cephalonian origin. She graduated from the Historical-Archeological Section of the Philosophy Faculty of Athens University and after graduation worked as an employee for eight years in various accounting offices. At the same time she worked as a private tutor. Since 1976 she has worked in party and social activities. Papariga started out as an activist in the peace movement in 1961 and soon after joined the pupils' organization of the youth section of the United Democratic Left, she was active in various school and student movements until the military coup in 1967.
Throughout this period, she was a member of the Bureau of the EDA youth section pupils' organization and of the "Lambrakis" Democratic Youth Students’ organization Bureau. She joined KKE in 1968, while it was illegal during the Greek military junta and was active in the prisoners' families' movement. After the end of the military junta, she became a member of the Bureau of the City Committee of the Athens Party Organization, was active in the women's movement. A founding member of the Women's Federation of Greece, she participated in the organization of national events for International Women's Day, she was a leading member of the women's movement until to 1981, active in the Athens Party Organization up to 1991. During her activities in the women's movement, she participated in international congresses of the Women's International Democratic Federation, the United Nations, many international conferences and symposia. Papariga has been a member of the Central Committee of KKE since the 10th Congress and of the Politburo of the CC since 1986.
On 27 February 1991 at the 13th Party Congress, she was elected as Secretary-General of the KKE. She was unanimously re-elected as Secretary-General on 26 May 1996, at the 15th Party Congress. In February 2009, Papariga was re-elected as Secretary-General at the 18th Party Congress; this re-election made her the longest serving General Secretary of the KKE. As a KKE candidate in Athens B constituency, Papariga has been elected to the Hellenic Parliament since the 1993 election. Papariga is the author of two books on women's emancipation, she has one daughter, Vasilia Papariga. She speaks two foreign languages: Russian. Short biographic note website of the Communist Party of Greece Terms of office of Aleka Papariga at the Hellenic Parliament This page incorporates information from the Hellenic Parliament website
Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation in elections in which multiple candidates are elected through allocations to an electoral list. They can be used as part of mixed additional member systems. In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, seats get distributed to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in Albania, Argentina and Israel. Voters in Luxembourg's multi-seat constituencies can choose between voting for a complete list of candidates of a single party or voting for individual candidates from one or several lists; the order in which a party's list candidates get elected may be pre-determined by some method internal to the party or the candidates or it may be determined by the voters at large or by districts. Many variations on seat allocation within party-list proportional representation exist; the two most common are: The highest average method, including the D'Hondt method used in Albania, Austria, Croatia, Estonia, Israel, Poland and many other countries.
The largest remainder methods, including the Hamilton method. List proportional representation may be combined in various hybrids, e.g. using the additional member system. List of main apportionment methods: Macanese "d'Hondt method" Webster/Sainte-Laguë method, LR-Hare LR-Droop D'Hondt method Huntington-Hill method LR-Imperiali While the allocation formula is important important is the district magnitude; the higher the district magnitude, the more proportional an electoral system becomes - the most proportional being when there is no division into constituencies at all and the entire country is treated as a single constituency. More, in some countries the electoral system works on two levels: at-large for parties, in constituencies for candidates, with local party-lists seen as fractions of general, national lists. In this case, magnitude of local constituencies is irrelevant, seat apportionment being calculated at national level. In France, party lists in proportional elections must include as many candidates as there are seats to be allocated, whereas in other countries "incomplete" lists are allowed.
Proportional representation Comparison of the Hare and Droop quotas Outline of democracy List MP Ley de Lemas Sectoral representation in the House of Representatives of the Philippines Advantages and disadvantages of List PR - from the ACE Project Open and Free Lists - from the ACE Project Handbook of Electoral System Choice Apportionment, or How to Round Seat Numbers Glossary of Electoral Formulas
The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni
1979 European Parliament election in Belgium
Elections to the European Parliament were held in Belgium on 10 June 1979. The Dutch-speaking electoral college elected 13 MEPs and the French-speaking electoral college elected 11 MEPs
Party of the European Left
The Party of the European Left abbreviated European Left, is a European political party which operates as an association of democratic socialist and communist political parties in the European Union and other European countries. It was formed in January 2004 for the purposes of running in the 2004 European Parliament elections. EL was founded on 8–9 May 2004 in Rome. Elected MEPs from member parties of the European Left sit in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group in the European parliament. Several of the member and observer parties participate in the more radical European Anti-Capitalist Left. Before the European Left was founded, most of its members held annual meetings together as part of the New European Left Forum, its first congress took place on 8 October 2005, in Athens, which produced the Athens Declaration of the European Left. The second congress was held 23–25 November 2007 in Prague; the third congress was held on 2–5 December 2010 in Paris. Its fourth congress was held on 13–15 December 2013 in Madrid.
