The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
The ivory gull is a small gull, the only species in the genus Pagophila. It breeds in the high Arctic and has a circumpolar distribution through Greenland, northernmost North America, Eurasia; the ivory gull was described by Constantine Phipps, 2nd Baron Mulgrave in 1774 as Larus eburneus from a specimen collected on Spitsbergen. Johann Jakob Kaup recognized the unique traits of the ivory gull and gave it a monotypic genus, Pagophila, in 1829. Johan Ernst Gunnerus gave the species a new specific name, Pagophila alba; the genus name Pagophila is from Ancient Greek pagos, "sea-ice", philos, "-loving", specific eburnea is Latin for "ivory-coloured", from ebur, "ivory". Today some authors consider the ivory gull not deserving of its monotypic genus, instead choosing to merge it, along with the other monotypic gulls, back into Larus. However, most authors have not chosen to do so; the ivory gull has no subspecies. No fossil members of this genus are known; this gull has traditionally been believed to be most related to either the kittiwakes, Sabine's gull, or Ross's gull.
It differs anatomically from the other genera by having a short tarsometatarsus, a narrower os pubis, more flexibility in skull kinetic structure. Structurally, it is most similar to the kittiwakes. "Pagophila" is maintained as a unique genus because of the bird’s morphological and ecological differences from these species. Colloquial names from Newfoundland include slob gull and ice partridge, from a vague resemblance to a ptarmigan; this species is easy to identify. At 43 centimetres, it has a different, more pigeon-like shape than the Larus gulls, but the adult has white plumage, lacking the grey back of other gulls; the thick bill is blue with a yellow tip, the legs are black. The bill is tipped with red, the eyes have a fleshy, bright red eye-ring in the breeding season, its flight call cry is a tern-like keeeer. It has many other vocalizations, including a warbling "fox-call" that indicates potential predators such as an Arctic fox, polar bear, Glaucous Gull or human near a nest, a "long-call" given with wrists out, elongated neck and downward-pointed bill, given in elaborate display to other Ivories during breeding, a plaintitive begging call.
Given in courtship by females to males, accompanied by head-tossing. Young birds have variable amounts of black flecking in the wings and tail; the juveniles take two years to attain full adult plumage. There are no differences in appearance across the species’ geographic range. In North America, it only breeds in the Canadian Arctic. Seymour Island, Nunavut is home to the largest known breeding colony, while Ellesmere, Devon and north Baffin islands are known locations of breeding colonies, it is believed that there are other small breeding colonies of less than six birds that are still undiscovered. There are no records of the ivory gull breeding in Alaska. During the winter, ivory gulls live near polynyas, or a large area of open water surrounded by sea ice. North American birds, along with some from Greenland and Europe, winter along the 2000 km of ice edge stretching between 50° and 64° N from the Labrador Sea to Davis Strait, bordered by Labrador and southwestern Greenland. Wintering gulls are seen on the eastern coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador and appear on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the interior of Labrador.
It winters from October through June in the Bering Sea and Chukchi Seas. It is most widespread throughout the polynyas and pack ice of the Bering Sea, it is vagrant throughout coastal Canada and the northeastern United States, though records of individuals as far south as California and Georgia have been reported, as well as The British Isles, with most records from late November through early March. Juveniles tend to wander further from the Arctic than adults. Ivory gulls migrate only short distances south in autumn, most of the population wintering in northern latitudes at the edge of the pack ice, although some birds reach more temperate areas, it takes fish and crustaceans, rodents and small chicks but is an opportunist scavenger found on seal or porpoise corpses. It has been known to follow other predators to feed on the remains of their kills; the ivory gull breeds on Arctic coasts and cliffs, laying one to three olive eggs in a ground nest lined with moss, lichens, or seaweed. In 2012 the total population of ivory gulls was estimated to be between 19,000 and 27,000 individuals.
The majority of these were in Russia with 2,500–10,000 along the Arctic coastline, 4,000 on the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago and 8,000 on Franz Josef Land and Victoria Island. There were estimated to be around 4,000 individuals in Greenland and in the years 2002–03, 500–700 were recorded in Canada. Examination of data collected on an icebreaker plying between Greenland and Svalbard between 1988 and 2014, by Claude Joiris of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, found a sevenfold fall in ivory gull numbers after 2007; the species is declining in Canada, while in other parts of its range its population is poorly known. The Canadian population in the early 2000s were 80% lower than in the 1980s. Illegal hunting may be one of the causes of the decline in the Canadian population, a second cause may be the decline in sea ice. Ivory gulls breed near to sea ice and the loss may make it difficult to feed their chicks; the species is cla
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, ended on December 31, 1900. It is used interchangeably with the 1800s, though the start and end dates differ by a year; the 19th century saw large amounts of social change. European imperialism brought much of Asia and all of Africa under colonial rule, it was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Zulu Kingdom, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire, the French colonial empire and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded becoming the world's leading powers; the Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. The British Empire grew in the first half of the century with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, South Africa and populated India, in the last two decades of the century in Africa.
