The law does not concern private, non-commercial communications, such as non-commercial web publications by private bodies. It does not concern books, public speeches, the law mandates the use of the French language in all broadcast audiovisual programs, with exceptions for musical works and original version films. Broadcast musical works are subject to quota rules under a law whereby a minimum percentage of the songs on radio. The law takes its name from Jacques Toubon, who was Minister of Culture when it was passed. Among other things, this means that software developed outside France must have its user interface. The law includes an exception that these provisions do not apply to documents coming from abroad, another broad provision of the law is that it makes it mandatory for commercial advertisements and public announcements to be given in French. This does not rule out advertisements made in a foreign language and this was justified as a measure for the protection of the consumer. Additionally, product packaging must be in French, again, some linguistic restrictions on product labeling were found to be incompatible with European law, particularly the directives concerning the freedom of movement of goods within the European Union.
The French government issued interpretation notes and amended regulations in order to comply, in another provision, the law specifies obligations for public legal persons, mandating the use of French in publications, or at least in summaries of publications. In France, it is a requirement that the public should be informed of the action of the government. Since the official language of France is French, it follows that the French public should be able to get information in French. Under the Toubon law, schools that do not use French as the medium of instruction are ineligible for government funding and this includes the Breton language schools of Brittany. Other restrictions concern the use of French in academic conferences and these are largely ignored by many public institutions, especially in the hard scientific fields. At the time of the complaint, all classes at this Lorraine school were conducted in English, the complaint invoked the Toubon Law to demand that the schools web site must be in French because the web site was effectively a commercial advertisement for the schools courses.
In 2006, the French subsidiary of the US company General Electric Medical Systems was fined €500,000 plus a fine of €20,000 per day for not complying with the Toubon law
Paul Dubreil was a French mathematician. He was born in Le Mans, Maine and died in Soisy-sur-École, Dubreil was married to fellow mathematician Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin. Book Leçons dAlgèbre Moderne with M. L. Dubreil-Jacotin OConnor, John J. Robertson, Edmund F. Paul Dubreil, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, Paul Dubreil at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
History of France
The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language, over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. Afterwards a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire, in the stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. The Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The war formally began in 1337 following Philip VIs attempt to seize the Duchy of Aquitaine from its holder, Edward III of England. Despite early Plantagenet victories, including the capture and ransom of John II of France, among the notable figures of the war was Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl who led French forces against the English, establishing herself as a national heroine.
The war ended with a Valois victory in 1453, victory in the Hundred Years War had the effect of strengthening French nationalism and vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Régime, France transformed into an absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation, King of Navarre, scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire was established in the 16th century, French political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, The Sun King, builder of Versailles Palace. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution, the country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers.
France was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, the Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by Germany while the south was controlled until 1942 by the collaborationist Vichy government. Living conditions were harsh as Germany drained away food and manpower, Charles de Gaulle led the Free France movement that one-by-one took over the colonial empire, and coordinated the wartime Resistance. Following liberation in summer 1944, a Fourth Republic was established, France slowly recovered economically, and enjoyed a baby boom that reversed its very low fertility rate. Long wars in Indochina and Algeria drained French resources and ended in political defeat, in the wake of the Algerian Crisis of 1958, Charles de Gaulle set up the French Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while smaller parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments, since World War II France has been a permanent member in the UN Security Council and NATO.
It played a role in the unification process after 1945 that led to the European Union
Toulouse is the capital city of the southwestern French department of Haute-Garonne, as well as of the Occitanie region. The city lies on the banks of the River Garonne,150 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea,230 km from the Atlantic Ocean and it is the fourth-largest city in France with 466,297 inhabitants in January 2014. The Toulouse Metro area is, with 1312304 inhabitants as of 2014, Frances 4th metropolitan area after Paris and Marseille and ahead of Lille and Bordeaux. Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, the Airbus Group, ATR and the Aerospace Valley. The city hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNESs Toulouse Space Centre, thales Alenia Space, and Astrium Satellites, Airbus Groups satellite system subsidiary, have a significant presence in Toulouse. The University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe and, with more than 103,000 students, is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the Universities of Paris and Lille.
The air route between Toulouse Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014, according to the rankings of LExpress and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city. It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the largest region in metropolitan France, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, the city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a subtropical climate which can be qualified as submediterranean due to its proximity to the Mediterranean climate zone. The Garonne Valley was a point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa, it is of unknown meaning or origin, possibly from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC, when it became a Roman military outpost.