Its fifth congress took place on 16–18 December 2016 in Berlin, electing German lawyer and politician Gregor Gysi as the new EL President. The four Vice-Presidents are Maite Mola, Margarita Mileva, Paolo Ferrero and former EL President Pierre Laurent. Swiss Brigitte Berthouzoz serves as the new EL treasurer; as of December 2016, the Party of the European Left gathers 27 member parties, 8 observers and 3 partners from 25 European countries. As well as those of member and observer parties, individuals may hold membership of the party; the EL has one out of the 28 heads of State or Government that attend the EL summits in preparation for the European Council: President: Fausto Bertinotti, Lothar Bisky, Pierre Laurent, Gregor Gysi Leader in the European Parliament: Francis Wurtz, Lothar Bisky, Gabriele Zimmer European Anti-Capitalist Left European United Left–Nordic Green Left Initiative of Communist and Workers' Parties List of communist parties represented in European Parliament Maintenant le Peuple Nordic Green Left Alliance Official website Italian website
European People's Party
The European People's Party is a conservative and Christian democratic European political party. A transnational organisation, it is composed of other political parties, not individuals. Founded by Christian democratic parties in 1976, it has since broadened its membership to include liberal-conservative parties and parties with other centre-right political perspectives; the EPP has been the largest party in the European Parliament since 1999 and in the European Council since 2002. It is by far the largest party in the current European Commission; the President of the European Council, President of the European Commission and the President of the European Parliament are all from the EPP. Many of the Founding fathers of the European Union were from parties that formed the EPP. Outside the EU the party controls a majority in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe; the EPP has alternated with its centre-left rival the Party of European Socialists as the largest European political party and parliamentary group.
The EPP includes major centre-right parties such as the Union of Germany, The Republicans of France, CD&V of Belgium, KDU-ČSL of the Czech Republic, Fine Gael of Ireland, New Democracy of Greece, Forza Italia of Italy, the People's Party of Spain, the Social Democratic Party of Portugal, the Civic Platform of Poland but Fidesz of Hungary. According to its website, the EPP is "the family of the political centre-right, whose roots run deep in the history and civilisation of the European continent, has pioneered the European project from its inception"; the EPP was founded in Luxembourg on 8 July 1976 on the initiative of Jean Seitlinger. It had been preceded by the Secretariat International des partis démocratiques d'inspiration chrétienne, founded in 1925, the Nouvelles Equipes Internationales, founded in 1946, the European Union of Christian Democrats, founded in 1965. In the late 1990s the Finnish politician Sauli Niinistö negotiated the merger of the European Democrat Union, of which he was President, into the EPP.
In October 2002 the EDU ceased its activities after being formally absorbed by the EPP at a special event in Estoril, Portugal. In recognition of his efforts Niinistö was elected Honorary President of the EPP the same year; the EPP has had five Presidents: During its Congress in Bucharest in 2012 the EPP updated its political platform after 20 years and approved a political manifesto in which it summarised its main values and policies. The manifesto highlights: Freedom as a central human right, coupled with responsibility Respect for traditions and associations Solidarity to help those in need, who in turn should make an effort to improve their situation Ensuring solid public finances Preserving a healthy environment Subsidiarity Pluralist democracy and a Social Market EconomyThe manifesto describes the EPP's priorities for the EU, including: European Political Union Direct election of the President of the European Commission Completion of the European Single Market Promotion of the family, improvements in education and health Strengthening of the common immigration and asylum policy, integrating immigrants Continuation of enlargement of the EU, enhancement of the European Neighbourhood Policy and special relationship frameworks for countries that cannot, or do not want to, join the EU Defining a true common EU energy policy Strengthening European political parties As a central part of its campaign for the European elections in 2009 the EPP approved its election manifesto at its Congress in Warsaw in April that year.
