San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
International America's Cup Class
The International Americas Cup Class are a class of racing yacht, developed for the America's Cup between 1992 and 2007. These yachts, while not identical, were all designed to the same formula to offer designers the freedom to experiment whilst keeping the boats sufficiently comparable to race in real time; the class was established for the 1992 America's Cup because of perceived shortcomings of the 12-metre class, used in the America's Cup since 1958. In addition to the America's Cup, IACC yachts were raced in other regattas, including the IACC worlds. IACC sail numbers were issued according to the date when the ACM measurement committee decided that the hull has reached a certain stage of completion; the number came in two parts: the hull number. The country code changed. Only one boat had a sail number issued twice as in the case of RUS-62, a new boat based on the modified hull of RUS-24 and re-registered as RUS-62. Version 5.0 of the International America's Cup Class Rule was issued on December 15, 2003.
Copyright is held jointly by the'Challenger of Record' BMW Oracle Racing. Typical parameters of an IACC yacht were: length: 25 metres weight: 24 tonnes height of the mast: 35 metres weight of the bulb: 19 tonnes sail surface area: 325 square metres upwind, 750 square metres downwind crew: 17+ "18th man" 2007 America's Cup Winner - Alinghi SUI-100, Switzerland 2003 America's Cup Winner - Alinghi SUI-64, Switzerland 2000 America's Cup Winner - Team New Zealand NZL-60, Team New Zealand, New Zealand 1995 America's Cup Winner - Team New Zealand NZL-32, New Zealand 1992 America's Cup Winner - America³ USA-23, United States 2007 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner - Emirates Team New Zealand NZL-92, New Zealand 2003 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner - Alinghi SUI-64, Switzerland 2000 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner - Prada Challenge ITA-45, Italy 1995 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner- Team New Zealand NZL-32, New Zealand 1992 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner - Il Moro di Venezia ITA-16, Italy The 2007 America’s Cup saw the introduction of the ‘’Umpire Signaling System’’ which allowed the Umpires to notify the two boats regarding their position in relation to each other when overtaking and their position relating to a mark of the course when in close proximity of the mark.
On both the defender and the challenger there was a display unit with three LED lights coloured green and white respectively. GREEN lamp: ZONE ENTRY. Status ‘On’ indicates that the leading yacht has entered a zone of two or three boat lengths from the mark. AMBER lamp: OVERLAP. Status ‘On’ indicates that the bow of the overtaking yacht is overlapping the stern of the leading yacht and there is no restriction on the leeward yacht to steer a direct course for the next mark; the leeward yacht may point higher than the direct course to the next mark causing the windward yacht to either tack or sail higher than needed to the next mark. WHITE lamp: RULE 17.1. Status ‘On’ indicates that the depth of the overlap has increased to the point where the yacht to leeward must now steer a proper course to the mark and hence cannot point higher and force the overtaking yacht to either tack or sail a higher course to the next mark; the rules of racing define what tactics/maneuvers are permissible when a yacht nears a mark and when a trailing yacht starts to overtake the boat in front.
The purpose of the USS is to remove doubt and associated protests caused by competitors having differing opinions of either their positions relative to each other or their distance from marks and performing tactical maneuvers prohibited by the racing rules. The system was developed by Pilotfish Networks AB. Formula: L + 1.25 × S − 9.8 × D S P 3 0.686 ≤ 24.000 m e t r e s DSP: displacement in cubic metres. The boats had to carry what was known as the "18th man", a passenger or the equivalent weight up to 100 kg; this was a sought-after position filled by a celebrity or a representative from one of the key sponsors to the team. After the conclusion of the 2007 America's Cup, Brad Butterworth announced on behalf of Alinghi and America's Cup Management that a new design of boat would be sailed in the next edition of the America's Cup; the feeling was that the existing IACC rule had evolved as far as was practical and that in the spirit of the America's Cup, a new design challenge was needed. Alinghi promulgated a new design, called the AC 90.
Plans to introduce this class were superseded by Alinghi's loss to BMW Oracle in the 2010 America's Cup and the subsequent creation of the AC72 class of catamarans. The last IACC yacht completed was hull number 100, the 2007 defender. Maxi yacht List of International America's Cup Class Yachts Louis Vuitton Cup
Team New Zealand
Team New Zealand or TNZ is a sailing team based in Auckland, New Zealand representing the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron. Team New Zealand became a household name in their home country following their consecutive wins in the America's Cup in 1995 and 2000, under the leadership of Sir Peter Blake, when becoming the first team from a country outside the United States to win and defend the America's Cup. In 2017, skippered by Glenn Ashby, they went on to retake the America's Cup. Three challenges were launched before the founding of Team New Zealand, all of these backed by Michael Fay. New Zealand Challenge competed in the 1987 Louis Vuitton Cup, the 1988 America's Cup and the 1992 Louis Vuitton Cup. Following the 1992 competition, Michael Fay withdrew from backing the New Zealand challenges and a new effort under the leadership of Sir Peter Blake began putting together a team, raising funds and gaining support for the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron. Team New Zealand Limited was established as a registered company in 1993 In 1995, TNZ beat Team Dennis Conner 5–0 in a major upset off San Diego, California after winning the right to challenge in the Louis Vuitton Cup.
