Suzuki Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu. Suzuki manufactures automobiles, four-wheel drive vehicles, all-terrain vehicles, outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines. In 2016, Suzuki was the eleventh biggest automaker by production worldwide. Suzuki has over 45,000 employees and has 35 production facilities in 23 countries, 133 distributors in 192 countries; the worldwide sales volume of automobiles is the world's tenth largest, while domestic sales volume is the third largest in the country. Suzuki’s domestic motorcycle sales volume is the third largest in Japan. In 1909, Michio Suzuki founded the Suzuki Loom Works in the small seacoast village of Hamamatsu, Japan. Business boomed. In 1929, Michio Suzuki invented a new type of weaving machine, exported overseas; the company's first 30 years focused on the production of these machines. Despite the success of his looms, Suzuki believed that his company would benefit from diversification and he began to look at other products.
Based on consumer demand, he decided that building a small car would be the most practical new venture. The project began in 1937, within two years Suzuki had completed several compact prototype cars; these first Suzuki motor vehicles were powered by a then-innovative, liquid-cooled, four-stroke, four-cylinder engine. It had a cast aluminum crankcase and gearbox and generated 13 horsepower from a displacement of less than 800cc. With the onset of World War II, production plans for Suzuki's new vehicles were halted when the government declared civilian passenger cars a "non-essential commodity." At the conclusion of the war, Suzuki went back to producing looms. Loom production was given a boost when the U. S. government approved the shipping of cotton to Japan. Suzuki's fortunes brightened, but the joy was short-lived as the cotton market collapsed in 1951. Faced with this colossal challenge, Suzuki returned to the production of motor vehicles. After the war, the Japanese had a great need for reliable personal transportation.
A number of firms began offering "clip-on" gas-powered engines that could be attached to the typical bicycle. Suzuki's first two-wheeled vehicle was a bicycle fitted with a motor called, the "Power Free." Designed to be inexpensive and simple to build and maintain, the 1952 Power Free had a 36 cc, one horsepower, two-stroke engine. The new double-sprocket gear system enabled the rider to either pedal with the engine assisting, pedal without engine assist, or disconnect the pedals and run on engine power alone; the patent office of the new democratic government granted Suzuki a financial subsidy to continue research in motorcycle engineering. By 1954, Suzuki was producing 6,000 motorcycles per month and had changed its name to Suzuki Motor Co. Ltd. Following the success of its first motorcycles, Suzuki created an more successful automobile: the 1955 Suzuki Suzulight; the Suzulight sold with front-wheel drive, four-wheel independent suspension and rack-and-pinion steering, which were not common on cars until three decades later.
Volkswagen held a 19.9% non-controlling shareholding in Suzuki between 2009 and 2015. An international arbitration court ordered Volkswagen to sell the stake back to Suzuki. Suzuki paid $3.8bn to complete the stock buy-back in September 2015. The company was founded by Michio Suzuki. Michio Suzuki was intent on making better, more user-friendly looms and, for 30 years his focus was on the development of these machines. Michio's desire to diversify into automotive products was interrupted by World War II. Before it began building four-stroke engines, Suzuki Motor Corp. was known for its two-stroke engines. After the war, Suzuki made a two-stroke motorized bicycle, but the company would be known for Hayabusa and GSX-R motorcycles, for the QuadRunner, for dominating racetracks around the world. After producing its first car in 1955 the company didn't have an automobile division until 1961. Today Suzuki is among the world's largest automakers, a major brand name in important markets, including Japan and India, but no longer sells cars in North America.
