The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2006 in basketball
The following are the basketball events of the year 2006 throughout the world. Tournaments include international and amateur and collegiate levels. 2006 FIBA World Championship: Gold medal: Spain Silver medal: Greece Bronze medal: USA MVP: Pau Gasol, Spain All-tournament team: Pau Gasol Carmelo Anthony Jorge Garbajosa Manu Ginóbili Theodoros Papaloukas 2006 FIBA World Championship for Women Gold medal: Australia Silver medal: Russia Bronze medal: USA MVP: Penny Taylor, Australia Basketball at the 2006 Asian Games Men's tournament: Gold medal: China Silver medal: Qatar Bronze medal: Iran Women's tournament: Gold medal: China Silver medal: Chinese Taipei Bronze medal: Japan NBA season and playoffs: 2006 NBA Finals: Miami Heat 4, Dallas Mavericks 2. MVP: Dwyane Wade EuroLeague: CSKA Moscow defeated Maccabi Tel Aviv 73-69 in the final Croatian League: Cibona defeated Zadar 2-1 in the best-of-three finals French League: Le Mans defeated Nancy 93-88 in the one-off final German Bundesliga: RheinEnergie Köln defeated Alba Berlin 3-1 in the best-of-five finals Greek League: Panathinaikos defeated Olympiakos 3-0 in the best-of-five finals Iranian Super League, 2005–06 season: Saba Battery defeat Petrochimi 3–0 in the best-of-five final.
Israel Premier League: Maccabi Tel Aviv defeated Hapoel Jerusalem 96-66 in the one-off final Italian Serie A: Benetton Treviso defeated Climamio Bologna 3-1 in the best-of-five finals Lithuanian LKL: Lietuvos Rytas defeated Žalgiris 4-0 in the best-of-seven finals Philippine Basketball Association 2005–06 season: Red Bull Barako over the Purefoods Chunkee Giants 4-2 in the Fiesta Conference Finals. Finals MVP: Lordy Tugade Purefoods Chunkee Giants over Red Bull Barako 4-2 in the Philippine Cup Finals. Finals MVP: Marc Pingris Polish League: Prokom Trefl Sopot over Anwil Włocławek 4-1 in the best-of-seven finals Russian Super League: CSKA Moscow over Khimki 3-0 in the best-of-five finals Serbia and Montenegro Super League: Partizan over Red Star 3-0 in the best-of-five finals Spanish ACB: Unicaja Málaga over TAU Cerámica 3-0 in the best-of-five finals 2005–06 season, 2005–06 playoffs Turkish Basketball League: Ülkerspor over Efes Pilsen 4-0 in the best-of-seven finals. Only three matches were played.
British Basketball League: Newcastle Eagles defeated Scottish Rocks 83-68 in the one-off final Adriatic League: FMP defeated Partizan 73-72 in the one-off final 2006 WNBA Finals: Detroit Shock 3, Sacramento Monarchs 2 MVP: Deanna Nolan, Detroit Men NCAA Division I: Florida 73, UCLA 57 National Invitation Tournament: South Carolina 76, Michigan 64 Division II: Winona State 73, Virginia Union 61 Division III: Virginia Wesleyan 59, Wittenberg 56 NAIA NAIA Division I: Texas Wesleyan 67, Oklahoma City 65 NAIA Division II: University of the Ozarks 74, Huntington 56 NJCAA Division I: Arkansas-Ft. Smith 68, Tallahassee CC 59 Division II: Cecil CC 9 64, Kirkwood CC 63 Division III: North Lake College 78, Gloucester County College 65 UAAP Men's: University of Santo Tomas over Ateneo de Manila University, 2 games to 1 NCAA Seniors': San Beda College over Philippine Christian University, 2 games to 1 Women NCAA Division I: Maryland 78, Duke 75 OT WNIT Kansas State 77, Marquette 65 Division II: Grand Valley State 58, American International 52 Division III Hope 69, Southern Maine 56 NAIA NAIA Division I: Union 79, Lubbock Christian 62 NAIA Division II Hastings 58, University of the Ozarks 39 NJCAADivision I: Monroe CC 76, Odessa College 64 Division II: Illinois Central College 71, Kirkwood CC 54 Division III: Monroe College 100, Mohawk Valley CC 70 UAAP Women's: University of Santo Tomas over Far Eastern University, 2 games to 1 USA Today Boys Basketball Ranking #1: Lawrence North High School, Indiana USA Today Girls Basketball Ranking #1: Christ the King, New York NCAA Juniors: San Sebastian Recoletos High School over Philippine Christian University Union High School, 2 games to 0 UAAP Juniors: Ateneo de Manila High School over Far Eastern University-Nicanor Reyes Educational Foundation, 2 games to 1 Class of 2006:Geno Auriemma Charles Barkley Joe Dumars Alessandro "Sandro" Gamba Dave Gavitt Jacques Dominique Wilkins Class of 2006Geno Auriemma Maria Paula Gonçalves da Silva Clarissa Davis-Wrightsil Janice Lawrence Braxton Katrina McClain Johnson Barbara Stevens Men NBA Most Valuable Player Award: Steve Nash NBA Rookie of the Year Award: Chris Paul NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award: Ben Wallace NBA Coach of the Year Award: Avery Johnson FIBA Europe Player of the Year Award: Theodoros Papaloukas, CSKA Moscow and Greece Euroscar Award: Dirk Nowitzki, Dallas Mavericks and Germany Mr. Europa: Jorge Garbajosa, Toronto Raptors and Spain Women WNBA Most Valuable Player Award: Lisa Leslie, Los Angeles Sparks WNBA Defensive Player of the Year Award: Tamika Catchings, Indiana Fever WNBA Rookie of the Year Award: Seimone Augustus, Minnesota Lynx WNBA Most Improved Player Award: Erin Buescher, Sacramento Monarchs Kim Perrot Sportsmanship Award: Dawn Staley, Houston Comets WNBA Coach of the Year Award: Mike Thibault, Connecticut Sun WNBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award: Deanna Nolan, Detroit Shock FIBA Europe Player of the Year Award: Maria Stepanova, CSKA Samara and Russia Combined Legends of Coaching Award: Jim Boeheim, Syracuse Men John R. Wooden Award: J. J. Redick, Duke Naismith College Coach of the Year: Jay Wright, Villanova Frances Pomeroy Naismith Award: Dee Brown, Illinois Associated Press College Basketbal
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly