Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of Government. Impeachment does not necessarily mean removal from office, it is only a statement of charges, akin to an indictment in criminal law. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must face the possibility of conviction via legislative vote, in the United States, for example, impeachment at the Federal level is reserved for those who may have committed high crimes and misdemeanors. Several Federal officials, including two Presidents and several judges, have been impeached over the course of US history, US President Richard Nixon resigned before Watergate scandal impeachment proceedings could begin. The federal procedure in the United States involves a vote for impeachment in the House of Representatives on a document known as the Article of Impeachment, each separate grounds will be a separate Article. House members who support the impeachment appoint managers who will act like prosecutors in the preparation for the Senate hearing, the defendant has the right to legal counsel, the right to cross-examine all witnesses and to testify in his or her defense.
The senators must take an oath or affirmation that they perform their duties honestly. The hearing cannot be conducted without a 50% plus one quorum, after the hearing the deliberations are held in private. Removal requires a majority of the Senate. Impeachment has its origins in English law but fell out of use in the 18th century and it exists under constitutional law in many nations around the world, including Brazil, the Republic of Ireland, Russia, South Korea and the United States. The word impeachment derives from Latin root impedicare expressing the idea of becoming caught or entrapped, and has analogues in the modern French verb empêcher, medieval popular etymology associated it with derivations from the Latin impetere. Impeachment was first used in the British political system, the process was first used by the English Good Parliament against Baron Latimer in the second half of the 14th century. In private organizations, a motion to impeach can be used to prefer charges, the Austrian Federal President can be impeached by the Federal Assembly before the Constitutional Court.
The constitution provides for the recall of the president by a referendum, neither of these courses has ever been taken. This is likely because while the President is vested with considerable powers on paper, he acts as a ceremonial figurehead in practice. The President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, state governors and municipal mayors may be impeached by the Chamber of Deputies, upon conviction, the officeholder has his political rights revoked for eight years--which has the effect of barring him from running for any office. On December 30,1992, Fernando Collor de Mello, the 32nd President of Brazil, the Senate nonetheless voted to convict Collor and bar him from holding any office for eight years, due to evidence of bribery and misappropriation. On April 17,2016, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies approved the opening of the impeachment case against the president, Dilma Rousseff, the case was revised by the Federal Senate which, on May 12, approved the suspension of the President
Monsignor is an honorific form of address for those members of the clergy of the Catholic Church including bishops, honorary prelates and canons. In some cases, these ecclesiastical honorific titles derive from the pope and these are granted to individuals who have rendered valuable service to the Church, or who provide some special function in Church governance, or who are members of bodies such as certain chapters. The title is never bestowed on those classified as religious in Catholicism, although in some languages the word is used as a form of address for bishops, which is indeed its primary use in those languages, this is not customary in English. Monsignor is the form of the Italian monsignore, from the French mon seigneur. It is abbreviated Mgr, Msgr, or Mons, Monsignor is a form of address, not an appointment, properly speaking, one cannot be made a monsignor or be the monsignor of a parish. The title or form of address is associated with certain papal awards, apart from those working in the Roman Curia and the diplomatic service of the Holy See, it is usually on the proposal of the local bishop that the Pope grants this title to Catholic diocesan clergy.
The grant is subject to criteria of the Holy See that include a minimum age, soon after his election in March 2013, Pope Francis suspended the granting of the honorific title of Monsignor except to members of the Holy Sees diplomatic service. He himself, during his 15 years as archbishop of Buenos Aires, never asked any of his priests receive the title. Grants already made were not revoked, unaffected is the association of the style with the office of vicar general, an appointment made by the bishop of the diocese, not by the Pope. Without necessarily being a protonotary apostolic, a diocesan priest has that titular rank as long as he remains in office, the written form of address for such a priest is Monsignor or The Reverend Monsignor. The spoken form of address is Monsignor, the 1969 Instruction of the Secretariat of State indicated that the title of Monsignor may be used for bishops. This is normal practice in Italian, French and Spanish, the predicate His Lordship or Your Lordship is, in English, used as a clerical title only for bishops.