1909: Michio Suzuki founds Suzuki Loom Works founded in Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. 1920: incorporated, capitalized at ¥500,000 as Suzuki Loom Manufacturing Co. with Michio Suzuki as president. 1937: Suzuki begins a project to diversify into manufacturing small cars. Within two years several innovative prototypes are completed, but the government declares civilian passenger cars a "non-essential commodity" at the onset of World War II, thwarting production plans. 1940: Takatsuka Plant is built in Kami-mura, Hamana-gun, Japan. 1945: Plants close due to severe war damage. Company offices move to the Takatsuka Plant site. 1947: Head office moves to the present address. 1949: Company lists on the Tokyo and Nagoya Stock Exchanges. 1950: Company has financial crisis due to labor difficulties. 1952: "Power Free" motorized bicycle marketed. 1953: Introduction of Diamond Free 60cc, 2-cycle motorized bicycle, displacement subsequently increases to 70cc. 1954: Company name changed to Suzuki Motor Co. Ltd. 1955: Introduction of Colleda COX 125cc 4-stroke single-cylinder, Colleda ST 125cc, two-stroke single-cylinder motorcycles.
Suzulight front wheel dri
Michael "Mick" Sydney Doohan, is an Australian former Grand Prix motorcycle road racing World Champion, who won five consecutive 500 cc World Championships. Only Giacomo Agostini with eight and Valentino Rossi with seven have won more premier class titles. From the Gold Coast, near Brisbane, Doohan attended St. Joseph's College, Gregory Terrace, Brisbane, he raced in Australian Superbikes in the late 1980s, won both races as Superbike World Championship visited Oran Park in 1988 as well as the second leg of the Japanese round held earlier in the year. In a break-out season he won the final Australian motorcycle Grand Prix to be held in the TT format at Mount Panorama before the race became a round of the World Championship the following year and moved to Phillip Island, he is one of the few 500 cc or MotoGP World Champions to have won a Superbike World Championship race. He made his Grand Prix debut for Honda on an NSR 500 cc two-stroke motorcycle in 1989. Late in the 1990 season Doohan claimed his first victory at the Hungarian Grand Prix on his way to third in the championship.
In 1991, he was paired with his fellow Australian Wayne Gardner on a Honda RVF750 superbike and won the Suzuka 8 Hours endurance race. He competed throughout the early 1990s and appeared to be on his way to winning his first world championship when he was injured in a practice crash before the 1992 Dutch TT, he suffered permanent and serious damage to his right leg due to medical complications and, at one stage, faced amputation of the leg. At the time, Doohan was 65 points in the lead of the championship, but could not compete for eight weeks after the crash. After an arduous recovery, he returned to racing for the final two races but could not prevent Yamaha rider Wayne Rainey from winning his third consecutive title. In 1993 he struggled with the healing of his leg and the ability to race the Honda at elite level, stating that in that year it was all he could do to just keep his ride at Honda, it was during this time he switched to a left thumb-operated rear brake, as his right foot is no longer able to perform this function.
In 1994 however, he won his first 500 cc World Championship. Thereafter, until 1998, he dominated the class. In 1997, his most successful year, Doohan won 12 out of 15 races, finished second in another two, crashed out of the final race of the season at his home GP while leading by more than six seconds. In June 1996, Doohan was inducted as a Member of the Order of Australia for his contribution to the sport of motor racing. Despite up to eight rivals on non-factory HRC Honda motorcycles Doohan's margin of superiority over them was such that in many races Doohan would build a comfortable lead and ride well within his limits to cruise to victory. Although pure riding skill played a large part in his success, the ability of his chief race engineer, Jeremy Burgess, to perfect the suspension and geometry of a racing motorcycle may have given him an advantage over his rivals. Between 1994 and 1998 the bike was said not to have had many changes, with Honda engineers becoming frustrated at Doohan's reluctance to try innovations such as electronic shifting.
One notable trait of Doohan's post-crash riding style was the use of a thumb-operated rear brake developed during 1993 owing to the reduced range of motion in his ankle. This was operated by a "nudge" bar similar to a personal water craft throttle, but mounted on the left handlebar. In 1999 Doohan had another accident, this time in a wet qualifying session for the Spanish Grand Prix, he again subsequently announced his retirement. Jeremy Burgess, Doohan's chief engineer for his entire career became Valentino Rossi's chief engineer. After Doohan retired he went to work as a roving adviser to Honda's Grand Prix race effort. At the conclusion of the 2004 season and Honda parted company. In June 2011, Doohan made an appearance at the Isle of Man TT. Doohan completed a parade lap, was most enamored by the thrill and spectacle of the Snaefell Mountain Course, he went on to pay tribute to his former Honda racing teammate, Joey Dunlop. On 8 August 2006, Doohan appeared in Darwin Magistrates Court to face charges over a weekend fracas at a strip club.