After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its cities, in the early 6th century even serving as its capital. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm, in 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse. Odos victory was an obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe. Charles Martel, a later, won the Battle of Tours. The Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, and a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century
Groupe dintervention de la Gendarmerie nationale, commonly abbreviated GIGN, is the elite law enforcement and special operations unit of the French National Gendarmerie. Its missions include counter-terrorism, hostage rescue, surveillance of national threats, protection of government officials, GIGN was established in 1974 following the Munich massacre. GIGN shares jurisdiction of French territory with the National Police special-response units, GIGN is headquartered in Versailles-Satory near Paris. Although most of its operations take place in France, the unit, as a component of the French Armed Forces, many of its missions are secret, and members are not allowed to be publicly photographed. Since its formation, GIGN has been involved in over 1,800 missions and rescued more than 600 hostages, the unit came into prominence following its successful assault on a hijacked Air France flight at Marseille Marignane airport in December 1994. GIGN was formed in 1973 in the wake of the Munich massacre and it became operational in March 1974, under the command of then-lieutenant Christian Prouteau and performed its first mission ten days later.
Another unit was created simultaneously within the Gendarmerie parachute squadron in Mont-de-Marsan in southwest France, gIGNs initial complement was 15, increased to 32 in 1976,78 by 1986, and 120 by 2005. On 1 September 2007, a reorganization took place. In effect, GSIGN was renamed GIGN and its former components became forces of the new GIGN which now reached a total complement of 380 operators. More than a simple name swap, the new organization aimed at, reinforcing command and control functions providing better integration through common selection, common training, improving the units capability to handle complex situations such as mass hostage-takings similar to the Beslan crisis. In 2009, the Gendarmerie, while remaining part of the French Armed Forces, was attached to the Ministry of the interior, under the new command structure, GIGN gendarmes can still be engaged in military operations outside of France due to their military status. Coordination between GIGN and RAID, the police elite team, is handled by a joint organization called Ucofi. A leader/follower protocol has been established for use when both units need to be engaged jointly, leadership belonging to the operating in its primary areas of responsibility.
Since its creation, the group has taken part in over 1800 operations, liberated over 600 hostages and arrested over 1500 suspects, the two fatalities in action were sustained when dealing with armed deranged persons. Arrest of dangerous or deranged armed persons and observation of criminals and terrorists. GIGN is currently organized in six forces, under two headquarters, Intervention force, Approx,100 men, serving as the main assault unit of the GIGN. It is divided into four platoons (French, two of which are on permanent alert and these platoons are further divided into individual teams of operators. Two of the sections are specialized in high altitude jumps
Jean-Louis Barrault studied with Charles Dullin in whose troupe he acted from 1933 to 1935. At 25 years of age, he met and studied with the mime Étienne Decroux, from 1940 to 1946 Barrault was a member of the Comédie-Française, where he directed productions of Paul Claudels Le Soulier de satin and Jean Racines Phèdre, two plays that made his reputation. Over his career, he acted in nearly 50 movies including Les beaux jours, Jenny, LOr dans la Montagne, in 1940, he married the actress Madeleine Renaud. They founded a number of theatres together and toured extensively, including in South America and he was the uncle of actress Marie-Christine Barrault and sometime sponsor of Peter Brook. He died from an attack in Paris at the age of 83. Jean-Louis Barrault is buried with his wife Madeleine Renaud in the Passy Cemetery in Paris, Jean-Louis Barrault, Reflections on the Theatre, In fact it is the simplest things that are the most tricky to do well. To be able to exactly what is written without omitting anything that is written.
To be able to capture the exact context of the one is reading. Barrault from Melinda Camber Porters Through Parisian Eyes, Reflections on Contemporary French Arts and Culture, when I go to sleep, I feel I have experienced a small death, so that I can wake up in the morning renewed and reborn. Jean-Louis Barrault at the Internet Movie Database Jean-Louis Barrault at Find a Grave
Air France Flight 8969
When the aircraft reached Marseille, the GIGN, a counter-terror unit of the French National Gendarmerie, stormed the plane and killed all four hijackers. Algeria was in a state of war at the time of the hijacking. Aircraft flying to Algiers faced the possibility of missile attacks, as a result, Air Frances flights to Algiers had crews entirely made of people who volunteered for the route. Air France had asked government officials if it absolutely had to continue flying to Algeria, as of the time of the hijacking, Bernard Dhellemme was the captain of the flight. Jean-Paul Borderie was the copilot, and Alain Bossuat was the flight engineer, the Airbus A300B2-1C, tail number F-GBEC, had first flown on 28 February 1980. The men had blue uniforms with Air Algérie logos and their presence originally did not cause alarm. Two of them began inspecting the passengers passports while one went into the cockpit, the Algerian military felt suspicion when it noticed that the Air France flight had what appeared to be an unauthorised delay, so members began surrounding the aircraft.
