Iestyn Rhys Harris known by the nickname of "Welsh Wizard", is a former dual-code international professional rugby league and rugby union footballer of the 1990s and 2000s, rugby league coach of the 2000s and 2010s. He played representative rugby league for Great Britain and Wales, at club level for the Warrington Wolves, the Leeds Rhinos where he won the 1998 Man of Steel Award, the Bradford Bulls, Featherstone Rovers, representative rugby union for Wales, at club level for Cardiff RFC and Cardiff Blues, has coached representative rugby league for Wales, at club level for Featherstone Rovers, the Crusaders Rugby League, the Wigan Warriors, Salford Red Devils. Harris was born in Greater Manchester, England, his Abercarn-born grandfather Norman Harris played for. Harris' professional career began with league club Warrington at age 17 in 1993 before a record-breaking £350,000 transfer to Leeds in 1997. Iestyn Harris played left-centre, i.e. number 4, in Warrington's 10-40 defeat by Wigan in the 1994–95 Regal Trophy Final during the 1994–95 season at Alfred McAlpine Stadium, Huddersfield on Saturday 28 January 1995.
Harris was made captain of Leeds in his first full season at the club at the age of twenty one, became the first Leeds skipper in a decade to lift silverware when Leeds claimed the 1999 Challenge Cup. Harris played at fullback before being switched to stand-off. In 1998, despite having played most of his games at fullback, he was named in the half backs in 1998's Super League Dream Team and collected the annual Man of Steel trophy as the best player in the Super League, he captained Leeds from fullback in their 1998 Super League Grand Final loss to Wigan. A superb goal-kicker, Harris broke the club record for goals in a season in 1999 with 168, he was named at stand-off in 1999's Super League IV Dream Team, broke the 2,000 career points total two years later. Harris matched the record for scoring the most points in a Challenge Cup Final when he scored 20 points in Leeds' 52-16 victory over London Broncos in the 1999 Challenge Cup Final during Super League IV at Wembley Stadium, London on 1 May 1999.
This equalled the record set by Neil Fox in Wakefield Trinity's victory over Hull F. C. in the 1960 Challenge Cup Final. In 2001, Harris made a £ 1.5 million switch to Cardiff Wales. Harris made his début for the Welsh side on 10 November 2001. Having played only 200 minutes of rugby union before his international début, Harris struggled with his tactical kicking; this led to a move from fly-half to inside centre. Harris played in the 2003 Rugby World Cup in Australia where Wales lost in the quarter-finals to eventual winners, despite leading the game for 60 minutes. Harris made it clear that he wanted to return to League. In 2004, Harris returned to rugby league, he joined Bradford Bulls after a contractual fight with former club Leeds. His salary was reputed to be £1 million over 4 seasons. Harris played for the Bradford Bulls at stand-off in their 2004 Super League Grand Final loss against the Leeds Rhinos. Harris was selected in the Great Britain team to compete in the end of season 2004 Rugby League Tri-Nations tournament.
In the final against Australia he played at stand-off in the Lions' 44–4 loss. Harris wrote a book, published in October 2005, detailing his moves between codes called Iestyn Harris: There and Back – My Journey from League to Union and Back Again. Harris was part of the 2005 Bradford Bulls squad that became the first side in the history of Super League to win the Grand Final when finishing third in the final league ladder, he played for the Bradford Bulls at stand-off, kicking a goal in their 2005 Super League Grand Final victory against Leeds Rhinos. Harris was Bradford Bulls' captain for one year in 2006 taking over from Leeds-bound Jamie Peacock; as Super League champions Bradford Bulls faced National Rugby League premiers Wests Tigers in the 2006 World Club Challenge. Harris captained the Bradford Bulls from stand-off, kicking five goas from six attempts in their 30–10 victory. On 10 May 2006, Harris announced he would be retiring from playing international rugby league with Great Britain, just a week after being named in a 36-strong training squad for a June 2006 Test against New Zealand.