He was fined $2,500 after pleading guilty to assaulting a bouncer and failing to leave a licensed premise. No conviction was recorded. Doohan married Selina Sines, his partner of eleven years, on Tuesday 21 March 2006, on Hamilton Island. After his success in Grand Prix motorcycle racing he got a chance to test a Formula One race car, the Williams FW19, at Circuit de Catalunya in April 1998, he crashed against a guard rail. Doohan helped design an Intamin Motorbike Launch Roller Coaster, named Mick Doohan's Motocoaster; the ride is located at Dreamworld on the Gold Queensland. Doohan was made a Member of the Order of Australia in 1996 and received an Australian Sports Medal in 2000, he was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in 2009. The first turn at Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit is named after him. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, Mick Doohan was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for his role as a "sports legend". Daijiro Kato Nicky Hayden Motorcycle sport Official website The Age article on Doohan
Tetsuya Harada is a Japanese former Grand Prix motorcycle road racer. He was the 1993 FIM 250cc World Champion. Born in Chiba, Harada won the Japanese 125cc Junior championship in 1988, was runner-up to Tadayuki Okada in the All-Japan 250cc series in both 1990 and 1991, before taking the crown in 1992. In all three years he competed in the Japanese round of the 250cc World Championship, twice starting on the front row and twice scoring points, his performance earned him a sponsored ride in the 1993 250cc World Championship. Riding a Yamaha TZ250, he won four races including his home race and won the 1993 250cc World Championship in his first attempt defeating Honda's Loris Capirossi. A wrist injury affected his performance in the 1994 season, finishing 7th overall with only a single podium finish. In 1995 Harada was Max Biaggi's main competitor for the 250 title, he won one race and finished 2nd eight times. In 1996 his bike was underpowered and he only reached the podium four times, he was on the verge of retiring.
Although his 235 points were the most he scored in a season, he finished the season in third place behind Biaggi and Ralf Waldmann. In 1998 Harada battled his Aprilia teammate Capirossi for the championship, leading for most of the season, until the two riders were involved in a controversial incident at the final race of the year in Argentina. Harada had the world championship within sight, leading the race into the final corner of the final lap when Harada's bike was rammed from behind by Capirossi's machine, sending the Japanese rider off the track. Valentino Rossi took the victory while Capirossi claimed the world championship. Harada would finish the season in third place behind Rossi. In 1999 Harada moved up to the 500cc class to compete on Aprilia's 380cc V-twin race bike, he obtained top 5 finishes in the first 10 races, including podium results at Paul Ricard and Donington Park: however, the bike's performance subsequently faded and he could not improve his results. In 2000 he was less competitive.
In 2001 he made another attempt to obtain a second 250cc world championship, taking 8 poles and three victories: the title, went to fellow Japanese Daijiro Kato. For 2002 he entered the MotoGP class aboard a Honda two-stroke, but this proved to be his final year of professional racing, as he retired after a difficult season that saw him finish 17th overall, he ended his career with all in the 250cc class. Points system from 1988 to 1992: Points system from 1993: Profile Official site
Ralf Waldmann was a German Grand Prix motorcycle road racer. In 1996, Waldmann finished second to Max Biaggi in the 250cc world championship. In the 1997 season, he gave Biaggi a strong challenge, winning four races and finishing only two points behind the Italian. Kenny Roberts offered him a job for the 1998 season on a 500cc Modenas but the competition was too strong and he finished in 14th place, he returned to the 250 class the following year riding for the Aprilia team and retired from motorcycle competition after the 2002 season. Waldmann came out of semi-retirement in 2003 and signed with the new Harris WCM MotoGP team, but quit before the year began after failing to adapt to the new four-stroke Grand Prix bikes, his final win at the British Grand Prix in 2000 is of particular note. On a drying track, he came from nearly a whole lap down to win at the final corner at the notoriously slippery Donington Park circuit. In 2009, he joined Martin Wimmer in buying out the motorbike manufacturing company MZ, from the Hong Leong Group.