Zahida Kakachi, a passenger, recalled seeing a group of Algerian special forces, known as ninjas, outside the aircraft. Kakachi recalled hearing one of the police say taghut, an Arabic word for infidel, upon seeing the ninjas gathering outside the A300, the four men revealed that they were not police, but mujahideen seeking to establish an Islamic state in Algeria. The men hijacked the aircraft because, as a part of the national airline Air France, it was a symbol of France, the hijackers had Kalashnikov assault rifles, Uzi submachine guns, homemade hand grenades, and two 10-stick dynamite packs. At one point in the flight, the men placed one pack of dynamite in the cockpit, the men linked them with detonator wire. They took the uniforms of the pilots to confuse Algerian army snipers, Allah has chosen us to die and Allah has chosen you to die with us. Once they took control of the aircraft, the hijackers forced women with uncovered heads, including the crew members. Women who did not have used aircraft blankets to cover their heads.
An elderly Algerian man told the TF1 network that the hijackers had a kind of art in their terror, twenty minutes of relaxation and twenty minutes of torture. You never knew what was next, the men stated over the aircrafts cockpit radio, We are the Soldiers of Mercy. Allah has selected us as his soldiers and we are here to wage war in his name. Abderrahmane Meziane Chérif, the Minister of the Interior of Algeria, Chérif demanded that the hijackers begin releasing children and elderly if they wanted to talk to the Algerian government
Michael Schumacher is a German retired racing driver. He is a seven-time Formula One World Champion and is regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time. He was named Laureus World Sportsman of the Year twice and he won two titles with Benetton in 1994 and 1995 before moving to Ferrari where he drove for eleven years. His time with Ferrari yielded five consecutive titles between 2000 and 2004, Schumacher holds many of Formula Ones driver records, including most championships, race victories, fastest laps, pole positions and races won in a single season –13 in 2004. In 2002, he became the driver in Formula One history to finish in the top three in every race of a season and also broke the record for most consecutive podium finishes. According to the official Formula One website, he is statistically the greatest driver the sport has ever seen, after beginning in karting, Schumacher won the German drivers championships in Formula König and Formula Three before joining Mercedes in the World Sportscar Championship.
In 1991, his Mercedes-funded race debut for the Jordan Formula One team resulted in Schumacher being signed by Benetton Formula One team as their driver for the rest of that season. Establishing himself as a top driver, finishing third in 1992 and fourth in 1993, in 1995 he repeated the success, this time with a greater margin. Schumacher moved to Ferrari in 1996, Schumacher came close to winning the 1997 and 1998 titles, before breaking his leg at the 1999 British Grand Prix, ending another title run. Things came good for Schumacher who won five consecutive drivers titles from 2000 to 2004. Schumacher retired from Formula One driving in 2006 staying with Ferrari as an advisor and he came close to an eighth title that year, but due to technical problems in the final two races he fell short to Fernando Alonso. Schumacher agreed to return for Ferrari part-way through 2009, as cover for the badly injured Felipe Massa, Schumacher returned to Formula One on a permanent basis from 2010 with the Mercedes team before retiring for a second time at the conclusion of the 2012 season.
Off the track, Schumacher is an ambassador for UNESCO and a spokesman for driver safety and he has been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts throughout his life and donated tens of millions of dollars to charity. In December 2013, Schumacher suffered a head injury while skiing. He was airlifted to a hospital and placed in an induced coma. He was in the coma for six months from 29 December 2013 until 16 June 2014 and he left the hospital in Grenoble for further rehabilitation at the University Hospital in Lausanne. On 9 September 2014, Schumacher was relocated to his home where he continues to receive medical treatment, Schumacher was born in Hürth, North Rhine-Westphalia, to Rolf Schumacher, a bricklayer, and his wife Elisabeth. When Schumacher was four, his father modified his pedal kart by adding a small motorcycle engine, when Schumacher crashed it into a lamp post in Kerpen, his parents took him to the karting track at Kerpen-Horrem, where he became the youngest member of the karting club
Adrien Hunou is a French footballer who plays as a central midfielder for Stade Rennais. He has represented France at youth level, having played for the U18, U19, Hunou made his Ligue 1 debut at 25 August 2013 against Evian Thonon Gaillard F. C. replacing Nélson Oliveira after 87 minutes. He was loaned to Ligue 2 side Clermont Foot in December 2014, on 21 September 2016, Hunou made his first appearance of the 2016–2017 season in Ligue 1 and scored his first goal for Rennes, contributing the late winner in a 3–2 defeat of Marseille. Hunou has represented Frances U18, U19 and U20 international youth teams, France profile at FFF Adrien Hunou – French league stats at LFP Eurosport profile Profile at Soccerway