Harris, who won the last of his 15 Great Britain caps against Australia in November 2005, said he wanted to concentrate on his club career. On 26 September 2006, he confirmed that he would continue to play for Wales, was scheduled to return to the side against Scotland at the Brewery Field, Bridgend in the 2008 Rugby League World Cup qualifying match on Sunday 29 October 2006, he was forced to pull out through injury hours before kick-off. Harris kicked a club record 15 goals against Toulouse Olympique in a record 98–6 win on 19 April 2008. Harris had been linked to a player-coach role with Crusaders, but he decided to sign for National League One club Featherstone Rovers instead. Harris signed a 2-year deal at Featherstone Rovers, as well as playing, he took his first steps into coaching and working in the marketing department of the club, he made his d!bt for Featherstone Rovers on Sunday 15 February 2009, he played his last match for Featherstone Rovers during the 2009 season. On announcement of his tenure as assistant coach to Brian Noble at Celtic C
Jason Robinson (rugby)
Jason Thorpe Robinson OBE is an English former dual-code international rugby league, rugby union footballer of the 1990s and 2000s. Playing as a wing or fullback, he won fifty-one rugby union international caps for England, in rugby league he won twelve caps for Great Britain, seven for England. Throughout his career Robinson was noted for his acceleration, side step and ability to beat defenders. Born 30 July 1974 in Leeds, West Yorkshire, Robinson began playing rugby as a child at the Hunslet Boys Club and Hunslet Parkside before starting his rugby league career in 1991 at semi-professional side Hunslet Hawks. Despite being offered a contract by Leeds, he stuck by his club as it would have meant leaving at an inconvenient time, he was rewarded by a contract with Wigan Warriors who went on to dominate British rugby league. His form establishing him in Wigan's first team, as a teenager he was touted as a future halfback or loose forward, he was selected to play on the wing for Wigan against the visiting Brisbane Broncos in the 1992 World Club Challenge.
Robinson played in Wigan's 5-4 victory over St. Helens in the 1992 Lancashire County Cup Final at Knowsley Road, St. Helens on Sunday 18 October 1992, he played and scored a try in Wigan's 15-8 victory over Bradford Northern in the 1992–93 Regal Trophy Final during the 1992–93 season at Elland Road, Leeds on Saturday 23 January 1993, played in the 2-33 defeat by Castleford in the 1993–94 Regal Trophy Final during the 1993–94 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 22 January 1994, played in the 40-10 victory over Warrington in the 1994–95 Regal Trophy Final during the 1994–95 season at Alfred McAlpine Stadium, Huddersfield on Saturday28 January 1995, played in the 25-16 victory over St. Helens in the 1995–96 Regal Trophy Final during the 1995–96 season at Alfred McAlpine Stadium, Huddersfield on Saturday 13 January 1996. In 1993 Robinson played with Wigan defeating Widnes; that year at age 19 Robinson was first selected to represent Great Britain on the wing against New Zealand.
After the 1993–94 Rugby Football League season Robinson travelled with defending champions Wigan to Brisbane, playing on the wing in their 1994 World Club Challenge victory over Australian premiers, the Brisbane Broncos. It was reported in 1995 that Robinson was offered a 4-year deal worth a record £1.25 million by the Australian Rugby League to play for the South Sydney Rabbitohs at the end of the 1997 season. He recovered from a foot injury to play in Wigan's 30–10 Challenge Cup Final victory over Leeds, scoring two tries and earning himself the Lance Todd Trophy as man-of-the-match. Robinson played for England in the 1995 World Cup Final on the wing but Australia won the match and retained the Cup. In 1996, rugby union had gone open, allowing professional players for the first time, rugby league changed from a winter sport to a summer sport, so a number of league players chose to play part of a season for a rugby union club. Robinson played for Bath. At the end of the first Super League season, Robinson was named on the wing in the 1996 Super League Dream Team.
In the midst of the Super League war, Robinson played a one-off international for a'Rest of the World' team in their 28–8 loss against the Australian Rugby League's Kangaroos in mid-1997. With his contracted move to Sydney set to take place at the conclusion of the 1997 season, Robinson had had a change of heart and Wigan were able to negotiate his release from the ARL's contract so he could continue playing for his club, he scored a try for Great Britain in each of the three matches against Australia in the post-season Super League Test series. In 1998 Robinson scored Wigan's only try in Super League's first Grand Final, which the Cherry & Whites won; as a result, he was awarded the Harry Sunderland Trophy as man-of-the-match. He was named on the wing in the 1998 season's Super League Dream Team, again in 1999 and 2000. Robinson played at fullback in Wigan's loss to St Helens in the 2000 Super League Grand Final. Days after the match, it was announced that he had signed for the Zurich Premiership's Sale Sharks rugby union side, with Robinson citing the lack of anything left to prove in rugby league and the desire to represent England and Great Britain in the 15-man code.