He had a brief return to Grand Prix motorcycle racing, substituting for the injured rider Vladimir Leonov at the British Grand Prix. Waldmann died on 10 March 2018 in Ennepetal, Germany of a suspected heart attack at the age of 51
Marlboro is an American brand of cigarettes owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA within the United States, by Philip Morris International outside the United States. Richmond, Virginia, is the location of the largest Marlboro cigarette manufacturing plant. Marlboro is the global best-selling cigarette brand since 1972. Philip Morris cigarette maker, opened a New York subsidiary in 1902 to sell many of its cigarette brands; the mark "Marlboro" was registered in the United States in 1908 although no cigarette was marketed under this name until 1923. In 1924, the brand was launched, they are first marketed as "America's luxury cigarette" and were sold in hotels and resorts. Around the 1930s, it was starting to be advertised as a women's cigarette, based on the slogan "Mild As May"; the name was taken from a street in London. However, as early as 1885, a brand called "Marlborough" was being marketed as a "ladies' favorite" by Philip Morris & Co. In the 1930s, advertising for the cigarette was based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market.
To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips". Shortly before World War II, the brand's sales stagnated at less than 1% of tobacco sales in the US and was withdrawn from the market. After the war, Lucky Strike, Chesterfield were the only common cigarettes. After scientists published a major study linking smoking to lung cancer in the 1950s, Philip Morris repositioned Marlboro as a men's cigarette in order to fit a market niche of men who were concerned about lung cancer. At the time, filtered cigarettes were considered safer than unfiltered cigarettes, but had been until that time only marketed to women. Men at the time indicated that while they would consider switching to a filtered cigarette, they were concerned about being seen smoking a cigarette marketed to women; the red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The emblem is placed on top of the pack and has the popular Latin expression Veni, vici, authored by Julius Caesar.
The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett. The proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, war correspondents, construction workers, etc; the cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they gave the green light. Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand; this convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven. In the late 1960s, Marlboro "Longhorn 100's" were introduced. Although colour-coded with gold, they were full flavor cigarettes, not lights. In 1972, Marlboro became the best-selling brand of tobacco in the world. In order to comply with a 2006 court ruling in United States v. Philip Morris USA, Inc. et al. Philip Morris is now prevented from using words such as "Lights", "Ultra-Lights", "Medium", "Mild", or any similar designation that yields a false impression that they are safer than regular full flavour cigarettes.
Thus Marlboro and other cigarette companies must use only color-coding instead. Philip Morris responded to the popularity of Pall Mall, the number three brand, by pushing Marlboro Special Blends, a lower-priced cigarette. In 2013, Philip Morris International introduced "Marlboro 2.0". The pack design was changed; the Marlboro 2.0 packs are available in Europe and some parts of Africa and Latin America, but not in the United States, Canada and New Zealand. In 2015, Philip Morris announced they would introduce a "Firm Filter" to their Marlboro Red, Silver Blue, Ice Blast and White Menthol variants. Philip Morris managing director for the United Kingdom and Ireland, Martin Inkster, said that the Firm Filter technique was added to "offer quality you can feel, it is a cleaner way to stub out your cigarette". In the 1920s, advertising for the cigarette was based on how ladylike the filter cigarette was, in an attempt to appeal to the mass market. To this end, the filter had a printed red band around it to hide lipstick stains, calling it "Beauty Tips to Keep the Paper from Your Lips".