Until 1968 there were at least 14 different grades, including domestic prelates, four kinds of protonotaries apostolic, four kinds of papal chamberlains, Pope Paul VI in his motu proprio Pontificalis Domus of 28 March 1968 reduced the grades to three. Since then, apostolic protonotaries have been classified either de numero or supernumerary, most of the former classes of chamberlains and chaplains were abolished, leaving only a single class of Chaplains of His Holiness, a specifically priestly-sounding category. In 2014, Pope Francis abolished the practice of granting priests the title of monsignor, existing members of all three ranks established by Pope Paul VI retain their membership. The 1969 Instruction of the Secretariat of State simplified the dress of monsignori, Chaplains of His Holiness use a purple-trimmed black cassock with purple sash for all occasions. Honorary Prelates use a black cassock with purple sash for all occasions. The red is the shade as that used by bishops
1992 attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires
The attack on the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires was a suicide bombing attack on the building of the Israeli embassy of Argentina, located in Buenos Aires, which was carried out on 17 March 1992. Twenty-nine civilians were killed in the attack and 242 additional civilians were injured, the embassy, a Catholic church, and a nearby school building were destroyed. Four Israelis died, but most of the victims were Argentine civilians, the blast killed 29 and wounded 242. It was Argentinas deadliest terror attack until the AMIA Bombing of 1994, priest Juan Carlos Brumana was one of the people killed in the suicide bombing. He died in the Catholic Church Mater Admirabilis that is in front of the embassy, among the dead there were two Israeli women who were the wives of the embassys consul and first secretary. Islamic Jihad released surveillance footage they took of the embassy before the blast, after the bombing, Israel sent investigators to Argentina to search for clues. They learned that the planned the attack in the Tri-Border area, where the borders of Argentina and Brazil meet.
Messages intercepted by the American National Security Agency revealed Iranian knowledge of the impending attack, in fact, Mugniyeh was formally charged by Argentina with participating in the bombings of the Israeli embassy. However, none of the suspects was prosecuted, a number of sources report on Hezbollah involvement with the assistance of Syria. In 1999, the Argentine government issued an arrest warrant for Imad Mugniyah in connection with this attack and the 1994 AMIA Bombing in Buenos Aires and it is suspected that the two attacks are linked. When he was president, Néstor Kirchner pronounced that allowing these two incidents to happen, with no real inquiries to be followed, equalled a national disgrace and he reopened, and kept open files from these incidents, most to be read by Justice Juan Jose Galeano. In the same process Kirchner hoped to lift the ban for former Intelligence Officers to testify, a former president of Argentina claimed that she wanted to get to the bottom of the case.
Today there is a set up in place of where the building stood. In the memorial plaza stand twenty one trees and seven benches in memory of the victims, a plaque describing the event and listing the victims is located in the memorial in both Hebrew and Spanish. The Secret War with Iran, The 30-Year Clandestine Struggle Against the Worlds Most Dangerous Terrorist Power, ISBN 1-4165-5839-X Context of March 17,1992, Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires Is Bombed and Iran Accused Despite Lack of Evidence -History Commons
In some countries an Inspector General, Citizen Advocate or other official may have duties similar to those of a national ombudsman, and may be appointed by a legislature. Below the national level an ombudsman may be appointed by a state, unofficial ombudsmen may be appointed by, or even work for, a corporation such as a utility supplier, newspaper, NGO, or professional regulatory body. The typical duties of an ombudsman are to investigate complaints and attempt to resolve them, Ombudsmen sometimes aim to identify systematic issues leading to poor service or breaches of peoples rights. At the national level, most ombudsmen have a mandate to deal with the entire public sector. In some cases, there is a more restricted mandate, for example with particular sectors of society, more recent developments have included the creation of specialized Childrens Ombudsman and Information Commissioner agencies. In some jurisdictions an ombudsman charged with handling concerns about government is more formally referred to as the Parliamentary Commissioner.
In many countries where the ombudsmans responsibility includes protecting human rights, the post of ombudsman had by the end of the 20th century been instituted by most governments and by some intergovernmental organizations such as the European Union. A prototype of ombudsmen may have flourished in China during the Qin Dynasty, the Roman Tribune had some similar roles, with power to veto acts that infringed upon the Plebeians. Another precursor to the ombudsman was the Turkish Diwan-al-Mazalim which appears to go back to the caliph, Umar. They were attested in Siam, the Liao dynasty, Japan, an indigenous Swedish and Danish term, ombudsman is etymologically rooted in the Old Norse word umboðsmaðr, essentially meaning representative. In the Danish Law of Jutland from 1241, the term is umbozman, from 1552, it is used in the other Scandinavian languages such as the both Icelandic and Faroese umboðsmaður, the Norwegian ombudsmann/ombodsmann and the Swedish ombudsman. The Swedish speaking minority in Finland uses the Swedish terminology, the predecessor of the Swedish Parliamentary Ombudsman was the Office of Supreme Ombudsman, which was established by the Swedish King, Charles XII, in 1713.
