Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
The Orlando Magic is an American professional basketball team based in Orlando, Florida. The Magic compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division; the franchise was established in 1989 as an expansion franchise, such notable NBA stars as Shaquille O'Neal, Penny Hardaway, Patrick Ewing, Grant Hill, Tracy McGrady, Steve Francis, Dwight Howard, Vince Carter, Rashard Lewis, Dominique Wilkins, Hedo Türkoğlu have played for the club throughout its young history. As of 2017, the franchise has played in the NBA playoffs for half of its existence, twice went to the NBA Finals, in 1995 and 2009. Orlando has been the second most successful of the four expansion teams brought into the league in 1988 and 1989 in terms of winning percentage, only after the Miami Heat. In September 1985, Orlando businessman Jim L. Hewitt approached Philadelphia 76ers general manager Pat Williams as they met in Texas on his idea of bringing an NBA team to Orlando.
Intrigued by the project, Williams signed on as the front man of the investment group one year as he left the 76ers. On June 19, 1986, the two held a news conference to announce their intention of seeking an NBA franchise. At the same time Hewitt and Williams decided to hold a contest in the Orlando Sentinel newspaper to get names for their new franchise. Out of a total of 4,296 submitted entries, the names were subsequently narrowed to four, "Heat", "Tropics", "Juice", "Magic"; the last one, submitted by 11 people, was picked after Williams brought his 7-year-old daughter Karyn to visit in Orlando. On July 27, 1986, it was announced that the committee chose the Magic to be the new name of the Orlando franchise in the NBA; the name "Magic" alludes to the area's biggest tourist attraction and economic engine Walt Disney World, along with its Magic Kingdom. Hewitt added that "You look at all the aspects of Central Florida, you find it is an exciting place, a magical place."Many, including Williams himself at first, thought that Miami or Tampa were better locations in Florida for a franchise, given Orlando was a small town lacking a major airport and a suitable arena.
Hewitt brought investors such as real estate developer William DuPont, Orlando Renegades owner Don Dizney, Southern Fruit Citrus owners Jim and Steve Caruso, talked the Orlando city officials into approving an arena project. Meanwhile, Williams gave presentations to NBA commissioner David Stern and the owners of the other teams of the league that the town was viable; the Magic were one of the four new expansion franchises awarded by the NBA in 1987 along with the Charlotte Hornets, Miami Heat and Minnesota Timberwolves. The NBA was planning to expand by three teams, with one franchise going to Florida; the Magic became the first major-league professional sports franchise in the Orlando area, following an expansion fee of $32.5 million. The Magic hired Matt Guokas as the team's first coach, who helped the Magic select 12 players in the NBA Expansion Draft on June 15, 1989. On June 27, 1989, the Magic chose Nick Anderson with the 11th pick in the first round, who became the first draft pick of the franchise.
The first game played was an exhibition game on October 13, 1989 against the reigning champions Detroit Pistons, which the Magic won. Anderson was quoted as saying the atmosphere and the people watching the game was "like Game 7 of the NBA Finals". On November 4, 1989, the Magic played their first season game at the Orlando Arena against the visiting New Jersey Nets, who won 111–106 in a hard-fought game; the Magic's first victory came two days as the Magic defeated the New York Knicks 118–110. The inaugural team compiled a record of 18–64 with players including Reggie Theus, Scott Skiles, Terry Catledge, Sam Vincent, Otis Smith, Jerry Reynolds. In the 1990 NBA draft, the Orlando Magic selected Dennis Scott with the fourth overall pick. On December 30, 1990, Scott Skiles racked up 30 assists in the 155–116 victory over the Denver Nuggets, breaking Kevin Porter's NBA single-game assists record. Skiles was named the NBA's Most Improved Player at the end of the season, as the Magic heralded the NBA's most improved record that season.