He made his début for Sale Sharks against Coventry in November 2000. In the 2005/6 season he became the first person to have won both the Guinness Premiership, the Super League trophies. Robinson made his England début as a substitute against Italy in February 2001, having played in the A match against Wales at Wrexham a fortnight earlier. In doing so he was only the second man to play rugby union for England after having first played Rugby League for Great Britain, he scored 30 tries in 56 international matches, including a try in the 2003 World Cup Final against Australia. He played in all seven of England's World Cup games in 2003. After Lawrence Dallaglio's international retirement in 2005, Jonny Wilkinson was appointed captain. However, Wilkinson was injured for the 2005 autumn internationals and Robinson was appointed captain, he was the 118th captain of England, the first mixed-race player and the first former professional rugby league footballer to captain England. In his first appearance as captain, he scored a hat-trick of tries in a 70–0 rout of Canada.
In the 2004 Six Nations, he scored three tries playing as a centre in the opening match against Italy and was named Man of the Match. Robinson chose to opt out of the 2004 summer tour to recover, he was captain during England's poor 2005 Six Nations campaign, in which they lost more games than they won for the first time since 1983. Robinson was chosen for the 2001 British and Irish
Wales national rugby league team
The Wales national rugby league team represents Wales in international rugby league football matches. The team is ranked ninth in the RLIF World Rankings; the team was run under the auspices of the Rugby Football League, but an independent body, Wales Rugby League, now runs the team from Cardiff. Three Welsh players have been entered into the Rugby League Hall Of Fame; as with other Welsh national sporting teams, Wales strip has been red. However, in the World Cup campaign in 2000 they wore a shirt featuring the Welsh flag, adding a touch of green and white; the team is known as "The Dragons" and so the teams logo on the shirt is a red dragon. The team date back to 1907, making them the third oldest national side after England and New Zealand, it was a touring New Zealand side that Wales first played against in 1908, winning 9–8 at Aberdare. Since Wales have played England, since 1935 France, as well as welcomed the touring Australia and New Zealand teams, although they toured themselves, not playing a match in the Southern Hemisphere until 1975.
For 26 years Wales competed against their two biggest rivals and France, in the European Nations Cup, winning the trophy four times. Wales has competed in the World Cup on five occasions, the first time being in 1975. In 1995 and 2000 they had their most successful tournaments to date, making the Semi-Finals on both occasions before being beaten by England and Australia respectively. Wales failed to qualify for the 2008 World Cup, being the second highest ranked side not to do so, having lost to Scotland on points difference over two matches, they qualified for the 2013 World Cup but failed to win a game, including losing 32–16 to low ranked Italy in their opening game at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. In recent seasons, Wales has taken massive strides under former player Iestyn Harris who had coached Wales to back to back European Cup successes, which culminated in a Four Nations appearance in 2011. In 2014 former England and France coach John Kear became the new head coach after Iestyn Harris left the post to concentrate on his new job as head coach at Salford Red Devils.
On 5 April 1904, England played an international match against the "Other Nationalities", a team of Welshmen and Scotsmen, in Wigan. Of the twelve players who played for the Other Nationalities team, as it was a 12-a-side game, ten of them were Welshmen coming from Northern English clubs. At the turn of the century many Welshmen made the switch from rugby union, wanting to be paid for playing, although the numbers switching were increasing, the Northern Union did not think that a Welsh side would be strong enough for England. After 80 minutes however, the Other Nationalities had beaten England 9–3; this team carried on for another two years, playing England annually in 1905 and 1906, losing 26–11 and drawing 3–3 respectively. From 1905 to 1910 Rugby League as a sport enjoyed growth, not just in Wales and England, but on the east coast of Australia and in northern New Zealand; when Albert Henry Baskerville's NZ All Golds with their guest Australian star Dally Messenger arrived in Britain for the inaugural tour by a southern hemisphere side, the first full international was against Wales on New Year's Day 1908.