The red and white package was designed by the designer Frank Gianninoto. The repositioning of Marlboro as a men's cigarette was handled by Chicago advertiser Leo Burnett; the proposed campaign was to present a lineup of manly figures: sea captains, war correspondents, construction workers, etc. The cowboy was to have been the first in this series. While Philip Morris was concerned about the campaign, they gave the green light. Marlboro's market share rose from less than one percent to the fourth best-selling brand; this convinced Philip Morris to drop the lineup of manly figures and stick with the cowboy known as the Marlboro Man. From 1963, the television advertisements used Elmer Bernstein's theme from The Magnificent Seven. Over the years, Philip Morris has made many billboard and magazine adverts. Philip Morris made various sports-related billboards, s
Andrew Stroud is a retired champion New Zealand motorcycle racer. Stroud lived in Howick and educated at St Peter's College and Macleans College, he went on to study engineering at Auckland Technical Institute before heading to the US to embark on a full-time racing career in 1988. His height is 185 cm and his weight is 74 kg, he resides in New Zealand. Since marrying Karyn in 1997 they have had 10 children together. Stroud won his first championship in 1988 in the NZ 250 Production class, he raced at Bathurst where he finished 2nd in the 1988 Arai 500 km Superbike race. In 1988, Stroud raced in the US Endurance series and partnered Graeme Crosby in the Suzuka 8 Hours in Japan. For the next ten years he competed internationally against the world's best, riding for various Superbike and Grand Prix teams. Stroud first rode the New Zealand-built Britten V1000 at Daytona in 1992. During the epic battle with the leading factory Ducati Superbike Stroud came within 0.1 sec of the outright lap record before an electrical problem stopped the bike with a couple of laps remaining.
However, he won both races at Daytona in 1994 on the Britten bike while setting the fastest top speed recorded by any motorcycle at Daytona. One of the few people to have had the privilege of racing one of John Britten's superbikes, Stroud won the Battle-of-the-Twins at Daytona on Britten superbikes in 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997. In 1995, Stroud won the inaugural World B. E. A. R. S Series on a Britten bike, three weeks before his friend, John Britten, died. In 1995 and on a Britten, Stroud won the European Pro-Twins at Assen. Soon after he put a Kawasaki Superbike on position for the World Endurance Championship round at the same track. In 1997 he won the American AMA formula Xtreme Championship. Stroud competed in 41 World Superbike races, 20 FIM 500 GP races, 4 Suzuka 8 Hours races, 1 Isle of Man race and 3 24hours World endurance races. Stroud won 9 New Zealand superbike national championships, his first championship was in 1991. He repeated this in 1995 and 1999 and, riding a Suzuki GSX-R1000, in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2010 and 2011.
In 2011 Stroud became national champion for the last time. Stroud announced his retirement from motorcycle racing in August 2013. Stroud now works in engineering at Vertex in Hamilton and manages his two sons Jacob and Jesse in their motorbike racing endevours, his oldest son Jacob won his first national title in 2016. 15 year old Jesse is competing
Aprilia is an Italian motorcycle company, one of the brands owned by Piaggio. Having started as a manufacturer of bicycles it moved on to manufacture scooters and small-capacity motorcycles. In more recent times Aprilia has produced large sportbikes such as the 1,000 cc V-twin RSV Mille and the V4 RSV4. Aprilia has enjoyed considerable success in road-racing. Aprilia was founded after the Second World War by Cavaliere Alberto Beggio, as a bicycle production factory at Noale, Italy in the province of Venice. Alberto’s son, Ivano Beggio, took over the helm of the company in 1968 and constructed a 50 cc "motorcycle" with a dozen or so collaborators; the first production Aprilia mopeds were named Daniela and Packi. Aprilia produced a motocross bike in 1970 called the Scarabeo. Produced until the end of the 1970s, the Scarabeo came in 125 cc versions. In 1977 Ivan Alborghetti from Milan, Italy won the Italian 125 and 250 cc motocross championships on Aprilias. In 1978 Alborghetti closed the season with two third places in individual races and sixth place in the World Championship.