Forward Dennis Scott set a team mark with 125 three-point field goals for the season, the best long-distance production by a rookie in NBA history. He was named to the NBA All-Rookie First Team. Despite a 31–51 record, there were 40 sellouts out of 41 home games. On September 19, 1991, the DeVos family, founders of Amway, purchased the franchise for $85 million. Family patriarch Richard DeVos became the owner of the franchise; the 1991–92 season was disappointing for the Magic as various players missed games with injuries. Dennis Scott played only 18 games, Nick Anderson missed 22 games, Stanley Roberts, Jerry Reynolds, Brian Williams, Sam Vincent and Otis Smith all missed at least 27 games each. With a shortage of healthy players the team struggled through a 17-game losing streak and finished with a 21–61 record; the Magic still managed to have all 41 home games sold out. The Magic history was changed on May 17, 1992, when the franchise won the first pick in the 1992 NBA draft Lottery; the Magic selected big-man Shaquille O'Neal from Louisiana State University, the biggest prize in the draft since the Knicks won Patrick Ewing.
O'Neal, a 7' 1" center, made an immediate impact on the Magic. The Magic again became the NBA's most improved franchise. O'Neal was the first rookie to be voted an All-Star starter since
2006 in basketball
The following are the basketball events of the year 2006 throughout the world. Tournaments include international and amateur and collegiate levels. 2006 FIBA World Championship: Gold medal: Spain Silver medal: Greece Bronze medal: USA MVP: Pau Gasol, Spain All-tournament team: Pau Gasol Carmelo Anthony Jorge Garbajosa Manu Ginóbili Theodoros Papaloukas 2006 FIBA World Championship for Women Gold medal: Australia Silver medal: Russia Bronze medal: USA MVP: Penny Taylor, Australia Basketball at the 2006 Asian Games Men's tournament: Gold medal: China Silver medal: Qatar Bronze medal: Iran Women's tournament: Gold medal: China Silver medal: Chinese Taipei Bronze medal: Japan NBA season and playoffs: 2006 NBA Finals: Miami Heat 4, Dallas Mavericks 2. MVP: Dwyane Wade EuroLeague: CSKA Moscow defeated Maccabi Tel Aviv 73-69 in the final Croatian League: Cibona defeated Zadar 2-1 in the best-of-three finals French League: Le Mans defeated Nancy 93-88 in the one-off final German Bundesliga: RheinEnergie Köln defeated Alba Berlin 3-1 in the best-of-five finals Greek League: Panathinaikos defeated Olympiakos 3-0 in the best-of-five finals Iranian Super League, 2005–06 season: Saba Battery defeat Petrochimi 3–0 in the best-of-five final.
Israel Premier League: Maccabi Tel Aviv defeated Hapoel Jerusalem 96-66 in the one-off final Italian Serie A: Benetton Treviso defeated Climamio Bologna 3-1 in the best-of-five finals Lithuanian LKL: Lietuvos Rytas defeated Žalgiris 4-0 in the best-of-seven finals Philippine Basketball Association 2005–06 season: Red Bull Barako over the Purefoods Chunkee Giants 4-2 in the Fiesta Conference Finals. Finals MVP: Lordy Tugade Purefoods Chunkee Giants over Red Bull Barako 4-2 in the Philippine Cup Finals. Finals MVP: Marc Pingris Polish League: Prokom Trefl Sopot over Anwil Włocławek 4-1 in the best-of-seven finals Russian Super League: CSKA Moscow over Khimki 3-0 in the best-of-five finals Serbia and Montenegro Super League: Partizan over Red Star 3-0 in the best-of-five finals Spanish ACB: Unicaja Málaga over TAU Cerámica 3-0 in the best-of-five finals 2005–06 season, 2005–06 playoffs Turkish Basketball League: Ülkerspor over Efes Pilsen 4-0 in the best-of-seven finals. Only three matches were played.