The Welsh rugby league team were contesting their first national fixture, managed to beat the touring Kiwis 9–8 in Aberdare in front of 20,000 spectators. This was the first international match played under new "Northern Union" rules, which would be changed again, but these rules were a small departure from traditional rugby union rules, used in previous international matches; the New Zealand team, or the "All Golds" as they were being called by the New Zealand newspapers, had never played rugby by these rules before but did have a week of preparation and training sessions leading up to the match. With this Welsh victory and large crowd, Wales played their second fixture in Tonypandy, managed to win that match too recording a 35–18 win against what would soon become their main rival, the England Lions. At the end of 1908 Wales played their third and final fixture of the decade, playing England again, but this time in Broughton, Lancashire; this time they lost 31–7. However, in 1909 another victory was to occur for Welsh Rugby League, with a Welsh League XIII made up of players still playing in Wales beating a touring Australian side 14–13 in Merthyr.
In the years before the outbreak of the war, Wales played England. The two national teams played each other every year, including 1914. Due to Rugby League only extensively being played in the two countries in the whole of the Northern Hemisphere, touring Australia and New Zealand teams were the only chances to play someone different. Although the two matches against the English played in Wales were played in Ebbw Vale in Monmouthshire, the Welsh travelled around England for away matches, playing in Coventry, Plymouth and St. Helens. Collectively those seven matches in Wales and England produced six defeats for the Welsh team, although there were signs of improvement, in the last match in St Helens the Dragons narrowly lost by just four points, the match ending 16–12. On the 7 October 1911 Wales played Australia for the first time; the match, held at Ebbw Vale again, drew 7,000 people to watch Wales go down 20–28. The match was significant though because throughout the next few decades Australia would play the Dragons in Wales whenever they toured Great Britain.
During and after the First World War many sports suffered, rugby league in Wales was no exception, the team didn't play a match again until 1921. After a seven-year hiatus Wales once again played England and continued to
Ireland men's national rugby league team
The Ireland men's national rugby league team, known as the Wolfhounds, is organised by Rugby League Ireland. The representative team is dominated by players from the Super League and sometimes includes players from the Australasian National Rugby League. Ireland is represented by an Ireland A side, made up of players from the domestic Irish competition. Since Ireland began competing in international rugby league in 1995, it has participated in the 1995 Rugby League Emerging Nations Tournament, the 1996 Super League World Nines, three Rugby League World Cups – 2000, 2008 and 2013, they have competed in the Rugby League European Nations Cup and Victory Cup. Ireland A compete in the St Patrick's Day Challenge in the Amateur Four Nations. Irish players have in the past been selected to play for the Great Britain side, one recent example being Cork-born Brian Carney. However, since the Great Britain team was split into individual nations in 2007, it is unlikely that this situation will arise again.
The seeds of modern-day Rugby League in Ireland were sown in 1989 when Brian Corrigan founded the Dublin Blues, a club, used by union players to keep fit during the summer by playing matches against touring British teams. In 1995 the British RFL established Ireland's first development officer and that year Ireland played against the United States in Washington on St Patricks Day with Ireland winning 24-22. Wigan Warriors player Joe Lydon came on as a substitute despite him being there as manager. Huddersfield Giants coach Terry Flanagan and former Great Britain international Niel Wood were the joint coaches. In August 1996 Ireland beat Scotland at the RDS Arena in Dublin as a curtain raiser to the charity shield match between Leeds Rhinos and Wigan Warriors. Former Great Britain player Des Foy played for Ireland. Following their appearance at the 1995 Emerging Nations Tournament they were invited to the Super League World Nines in Fiji where they finished 8th. Prior to the tournament Ireland played a game of touch rugby against Australia in Fiji's National Stadium on 20 February going down 12-20.