By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale; the first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876, the first functional light bulb in 1878. The 19th century was an era of accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, chemistry, biology and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century; the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan. The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.
Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, were responsible for accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from 200 million to more than 400 million; the introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became capital of the British Empire, its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s.
Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe. Slavery was reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans; the UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade. The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888. Serfdom was abolished in Russia; the 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire by the end of the century.
In the 19th century 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States. The 19th century saw the rapid creation and codification of many sports in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Ladywear was a sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous, it marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War. Industrial revolution European Imperialism British Regency, Victorian era Bourbon Restoration, July Monarchy, French Second Republic, Second French Empire, French Third Republic Belle Époque Edo period, Meiji period Qing dynasty Joseon dynasty Zulu Kingdom Tanzimat, First C
Aberdaron is a community, electoral ward and former fishing village at the western tip of the Llŷn Peninsula in the Welsh county of Gwynedd. It lies 14.8 miles west of Pwllheli and 33.5 miles south west of Caernarfon, has a population of 965. The community includes Bardsey Island, the coastal area around Porthor, the villages of Anelog, Penycaerau, Rhydlios, Uwchmynydd and Y Rhiw. Y Rhiw and Llanfaelrhys have long been linked by sharing rectors and by their close proximity, but were ecclesiastical parishes in themselves; the parish of Bodferin/Bodverin was assimilated in the 19th century. The village was the last rest stop for pilgrims heading to Bardsey Island, the legendary "island of 20,000 saints". In the 18th and 19th centuries it developed as port; the mining and quarrying industries became major employers, limestone, lead and manganese were exported. There are the ruins of an old pier running out to sea at Porth Simdde, the local name for the west end of Aberdaron Beach. After the Second World War the mining industry collapsed, Aberdaron developed into a holiday resort.
The beach was awarded a Seaside Award in 2008. The coastal waters are part of Pen Llŷn a'r Sarnau Special Area of Conservation, one of the largest marine designated sites in the United Kingdom; the coast itself forms part of the Aberdaron Coast and Bardsey Island Special Protection Area, was designated a Heritage Coast in 1974. In 1956 the area was included in Llŷn Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Conservation Areas have been created in Bardsey Island and Y Rhiw. Aberdaron means "Mouth of the River Daron", a reference to the Afon Daron which flows into Bae Aberdaron in the village; the area around Aberdaron has been inhabited by people for millennia. Evidence from the Iron Age hillfort at Castell Odo, on Mynydd Ystum, shows that some phases of its construction began unusually early, in the late Bronze Age, between 2850 and 2650 years before present; the construction was wholly defensive, but in phases defence appears to have been less important, in the last phase the fort's ramparts were deliberately flattened, suggesting there was no longer a need for defence.
It appears. Ptolemy calls the Llŷn Peninsula "Ganganorum Promontorium"; the church at Aberdaron had the ancient privilege of sanctuary. In 1094 Gruffudd ap Cynan, the exiled King of Gwynedd, sought refuge in the church while attempting to recapture his throne, he regained his territories in 1101, in 1115 Gruffydd ap Rhys, the exiled prince of Deheubarth, took refuge at Aberdaron to escape capture by Gwynedd's ruler. Henry I of England had invaded Gwynedd the previous year, faced by an overwhelming force, Gruffudd ap Cynan had been forced to pay homage and a substantial fine to Henry; the King of Gwynedd, seeking to give up the exiled prince to Henry, ordered that the fugitive prince be dragged from the church by force, but his soldiers were beaten back by the local clergy. Following the conquest of Gwynedd, in 1284, Edward I set about touring his new territories, he visited the castles at Caernarfon. Court was held at Nefyn; the medieval townships of Aberdaron were Isseley, Uwchseley and Bodrydd.