British Basketball League: Newcastle Eagles defeated Scottish Rocks 83-68 in the one-off final Adriatic League: FMP defeated Partizan 73-72 in the one-off final 2006 WNBA Finals: Detroit Shock 3, Sacramento Monarchs 2 MVP: Deanna Nolan, Detroit Men NCAA Division I: Florida 73, UCLA 57 National Invitation Tournament: South Carolina 76, Michigan 64 Division II: Winona State 73, Virginia Union 61 Division III: Virginia Wesleyan 59, Wittenberg 56 NAIA NAIA Division I: Texas Wesleyan 67, Oklahoma City 65 NAIA Division II: University of the Ozarks 74, Huntington 56 NJCAA Division I: Arkansas-Ft. Smith 68, Tallahassee CC 59 Division II: Cecil CC 9 64, Kirkwood CC 63 Division III: North Lake College 78, Gloucester County College 65 UAAP Men's: University of Santo Tomas over Ateneo de Manila University, 2 games to 1 NCAA Seniors': San Beda College over Philippine Christian University, 2 games to 1 Women NCAA Division I: Maryland 78, Duke 75 OT WNIT Kansas State 77, Marquette 65 Division II: Grand Valley State 58, American International 52 Division III Hope 69, Southern Maine 56 NAIA NAIA Division I: Union 79, Lubbock Christian 62 NAIA Division II Hastings 58, University of the Ozarks 39 NJCAADivision I: Monroe CC 76, Odessa College 64 Division II: Illinois Central College 71, Kirkwood CC 54 Division III: Monroe College 100, Mohawk Valley CC 70 UAAP Women's: University of Santo Tomas over Far Eastern University, 2 games to 1 USA Today Boys Basketball Ranking #1: Lawrence North High School, Indiana USA Today Girls Basketball Ranking #1: Christ the King, New York NCAA Juniors: San Sebastian Recoletos High School over Philippine Christian University Union High School, 2 games to 0 UAAP Juniors: Ateneo de Manila High School over Far Eastern University-Nicanor Reyes Educational Foundation, 2 games to 1 Class of 2006:Geno Auriemma Charles Barkley Joe Dumars Alessandro "Sandro" Gamba Dave Gavitt Jacques Dominique Wilkins Class of 2006Geno Auriemma Maria Paula Gonçalves da Silva Clarissa Davis-Wrightsil Janice Lawrence Braxton Katrina McClain Johnson Barbara Stevens Men NBA Most Valuable Player Award: Steve Nash NBA Rookie of the Year Award: Chris Paul NBA Defensive Player of the Year Award: Ben Wallace NBA Coach of the Year Award: Avery Johnson FIBA Europe Player of the Year Award: Theodoros Papaloukas, CSKA Moscow and Greece Euroscar Award: Dirk Nowitzki, Dallas Mavericks and Germany Mr. Europa: Jorge Garbajosa, Toronto Raptors and Spain Women WNBA Most Valuable Player Award: Lisa Leslie, Los Angeles Sparks WNBA Defensive Player of the Year Award: Tamika Catchings, Indiana Fever WNBA Rookie of the Year Award: Seimone Augustus, Minnesota Lynx WNBA Most Improved Player Award: Erin Buescher, Sacramento Monarchs Kim Perrot Sportsmanship Award: Dawn Staley, Houston Comets WNBA Coach of the Year Award: Mike Thibault, Connecticut Sun WNBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award: Deanna Nolan, Detroit Shock FIBA Europe Player of the Year Award: Maria Stepanova, CSKA Samara and Russia Combined Legends of Coaching Award: Jim Boeheim, Syracuse Men John R. Wooden Award: J. J. Redick, Duke Naismith College Coach of the Year: Jay Wright, Villanova Frances Pomeroy Naismith Award: Dee Brown, Illinois Associated Press College Basketbal
The Houston Rockets are an American professional basketball team based in Houston, Texas. The Rockets compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division; the team plays its home games at the Toyota Center, located in downtown Houston. The Rockets have won four Western Conference titles; the team was established as the San Diego Rockets, an expansion team based in San Diego, in 1967. In 1971, the Rockets moved to Houston; the Rockets won only 15 games in their debut season as a franchise in 1967. In the 1968 NBA draft, the Rockets, picking first overall, selected power forward Elvin Hayes, who would lead the team to its first playoff appearance in his rookie season; the Rockets did not finish a season with a winning record until the 1976–77 season, when they traded for center Moses Malone. Malone went on to win the NBA Most Valuable Player award twice and led Houston to the conference finals in his first year with the team, he led the Rockets to the NBA Finals in 1981 where they were defeated in six games by the Boston Celtics, led by Larry Bird and future Rockets coach Kevin McHale.