That year Ireland returned to the USA to play in the St Patrick's Day match winning 14-12 The Irish rugby league team is one of many Irish teams that draws its players from across the island of Ireland, it utilises the Four Provinces Flag of Ireland and the anthem "Ireland's Call". Ireland were included in the tournament held in England and were placed in Group 2 alongside Moldova and Morocco. Ireland beat Moldova 48-24 before beating Morocco 42-6 to progress to the final. Gigg Lane in Bury was the venue for the final against Cook Islands but Ireland lost 6-22. Coached by Terry Flanagan, Ireland's squad included professionals Des Foy and Martin Crompton in an otherwise domestic based squad 1997 saw more England-based Super League players making themselves available by use of the grandparent rule; the Irish team improved its standards but this development gave less opportunity for Irish-based players to get a chance to play. However, Irish-based players were included in the Irish squad for the triangular tournaments in 1998 against France and Scotland and 1999 against Scotland and Wales.
Their success was enough to earn a place in the 2000 World Cup. Finishing top of their group, the Irish lost 26–16 to England in the quarter-finals, but the performance set the scene for future developments in Ireland. Ireland were drawn against Lebanon and Russia in Europe's 2008 Rugby League World Cup Qualifying Pool Two. Ireland topped the group with a 16–16 draw with Lebanon at Dewsbury on 2 November 2007; the draw meant Ireland qualified for the 2008 World Cup on points difference from Lebanon as both nations gained the same number of group points. At the 2008 World Cup in Australia, Ireland were in Group C along with Samoa, they lost to Tonga on 27 October in Parramatta, but were victorious against Samoa, again in Parramatta, on 5 November and topped the group on points difference. As the group winners, they played Fiji, winners of Group B, for a chance to qualify for the semi-final. Fiji won so Ireland were eliminated. For the 2013 World Cup being staged in England, Wales and Ireland. Ireland have been drawn in group A alongside England and 2008 World Cup rivals Fiji.
Ireland have been granted automatic entry to the tournament due to their strong showing in the 2008 World Cup Mark Aston the head coach and driving force behind the Sheffield Eagles as been confirmed as the head coach of Rugby League Ireland. His appointment was announced at a press conference in Sheffield on Tuesday 24 May 2011 and he is confirmed in the role for the World Cup in 2013. Ireland kicked off their campaign with a shock 36-12 win over Italy in Cairns. In the next pool match Ireland lost a narrow match to PNG 14-6 with PNG needing a 78th minute try to win the game. Ireland's final pool match was against Wales in Perth where they ran out comfortable winners 34-6. Ireland did not progress to the next round of the tournament despite winning more games than Lebanon or Samoa who qualified for the last 8; the following tournaments is a list of notable international competitions that Ireland has been competing in since their existence in 1995. A red box around the year indicates tournaments played within Ireland Squad selected for the 2021 Rugby League World Cup qualifiers.
Cardiff is the capital of Wales, its largest city. The eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom, it is Wales's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural institutions and Welsh media, the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. At the 2011 census, the unitary authority area population was estimated to be 346,090, the wider urban area 479,000. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 21.3 million visitors in 2017. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. In 1905, Cardiff was made a city and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. At the 2011 Census the population was 346,090.
The Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. Since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village, a BBC drama village, a new business district in the city centre. Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium—the national stadium and the home of the Wales national rugby union team—Sophia Gardens, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park and Ice Arena Wales; the city hosted Commonwealth Games. The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014.
The Principality Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf; the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, was also driven by folk etymology. This sound change had first occurred in the Middle Ages. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff"; the fort refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf, the river which flows by Cardiff Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a genitive case ending; the anglicised form Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff, as happens in Taff and Llandaff. As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as; the antiquarian William Camden suggested that the name Cardiff may derive from *Caer-Didi, a name given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established.
Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe,. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth, within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff was part of the territory of the Silures – a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire and Glamorgan; the 3.2-hectare fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement, established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences.
The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established, it was made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa has been discovered at Ely. Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts of th
France national rugby league team
The France national rugby league team represent France in international rugby league tournaments. They are referred to as les Chanticleers or less as les Tricolores; the team is run under the auspices of the Fédération Française de Rugby à XIII and is made up of players from Super League and the Elite One Championship. The French rugby league team first played in 1934 on a tour of England, they have taken part in all World Cups, twelve in total, with the first being held in 1954 in France. They have never won the title but finished runners-up in both 1954 and 1968; these are considered the glory years of French rugby league as from the 1950s to the 1970s the team were strong and beat Australia, New Zealand and Great Britain. Since those days, les Chanticleers have not done as well, not managing to win a single match in the 1995 World Cup, but doing better in the 2000 World Cup with wins over Tonga and South Africa before losing to eventual finalists, New Zealand. In 2006, the Perpignan based team Catalans Dragons entered Super League Europe, have since produced a number of top-class French players.