Charles XII was in exile in Turkey and needed a representative in Sweden to ensure that judges and civil servants acted in accordance with the laws, if they did not do so, the Supreme Ombudsman had the right to prosecute them for negligence. In 1719 the Swedish Office of Supreme Ombudsman became the Chancellor of Justice, the word ombudsman and its specific meaning have since been adopted in various languages, including Spanish and Czech. The German language uses Ombudsmann and Ombudsleute, notable exceptions are French and Finnish, which use translations instead. Modern variations of this term include ombud, ombudsperson, or ombudswoman, if the ombudsman finds a complaint to be substantiated, the problem may get rectified, or an ombudsman report is published making recommendations for change. Further redress depends on the laws of the concerned. Ombudsmen in most countries do not have the power to initiate legal proceedings or prosecution on the grounds of a complaint, the major advantage of an ombudsman is that he or she examines complaints from outside the offending state institution, thus avoiding the conflicts of interest inherent in self-policing
A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. The verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors, in economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is an entity that has significant market power, that is. Although monopolies may be big businesses, size is not a characteristic of a monopoly, a small business may still have the power to raise prices in a small industry. A monopoly is distinguished from a monopsony, in there is only one buyer of a product or service. Likewise, a monopoly should be distinguished from a cartel, in which several providers act together to coordinate services, prices or sale of goods. Monopolies and oligopolies are all situations in one or a few entities have market power and therefore interact with their customers. Monopolies can be established by a government, form naturally, or form by integration, in many jurisdictions, competition laws restrict monopolies. A government-granted monopoly or legal monopoly, by contrast, is sanctioned by the state, patents and trademarks are sometimes used as examples of government-granted monopolies.
The government may reserve the venture for itself, thus forming a government monopoly, There are four basic types of market structures in traditional economic analysis, perfect competition, monopolistic competition and monopoly. A monopoly is a structure in which a single supplier produces, if there is a single seller in a certain market and there are no close substitutes for the product, the market structure is that of a pure monopoly. Sometimes, there are many sellers in an industry and/or there exist many close substitutes for the goods being produced and this is termed monopolistic competition, whereas in oligopoly the companies interact strategically. Most economic textbooks follow the practice of explaining the perfect competition model. The boundaries of what constitutes a market and what does not are relevant distinctions to make in economic analysis, in a general equilibrium context, a good is a specific concept including geographical and time-related characteristics. Most studies of market structure relax a little their definition of a good, price Maker, Decides the price of the good or product to be sold, but does so by determining the quantity in order to demand the price desired by the firm.
High Barriers, Other sellers are unable to enter the market of the monopoly, single seller, In a monopoly, there is one seller of the good, who produces all the output. Therefore, the market is being served by a single company, and for practical purposes. Price Discrimination, A monopolist can change the price or quantity of the product and he or she sells higher quantities at a lower price in a very elastic market, and sells lower quantities at a higher price in a less elastic market
Human rights are moral principles or norms, which describe certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and international law. They are applicable everywhere and at time in the sense of being universal. They require empathy and the rule of law and impose an obligation on persons to respect the rights of others. They should not be taken away except as a result of due process based on circumstances, for example, human rights may include freedom from unlawful imprisonment, torture. The doctrine of human rights has been influential within international law. Actions by states and non-governmental organizations form a basis of public policy worldwide, the idea of human rights suggests that if the public discourse of peacetime global society can be said to have a common moral language, it is that of human rights. The strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about the content, ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights.
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the family is the foundation of freedom. All human beings are free and equal in dignity and rights. According to Jack Donnelly, in the ancient world, traditional societies typically have had elaborate systems of duties, conceptions of justice, political legitimacy, and human flourishing that sought to realize human dignity, flourishing, or well-being entirely independent of human rights. These institutions and practices are alternative to, rather than different formulations of, one theory is that human rights were developed during the early Modern period, alongside the European secularization of Judeo-Christian ethics. The most commonly held view is that the concept of human rights evolved in the West, for example, McIntyre argues there is no word for right in any language before 1400. One of the oldest records of rights is the statute of Kalisz, giving privileges to the Jewish minority in the Kingdom of Poland such as protection from discrimination.
Samuel Moyn suggests that the concept of rights is intertwined with the modern sense of citizenship. The earliest conceptualization of human rights is credited to ideas about natural rights emanating from natural law, in particular, the issue of universal rights was introduced by the examination of extending rights to indigenous peoples by Spanish clerics, such as Francisco de Vitoria and Bartolomé de Las Casas. In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. These were followed by developments in philosophy of human rights by philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill, hegel during the 18th and 19th centuries. Although the term had been used by at least one author as early as 1742, in the 19th century, human rights became a central concern over the issue of slavery