The manifesto called for: Creation of new jobs, continuing reforms and investment in education, lifelong learning, employment in order to create opportunities for everyone. Avoidance of protectionism, coordination of fiscal and monetary policies. Increased transparency and surveillance in financial markets. Making Europe the market leader in green technology. Increasing the share of renewable energy to at least 20 per cent of the energy mix by 2020.. Family-friendly flexibility for working parents, better child care and housing, family-friendly fiscal policies, encouragement of parental leave. A new strategy to attract skilled workers from the rest of the world to make Europe’s economy more competitive, more dynamic and more knowledge-driven; the dispute about the right-wing politics of the Hungarian Fidesz-leader Viktor Orbán has produced a split in the EPP in the run-up of the 2019 European Parliament election. On the one hand the EPP over years was reluctant to address the stance against the rule of law of Fidesz, expressed by the Article 7 proceedings of the European Parliament, on the other hand European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, a prominent EPP-member, stated “I believe his place is not in the European People’s Party”.
Orbán’s campaigns targeting billionaire George Soros and Jean-Claude Juncker carried wide reverberations for Europe questioning the EPP’s effort to install its lead candidate Manfred Weber as the next Commission president. After years of deferring a decision about the Fidesz issue, the EPP felt compelled to address the problem two months before the 2019 European elections, as 13 outraged member parties requested its exclusion from the EPP due to its billboard campaign featuring Jean-Claude Juncker. 190 of the 193 EPP-delegates decided on 20 March 2019 to suspend Fidesz membership. According to this, Fidesz is "until further notice" excluded from EPP meetings and inte
Konstantinos "Kostis" Stephanopoulos was a Greek conservative politician who served two consecutive terms as the President of Greece, from 1995 to 2005. Stephanopoulos was born in Patras on 15 August 1926 to the lawyer and subsequent People's Party Member of Parliament Dimitrios Stephanopoulos, Vrisiis Philopoulou. After attending the Saint Andrew school of Patras, he studied law at Athens University, he practiced law from 1954 until 1974 as a member of the Patras Bar Association. He first stood for election in 1958, with the National Radical Union and was elected for the first time as MP for Achaea Prefecture in 1964, he was re-elected for the same constituency for New Democracy in 1974, 1977, 1981 and 1985. He served as ND parliamentary secretary and parliamentary spokesman from 1981 to 1985. In 1974, Stephanopoulos was appointed Deputy Minister of Commerce in the National Unity government of Constantine Karamanlis. For the next seven years he served in a number of ministerial posts in New Democracy governments.
In August 1985 he resigned from ND and on 6 September formed Democratic Renewal. He was elected Member of Parliament for Athens in the 1989 elections while continuing as the leader of DIANA, until it disbanded in June 1994. On 8 March 1995, after being nominated by the conservative Political Spring party and supported by the ruling Panhellenic Socialist Movement, he was elected President of Greece, winning the election on a third ballot of MPs with 181 votes, he was the fifth person to hold the post since the restoration of democratic rule in 1974. He was re-elected on 8 February 2000 on the first ballot, after receiving the support of 269 of the 298 MPs present, he remained in office until 2 March 2005. As a President he was known for his low-key profile, unifying approach to current and international affairs, gentlemanly behaviour. During his presidency, he was the most popular public figure in Greece; as head of state of the host country, he declared the 2004 Athens Olympics open, on 13 August 2004.
Stephanopoulos died at 23:18 in Henry Dunant Hospital, Athens, on 20 November 2016 at the age of 90. He had been hospitalised three days earlier, suffering from fever and severe respiratory difficulty, which emerged as pneumonia. Stephanopoulos was married for 29 years to Tzeni Stounopoulou, who died in 1988; the couple had three children. Stephanopoulos received the highest decorations of foreign countries, he was an honorary citizen of many Greek towns. Poland: Order of the White Eagle Croatia: Grand Order of King Tomislav Slovenia: Golden Order of Freedom. Slovakia: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Double Cross Italy: Knight Grand Cross with Grand Cordon of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Luxembourg: Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau Iceland: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Falcon Norway: Grand Cross of the Order of St. Olav Estonia: Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana Latvia: Order of the Three Stars, 1st Class Sweden: Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim Romania: Sash of Order of the Star of Romania Albania: Received a copy of the key of the city of Tirana on the occasion of his state visit to Albania.
Azerbaijan: Honorary Doctor Degree, Azerbaijan State University of Economics Media related to Konstantinos Stefanopoulos at Wikimedia Commons