Despite improved professionalism, France finished 10th in the 2008 World Cup in Australia. The team reached the quarter-finals of the 2013 World Cup; the team is ranked fifth in the world. In Europe alone they are ranked second, ahead of Ireland and Lebanon, but behind their main rival, England. On New Year's Eve 1933, England and Australia played in Paris – the first game of rugby league football in France; the match was one-sided, with Australia winning 63-13 in front of a crowd of about 5,000, but the seed was sown. French rugby union players, disgruntled that France had been suspended from the Five Nations Championship, formed the "Ligue Francaise de Rugby à XIII" on 6 April 1934. Jean Galia, a former rugby union international and champion boxer, led France on a six-match tour of England in 1934 and they recorded their first win in Kingston upon Hull; the national team's first game was in Paris on 15 April 1934, losing 21-32 to England in front of a crowd of 20,000. By 1939, the French League had 225 clubs and the national side won the 1938–39 European Rugby League Championship where they became the first French team in any sport to beat England at home.
The game of rugby league suffered in France during the Second World War, as administrators within French rugby union worked with the collaborating Vichy regime to have rugby league banned. Some players and officials of the sport were punished, whilst the total assets of the rugby league and its clubs were handed over to the union. After the war the French game was re-established and the French became one of rugby league's major powers, competing in the Rugby League World Cup and in major international series against Great Britain and New Zealand, despite continuing persecution. In 1949, they became the first French sporting team to win at Wembley Stadium. In 1951 France embarked on their first tour of Australasia, coached by Bob Samatan and led by the legendary chain-smoking fullback, Puig Aubert, their flamboyant style of unorthodox attacking rugby attracted huge crowds. When the two nations met for the first Test, the match became the first "all ticket" international to be staged at the Sydney Cricket Ground, attracted a crowd of over 60,000.
On Saturday 30 June 1951, Australia secured a hard-fought second Test victory over France in Brisbane by 23 points to 11. The third Test took place at Sydney Cricket Ground three weeks before a crowd of 67,009. Late tries from Duncan Hall and Brian Davies could not prevent the Kangaroos from suffering an embarrassing 35-14 defeat. France played 28 matches during the three-month tour, winning 21 matches, drawing twice and losing just five times. In November 1951, France met "Other Nationalities" in an International Championship match at the Boulevard, Hull which became known as the "Battle of the Boulevard". Other Nationalities won 17-14 but the match centred on the behaviour of Edouard Ponsinet, involved in most of the violence that happened at the game; the Other Nationalities were down to eleven players at one stage, with Arthur Clues being the most serious casualty, hospitalised with head injuries. Ponsinet was sent off, ten minutes from time after breaking the nose of Jeff Burke. Despite this defeat France went on to retain the title with home victories over Wales.
In the 1954 World Cup, the first of either rugby code and was instigated by France, Les Tricolores defeated both Australia and New Zealand, drew with Great Britain to reach the final. This was the closest they went to getting their hands on the World Cup, going down narrowly, 16-12, to Great Britain in the final in Parc des Princes. France donated the original World Cup trophy. France repeated the success of their 1951 tour in 1955, with bigger attendances greeting the team. Puig Aubert did not tour. Despite this, France played splendidly to win the second test in Brisbane and the third test at the SCG; the 1951 and 1955 French sides that toured Australia are still regarded as two of the strongest sides to tour that country. In the 1957 World Cup, held in Australia, the winner was decided by finishing top of the table with no final being played. France finished winning one match against New Zealand. History was made when the returning French and British squads visited South Africa and played a series of exhibition matches in
Gateshead is a large town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne. Gateshead and Newcastle are joined by seven bridges across the Tyne, including the Gateshead Millennium Bridge; the town is known for its architecture, including the Sage Gateshead, the Angel of the North and the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art. Residents of Gateshead, like the rest of Tyneside, are referred to as Geordies. Gateshead's population in 2011 was 120,046. Part of County Durham, under the Local Government Act 1888 the town was made a county borough, meaning it was administered independently of the county council. Since 1974, the town has been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead within the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. Gateshead is first mentioned in Latin translation in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People as ad caput caprae; this interpretation is consistent with the English attestations of the name, among them Gatesheued "goat's head" but in the context of a place-name meaning'headland or hill frequented by goats'.