Their boats were fast, they had an experienced crew led by skipper Russell Coutts, they were ably led by Sir Peter Blake. As NZL 32 approached the finish line on the last race, sailing commentator Pete Montgomery made the now famous line "The America's Cup is now New Zealand's cup!"The winning yacht, NZL 32, was shipped back to New Zealand and given to the Te Papa Museum, is now housed in an extension to the northern end of the National Maritime Museum in Auckland as part of a permanent exhibition, Blue Water, Black Magic, about Sir Peter Blake. TNZ beat Italy's Prada Challenge 5–0 in the 2000 match held on Auckland's Hauraki Gulf. On crossing the finish line in the final race, commentator Peter Montgomery exclaimed "The America's Cup is still New Zealand's cup!!" – echoing his comment in 1995 America's Cup. A notable feature was Russell Coutts handing over the helm to Dean Barker in the final race. In 2003, Team New Zealand's eight-year reign ended after they were defeated 5–0 by Swiss-based challenger Alinghi.
TNZ dubbed their campaign the "Loyal" campaign, featuring a Silver fern flag with the word "Loyal" and an existing song of the same name by New Zealand musician Dave Dobbyn. This was due to the Swiss boat featuring many of the afterguard members from TNZ's previous campaigns which, along with a fast boat and a lack of reliability aboard TNZ's NZL 82, contributed to the win. In 2007, the re-branded Emirates Team New Zealand won the Louis Vuitton Cup and advanced to the 32nd America's Cup against defenders Alinghi. Team New Zealand lost the series 2 -- 5 to the last by a single second. In late 2003, TNZ announced their intention to challenge Alinghi at the 2007 Valencia America's Cup, with Emirates on board as title sponsor, Grant Dalton as Team Boss. Dean Barker skippered a more international team than before. TNZ were among the "big four" syndicates leading up to the 2007 Cup; the big four consisted of TNZ, Alinghi, BMW Oracle Racing, Luna Rossa. In the Louis Vuitton Cup 2007 to select the challenger to face Alinghi, TNZ lost their first match to Mascalzone Latino-Capitalia Team, a team who they had beaten in each of their five encounters in the Louis Vuitton Acts.
They won their next 7 races, before losing the final two in round robin 1 to Luna Rossa and BMW Oracle Racing which put them in third place at the end of the first round robin. In Round Robin 2, Team New Zealand were undefeated throughout, taking first place from BMW Oracle Racing, they won their semi-final series 5–2 against Desafío Español 2007 and qualified for the Louis Vuitton finals against Luna Rossa. In the finals, they defeated Luna Rossa with a whitewash victory of 5–0, winning the Louis Vuitton Cup and the right to challenge Alinghi for the America's Cup. On 3 July 2007, Emirates Team New Zealand lost their final race to Alinghi bringing Alinghi's race wins to 5 defending the 32nd America's cup. Americas Cup... Race 1: Lost to Alinghi by 35 Seconds Race 2: Beat Alinghi by 28 Seconds Race 3: Beat Alinghi by 25 Seconds Race 4: Lost to Alinghi by 30 Seconds Race 5: Lost to Alinghi by 19 Seconds Race 6: Lost to Alinghi by 28 Seconds Race 7: Lost to Alinghi by 1 SecondAlinghi wins the America's Cup, 5–2.
Team New Zealand hosted the Louis Vuitton Pacific Series in January and February 2009 on the Waitematā Harbour in the Hauraki Gulf, Auckland. Team New Zealand defeated Alinghi by a margin of 3 races to 1 in the final; the final races were reduced to the best of five due to difficult weather conditions resulting in the loss of one day's racing. In March 2010, the Louis Vuitton Trophy regatta returned to Auckland after the first regatta of the series in Nice in November 2009 won by Italy's Azzurra team. On Sunday 21 March 2010, Emirates Team New Zealand won the final of the Louis Vuitton Trophy Auckland regatta with a 56 sec win over Mascalzone Latino. On 13 April 2010, along with Camper, the Spanish-based international footwear manufacturer, Emirates Team New Zealand announced that it would compete in the Volvo Ocean Race in 2011–12; the campaign was run by Emirates Team New Zealand and skippered by Olympic and round-the-world yachtsman Chris Nicholson. Racing was close with results of each leg coming down to minutes and seconds at the finish line after thousands of miles of ocean racing.
Emirates Team New Zealand came in second. On 21 April 2011, Grant Dalton and Emirates Team New Zealand announced their entry for the 2013 America's Cup regatta to be held in San Francisco in 2013. New sponsor Nespresso came on board through parent company Nestlé. Grant Dalton expressed his gratitude to numerous corporate i
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
1967 America's Cup
The 1967 America's Cup was held in September 1967 at Newport, Rhode Island. The US defender, skippered by Bus Mosbacher, defeated the Australian challenger, Dame Pattie, skippered by Jock Sturrock, four races to zero. Intrepid had beaten Columbia and American Eagle to become the defender
1899 America's Cup
The 1899 America's Cup was the 10th challenge for the Cup. It took place in the New York City harbor and consisted of a best of five series of races between the defender, entered by the New York Yacht Club, Sir Thomas Lipton's Shamrock, representing the Royal Ulster Yacht Club. Columbia won all three races against Shamrock
1903 America's Cup
The 1903 America's Cup was the 12th challenge for the Cup. It took place in the New York City harbor and consisted of a best of five series of races between Reliance, the fourth of Nathaniel Herreshoff's defenders for the cup, entered by the New York Yacht Club. Reliance won the first three races, it was the last race for the America's Cup. Reliance was designed by Nathaniel Herreshoff, designer of all of the early 20th century America's Cup defenders, she was designed to take full advantage of the fact that the Seawanhaka rule did not take weight into account, leading to a light and therefore, somewhat unstable yacht. At 144 feet long and 199 feet tall with 16,160 square feet of sail the yacht was the largest gaff-rigged cutter built. Reliance won all three races, finishing far enough ahead that Shamrock III was forced to retire before finishing the third race