These locatives predate the idea of the modern ecclesiastical parish. Some were or became hamlets in themselves, whereas others have subsequently been divided - for example the modern Bodrydd Farm is only a part of the medieval township. After the English Civil War, when the Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell introduced a Protestant regime, Catholicism remained the dominant religion in the area. Catholics, who had supported the Royalist side, were considered to be traitors and efforts were made to eradicate the religion; the persecution extended to Aberdaron, in 1657, Gwen Griffiths of Y Rhiw was summoned to the Quarter Sessions as a "papist". Agricultural improvement and the Industrial Revolution came to Aberdaron in the 19th century; the Inclosure Act 1801 was intended to make it easier for landlords to enclose and improve common land, introduce increased efficiency, bring more land under the plough, reduce the high prices of agricultural production. Rhoshirwaun Common, following strong opposition, was enclosed in 1814.
On the industrial front, mining developed as a major source of employment at Y Rhiw, where manganese was discovered in 1827. During the Second World War, Y Rhiw played a vital role in preparations for the Normandy landings. A team of electronic engineers set up an experimental ultra high frequency radio station, from where they were able to make a direct link to stations in
The Arctic redpoll, known in North America as the hoary redpoll, is a bird species in the finch family Fringillidae. It breeds in tundra birch forest, it has two subspecies, A. h. hornemanni of Greenland and neighbouring parts of Canada, A. h. exilipes, which breeds in the tundra of northern North America and Eurasia. Many birds remain in the far north; the genus name Acanthis is from the Ancient Greek akanthis, a name for a small now-unidentifiable bird, hornemanni commemorates the Danish botanist Jens Wilken Hornemann. The Arctic redpoll is similar in appearance to the common redpoll but paler, it may be distinguished from that species by the unstreaked pale rump patch and the uniformly pale vent area. The Greenland race is a large, pale bird, with the male sometimes described as a "snowball", but both forms are pale with small beaks, white rumps and more yellow than grey-brown tones in their plumage, they have orangish forehead patches and two light-coloured stripes on each wing. The females are more streaked on their breasts and rumps, but are still pale.
Adults weigh about 12 to 16 grams. The phylogeny has been obtained by Antonio al.. The Arctic redpoll is migratory and tends to move southwards in November and north again in March and April, it feeds on seeds of alder and birch trees. Breeding takes place from May to July; the nest is built low down in a tree or bush and is neatly built with an outer layer of twigs, a middle layer of root fibres, fragments of juniper bark and lichens and an inner layer of down, willow buds and reindeer hair. Three to seven pale blue eggs with light reddish speckling are incubated by the female, they hatch after the young fledge in about a further thirteen days. Oiseaux.net Photos, map "Arctic redpoll media". Internet Bird Collection. Hoary redpoll photo gallery at VIREO Hoary Redpoll Species Account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology
The Ross's gull is a small gull, the only species in its genus, although it has been suggested it should be moved to the genus Hydrocoloeus, which otherwise only includes the little gull. This bird is named after the British explorer James Clark Ross, its breeding grounds were first discovered in 1905 by Sergei Aleksandrovich Buturlin near village of Pokhodsk in North-Eastern Yakutia, while visiting the area as a judge. The genus name Rhodostethia is from Ancient Greek rhodon, "rose", stethos, "breast"; the specific rosea is Latin for "rose-coloured". This small bird is similar in some plumage characteristics to the little gull, it is larger and longer winged than that species, has more-pointed wings and a wedge-shaped tail. Its legs are red. Summer adults are pale grey above and white below, with a pink flush to the breast, a neat black neck ring. In winter, the breast tints and neck collar are lost and a small dark crescent develops behind the eye. Young birds resemble winter adults, but have a dark "W" pattern on the wings in flight, like young little gulls.
The juveniles take two years to attain full adult plumage. Ross's gull breeds in the high Arctic of northernmost North America, northeast Siberia, it migrates only short distances south in autumn, most of the population wintering in northern latitudes at the edge of the pack ice in the northern Bering Sea and in the Sea of Okhotsk, although some birds reach more temperate areas, such as north west Europe. In North America, a Ross's gull has been spotted as far south as Salton Sea in California, although sightings this far south are rare; the summer breeding grounds are tundra with sedges, grass tussocks, dwarf willows, bushes and pools. The Ross's gull breeds in small colonies on tundras and swampy Arctic estuaries nesting with other seabirds such as Arctic terns, it lays two to three eggs in a nest on the ground lined with seaweed, grass or moss on an island in a little lake. The eggs are olive green with small reddish-brown spots. Incubation takes the chicks fledge in another three weeks. Not all pairs rear their young as predators and bad weather take their toll.