Although other derivations have been mooted, it is this, given by the standard authorities. A Brittonic predecessor, named with the element *gabro-,'goat', may underlie the name. Gateshead might have been the Roman-British fort of Gabrosentum. There has been a settlement on the Gateshead side of the River Tyne, around the old river crossing where the Swing Bridge now stands, since Roman times; the first recorded mention of Gateshead is in the writings of the Venerable Bede who referred to an Abbot of Gateshead called Utta in 623. In 1068 William the Conqueror defeated the forces of Edgar the Ætheling and Malcolm king of Scotland on Gateshead Fell. During medieval times Gateshead was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Durham. At this time the area was forest with some agricultural land; the forest was the subject of Gateshead's first charter, granted in the 12th century by Hugh du Puiset, Bishop of Durham. An alternative spelling may be "Gatishevede", as seen in a legal record, dated 1430; the earliest recorded coal mining in the Gateshead area is dated to 1344.
As trade on the Tyne prospered there were several attempts by the burghers of Newcastle to annex Gateshead. In 1576 a small group of Newcastle merchants acquired the'Grand Lease' of the manors of Gateshead and Whickham. In the hundred years from 1574 coal shipments from Newcastle increased elevenfold while the population of Gateshead doubled to 5,500. However, the lease and the abundant coal supplies ended in 1680; the pits were shallow as problems of ventilation and flooding defeated attempts to mine coal from the deeper seams. William Hawks a blacksmith, started business in Gateshead in 1747, working with the iron brought to the Tyne as ballast by the Tyne colliers. Hawks and Co. became one of the biggest iron businesses in the North, producing anchors, chains and so on to meet a growing demand. There was keen contemporary rivalry between'Hawks' Blacks' and'Crowley's Crew'; the famous ` Hawks' men' including Ned White, went on to be celebrated in Geordie story. Throughout the Industrial Revolution the population of Gateshead expanded rapidly.
This expansion resulted in the spread southwards of the town. In 1854, a catastrophic explosion on the quayside destroyed most of Gateshead's medieval heritage, caused widespread damage on the Newcastle side of the river. Robert Stirling Newall took out a patent on the manufacture of wire ropes in 1840 and in partnership with Messrs. Liddell and Gordon, set up his headquarters at Gateshead. A worldwide industry of wire-drawing resulted; the submarine telegraph cable received its definitive form through Newall's initiative, involving the use of gutta percha surrounded by strong wires. The first successful Dover-Calais cable on 25 September 1851, was made in Newall's works. In 1853, he invented the cone for laying cable in deep seas. Half of the first Atlantic cable was manufactured in Gateshead. Newall was interested in astronomy, his giant 25-inch telescope was set up in the garden at Ferndene, his Gateshead residence, in 1871. In 1831 a locomotive works was established by the Newcastle and Darlington Railway part of the York and Berwick Railway.
In 1854 the works moved to the Greenesfield site and became the manufacturing headquarters of North Eastern Railway. In 1909, locomotive construction was moved to Darlington and the rest of the works were closed in 1932. Sir Joseph Swan lived at Underhill, Low Fell, Gateshead from 1869–83, where his experiments led to the invention of the electric light bulb; the house was the first in the world to be wired for domestic electric light. In 1870, the old town hall was built, designed by John Johnstone who designed the previously-built Newcastle town hall; the ornamental clock in front of the old town hall was presented to Gateshead in 1892 by the mayor, Walter de Lancey Willson, on the occasion of him being elected for a third time. He was one of the founders of Walter Willson's, a chain of grocers in the North East and Cumbria; the old town hall served as a magistrate's court and one of Gateshead's police stations. In 1835, Gateshead was established as a municipal borough and in 1889 it was made a county borough, independent from Durham County Council.
In the same year, one of the largest employers, Hawks and Company, closed down and unemployment has since been a burden. Up to the Second World War there were repeated newspaper reports of the unemployed sending deputations to the council to provide work; the depre