In the 1984 NBA draft, the Rockets drafted center Hakeem Olajuwon, who would be paired with 7 feet 4 inches Ralph Sampson, forming one of the tallest front courts in the NBA. Nicknamed the "Twin Towers", they led the team to the 1986 NBA Finals—the second NBA Finals appearance in franchise history—where Houston was again defeated by the Boston Celtics; the Rockets continued to reach the playoffs throughout the 1980s, but failed to advance past the first round for several years following a second-round defeat to the Seattle SuperSonics in 1987. Rudy Tomjanovich took over as head coach midway through the 1991–92 season, ushering in the most successful period in franchise history; the Olajuwon-led Rockets went to the 1994 NBA Finals and won the franchise's first championship against Patrick Ewing and the New York Knicks. The following season, reinforced by another All-Star, Clyde Drexler, the Rockets repeated as champions with a four-game sweep of the Orlando Magic, who were led by a young Shaquille O'Neal and Penny Hardaway.
Houston, seeded sixth in the Western Conference during the 1995 playoffs, became the lowest-seeded team in NBA history to win the title. The Rockets acquired all-star forward Charles Barkley in 1996, but the presence of three of the NBA's 50 greatest players of all-time was not enough to propel Houston past the Western Conference Finals; each one of the aging trio had left the team by 2001, the Rockets of the early 2000s, led by superstars Tracy McGrady and Yao Ming, followed the trend of consistent regular season respectability followed by playoff underachievement as both players struggled with injuries. After Yao's early retirement in 2011, the Rockets entered a period of rebuilding dismantling and retooling their roster; the acquisition of franchise player James Harden in 2012 has launched the Rockets back into championship contention in the mid-2010s. Moses Malone, Hakeem Olajuwon and James Harden have been named the NBA's Most Valuable Player while playing for the Rockets, for a total of four MVP awards.
The Rockets, under general manager Daryl Morey, are notable for popularizing the use of advanced statistical analytics in player acquisitions and style of play. The Rockets were founded in 1967 in San Diego by Robert Breitbard, who paid an entry fee of US $1.75 million to join the NBA as an expansion team for the 1967–68 season. The NBA wanted to add more teams in the Western United States, chose San Diego based on the city's strong economic and population growth, along with the local success of an ice hockey team owned by Breitbard, the San Diego Gulls; the resulting contest to name the franchise chose the name "Rockets", which paid homage to San Diego's theme of "a city in motion" and the local arm of General Dynamics developing the Atlas missile and booster rocket program. Breitbard brought in Jack McMahon coach of the Cincinnati Royals, to serve as the Rockets' coach and general manager; the team, that would join the league along with the Seattle SuperSonics built its roster with both veteran players at an expansion draft, college players from the 1967 NBA draft, where San Diego's first draft pick was Pat Riley.
The Rockets lost 67 games in their inaugural season, an NBA record for losses in a season at the time. In 1968, after the Rockets won a coin toss against the Baltimore Bullets to determine who would have the first overall pick in the 1968 NBA draft, they selected Elvin Hayes from the University of Houston. Hayes improved the Rockets' record to 37 wins and 45 losses, enough for the franchise's first playoff appearance in 1969, but the Rockets lost in the semi-finals of the Western Division to the Atlanta Hawks, four games to two. Despite the additions of Calvin Murphy and Rudy Tomjanovich and the management of Hall of Fame coach Alex Hannum, the Rockets tallied a 67–97 record in the following two seasons and did not make the playoffs in either season; because of the low performance and attendance, Breitbard looked to sell the team, in 1971, Texas Sports Investments bought the franchise for $5.6 million, moved the team to Houston. The franchise became the first NBA team in Texas, the nickname "Rockets" took on greater relevance after the move, given Houston's long connection to the space industry.
Before the start of the 1971–72 season, Hannum left for the Denver Rockets of the American Basketball Association – renamed Denver Nuggets, who joined the NBA in 1976 – and Tex Winter was hired in his place. However, Winter's clashes with Hayes, due to a system that contrasted with the offensive style