In the 1980s Aprilia added enduro and road bikes of between 50 and 600 cc. In 1981 Aprilia introduced the TL320 trials machine. In 1983 Aprilia launched to St 125 road bike. In 1984 Aprilia launched an improved model called STX, an enduro, called the ET 50. In 1985, Aprilia started outsourcing engines for some models to the Austrian company Rotax. In 1985 Aprilia launched a 125 STX and 350 STX. In 1986 Aprilia launched the AF1. Aprilia factory rider Philippe Berlatier contended for the trials world championship reaching fifth place, Loris Reggiani rode an Aprilia GP 250 with Rotax engine to sixth place in the road racing World Championship. Two seasons on August 30, 1987, at San Marino Grand Prix in Misano Loris Reggiani's AF1 won the first World Speed Championship. In 1990 Aprilia launched a road bike derived from off-road mechanics. In 1992 Aprilia rider Alessandro Gramigni won the World 125 Road Racing Championship title. In 1992, Tommy Ahvala won the World Trials Championship on an Aprilia Climber.
Since Aprilia has 124 times won 125 and 250 cc class Grand Prix, 15 Road Racing World Championship titles, 16 European speed titles. Many world champions started on Aprilia such as Biaggi, Gramigni, Locatelli and Rossi. In the 1990s, Aprilia entered the scooter market starting in 1990 with Italy’s first all-plastic scooter, the Amico. In 1992, Aprilia introduced the Amico LK and the two stroke Pegaso 125, both with catalytic converters. In 1993 Aprilia launched a large diameter wheel scooter reusing the name Scarabeo with a four-stroke, four-valve engine. Aprilia launched more scooters such as the Leonardo, the SR and the Gulliver. In 1995, Aprilia commissioned Philippe Starck to design the Motò, shown in New York’s Modern Art Museum. In 1995 Aprilia launched the two stroke RS 125 and RS 250 sports bikes. In 1998 Aprilia launched what is its current flagship model the RSV Mille, a 1000cc V-Twin Superbike, the Falco, a 1000cc V-Twin sport tourer with emphasis on sport. Both bikes used a variation of a Rotax 1000cc engine.
In 1999 Aprilia entered World Superbike Championship racing with its RSV Mille, during 2000, Aprilia acquired Moto-Guzzi and Laverda, both historic heritage Italian marques. In 2000 Aprilia launched the 50 cc DiTech two stroke engine for scooters which provides high mileage and low emissions, the RST Futura, a sport tourer, the ETV 1000 Caponord. Both of these latter two motorcycles used a variation of the Rotax 1000 cc V-Twin. Most in 2003, Aprilia launched the RSV Mille Tuono, an RSV Mille with motocross-style high handlebars and only a small headlight fairing. Most of the major motorcycle magazines picked it for the best bike of the year. In 2004 Aprilia was acquired by Piaggio & C. SpA, to form the world’s fourth largest motorcycle group with 1.5 billion Euro in sales, an annual production capacity of over 600,000 vehicles, a presence in 50 countries. With the acquisition by Piaggio, the new President of Aprilia is Roberto Colaninno, the Managing Director is Rocco Sabelli; the founder, Ivano Beggio, was the Honorary President and died on 13 March 2018.
On 15 August 2010, Aprilia became the most successful motorcycle racing brand in history, surpassing fellow Italian MV Agusta with a record 276th victory. Despite being a small company by global motorcycling standards, Aprilia is active in motorcycle sports, it contested many Road Racing formulae, including the now-defunct 125 cc, 250 cc and 500 cc Grand Prix classes of the FIM World Championship. From 2002 to 2004 they participated in the FIM MotoGP World Championship, from 1999 to 2002 they participated in the FIM Superbike World Championship. Aprilia has returned in MotoGP since the 2012 season. Aprilia feature in the off-road racing world, with their 450 cc V-2 motocrosser producing respectable results in both off-road and on-road categories. Aprilia made their international racing debut in the Motocross World Championship competing in the 125cc class from 1976 until 1981 with a best result being a fifth place in the 1979 season with rider Corrado Maddi; the firm focused on the Grand Prix road racing world championships in 1985 and since it has seen varying successes.
Aprilia won their first world championship race at the 1991 Czechoslovak motorcycle Grand Prix with rider Alessandro Gramigni winning the 125cc race. In 1992 they won their first road r