This bird will eat any suitable small prey such as small fish and crustaceans, during the winter feeds on mudflats like a wader. During the breeding season it is insectivorous, feeding on beetles and flies. E. Potapov. 1990. Birds and brave men in the Arctic north Birds International 2 72–83
County Waterford is a county in Ireland. It is part of the South-East Region, it is named after the city of Waterford. Waterford City and County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county at large, including the city, was 116,176 according to the 2016 census. The county is based on the historic Gaelic territory of the Déise, anglicised'Decies' or'Dessia'. There is an Irish-speaking area, Gaeltacht na nDéise, in the south-west of the county. County Waterford has the Knockmealdown Mountains and the Comeragh Mountains; the highest point in the county is Knockmealdown, at 794m. It has many rivers, including Ireland's third longest river, the River Suir. There are over 30 beaches along Waterford's volcanic coast line. A large stretch of this coastline, known as the Copper Coast has been designated as a UNESCO Geopark, a place of great geological importance; the area around Ring is an Irish-speaking area. Waterford City is the county seat, prior to the merger of the 2 Waterford authorities in June 2014 Dungarvan was the county seat for Waterford County Council.
There are eight historic baronies in the county: Coshmore and Coshbride, Decies-within-Drum, Decies-without-Drum, Glenahiry, Middle Third and Waterford City. Abbeyside, Aglish, Annestown, An Rinn, Ardmore Ballinacourty, Ballinamult, Ballybeg, Ballyduff Lower, Ballyduff Upper, Ballygunner, Ballymacarbry, Ballynaneashagh, Ballytruckle, Bunmahon, Butlerstown Cappoquin, Carriglea, Clashmore, Clonea-Power, Clonea Strand, Coolnasmear, Crooke Dungarvan, Dunmore East Dunhill Faha, Fenor, Fews, Fourmilewater Glencairn, Grange Helvick Head Kilbrien, Kill, Kilmacthomas, Kilmeaden, Kilwatermoy, Knockanore Lemybrien, Lismore Mahon Bridge, Mine Head, Mothel, Mount Congreve, Mount Mellaray Newtown Old Parish Passage East, Portlaw Rathgormack Sliabh gCua, Stradbally Tallow, Touraneena, Tycor Waterford, Whiting Bay, Woodstown Villierstown County Waterford is colloquially known as "The Déise", pronounced "day-shih" or, in Irish, /dʲe:ʃʲɪ/; some time between the 4th and 8th centuries, a tribe of native Gaelic people called the Déisi were driven from southern county Meath/north Kildare and settling there.
The ancient principality of the Déise is today coterminous with the current Roman Catholic Diocese of Waterford and Lismore thus including part of south County Tipperary. The westernmost of the baronies are "Decies within Drum" and "Decies without Drum", separated by the Drum-Fineen hills. There are many megalithic tombs and ogham stones in the county; the Viking influence can still be seen with Reginald's Tower, one of the first buildings to use a brick and mortar construction method in Ireland. Woodstown, a settlement dating to the 9th century was discovered 5.5 kilometres west of Waterford city. It was the largest settlement outside Scandinavia and the only large-scale 9th-century Viking settlement discovered to date in Western Europe. Other architectural features are products of the Anglo-Norman invasion of its effects; as of 1 June 2014, Waterford City and County Council is the local government authority for Waterford. The authority was formed following the merger of Waterford City Council and Waterford County Council.
The merger occurred following the Local Government Reform Act 2014. Each local authority ranks as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 South-East Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 31 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; the local authority is responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and real-estate development, the collection of automobile taxation, local roads and social housing. The county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of two constituencies: Waterford and Tipperary South. Together they return 7 deputies to the Dáil; the Electoral Act 2009 defines the Waterford constituency as "The county of Waterford, except the part thereof, comprised in the constituency of Tipperary South. Gaeltacht na nDéise is a Gaeltacht area in Co. Waterford consisting of the parish of An Rinn and An Sean Phobal. Gaeltacht na nDéise is located 10 km from the town of Dungarvan, has a population of 1,784 people and encompasses a geographical area of 62 km2.
According to the Comprehensive Linguistic Study of the use of Irish in the Gaeltacht, the percentage of daily Irish speakers in Gaeltacht na nDéise was 46.04%. High Sheriff of County Waterford Lord Lieutenant of Waterford List of abbeys and priories in the Republic of Ireland Saint Declan Limerick–Rosslare railway line Waterford City and County Council website – Official Waterford Tourism website