Battle of Chumonchin Chan
The Battle of Chumonchin Chan or the Action of 2 July 1950 was the battle fought between surface combatants during the main phase of the Korean War. It began. On 2 July 1950, USS Juneau, HMS Black Swan, HMS Jamaica were sailing along the coast of the Sea of Japan when they encountered four North Korean torpedo and gunboats that had just finished escorting a flotilla of ten ammunition ships up the coast; the North Korean torpedo boats began an attack on the allied ships. Before their torpedoes could be fired however, they were met with a salvo of gunfire from the United Nations ships which destroyed three of the torpedo boats; the surviving North Korean craft fled. In July, Juneau encountered the same ammunition ships and destroyed them. Naval Battles of the Korean War. Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage; the practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of intelligence gathering which includes information gathering from public sources. Espionage is part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term tends to be associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage. One of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks; this is the job of the spy. Spies can return information concerning the strength of enemy forces, they can find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to defect.
In times of crisis, spies sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence is the practice of thwarting enemy intelligence-gathering. All nations have strict laws concerning espionage and the penalty for being caught is severe. However, the benefits gained through espionage are so great that most governments and many large corporations make use of it. Information collection techniques used in the conduct of clandestine human intelligence include operational techniques, asset recruiting, tradecraft. Today, espionage agencies target terrorists as well as state actors. Since 2008, the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China. Intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others; the former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources over research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. In the Soviet Union, both political and military intelligence officers were judged by the number of agents they recruited.
Espionage agents are trained experts in a targeted field so they can differentiate mundane information from targets of value to their own organizational development. Correct identification of the target at its execution is the sole purpose of the espionage operation. Broad areas of espionage targeting expertise include: Natural resources: strategic production identification and assessment. Agents are found among bureaucrats who administer these resources in their own countries Popular sentiment towards domestic and foreign policies. Agents recruited from field journalistic crews, exchange postgraduate students and sociology researchers Strategic economic strengths. Agents recruited from science and technology academia, commercial enterprises, more from among military technologists Military capability intelligence. Agents are trained by military espionage education facilities, posted to an area of operation with covert identities to minimize prosecution Counterintelligence operations targeting opponents' intelligence services themselves, such as breaching confidentiality of communications, recruiting defectors or moles Although the news media may speak of "spy satellites" and the like, espionage is not a synonym for all intelligence-gathering disciplines.
It is a specific form of human source intelligence. Codebreaking, aircraft or satellite photography, research in open publications are all intelligence gathering disciplines, but none of them is considered espionage. Many HUMINT activities, such as prisoner interrogation, reports from military reconnaissance patrols and from diplomats, etc. are not considered espionage. Espionage is the disclosure of sensitive information to people who are not cleared for that information or access to that sensitive information. Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines, espionage involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report, or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people who bought his information; the US defines espionage towards itself as "The act of obtaining, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation".
Black's Law Dictionary defines espionage as: "... gathering, transmitting, or losing... information related to the national defense". Espionage is a violation of United States law, 18 U. S. C. §§ 792–798 and Article 106a of the Uniform Code of Military Justice". The United States, like most nations, conducts espionage against other nations, under the control of the National Clandestine Service. Britain's espionage activities are controlled by the Secret Intelligence Service. A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community, "asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agent, who may have diplomatic status and directs the human collector. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the case officer but transfer messages. A
Russian Far East
The Russian Far East comprises the Russian part of the Far East, the eastermost territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean. The Far Eastern Federal District shares land borders with Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to its south, shares maritime borders with Japan to its southeast and with the United States to its northeast. Although geographically part of Siberia, the Russian Far East is categorized separately from the Siberian Federal District to its west in Russian geographical schemes. In Russia, the region is referred to as just "Far East". What is known in English as the Far East is referred to as "the Asia-Pacific Region", or "East Asia". Beyenchime-Salaatin crater Klyuchevskaya Sopka volcano Kuril–Kamchatka Trench Lake Baikal Manchurian wapiti Siberian musk deer Amur leopard Amur tiger Asian black bear Brown bear Polar bear Picea obovata Pinus pumila Russia reached the Pacific coast in 1647 with the establishment of Okhotsk, consolidated its control over the Russian Far East in the 19th century, after the annexation of part of Chinese Manchuria.
Primorskaya Oblast was established as a separate administrative division of the Russian Empire in 1856, with its administrative center at Khabarovsk. Several entities with the name "Far East" had existed in the first half of the 20th century, all with rather different boundaries: 1920–1922: the Far Eastern Republic, which included Transbaikal, Amur and Kamchatka Oblasts and northern Sakhalin; until 2000, the Russian Far East lacked defined boundaries. A single term "Siberia and the Far East" was used to refer to Russia's regions east of the Urals without drawing a clear distinction between "Siberia" and "the Far East". In 2000, Russia's federal subjects were grouped into larger federal districts, the Far Eastern Federal District was created, comprising Amur Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Kamchatka Oblast with Koryak Autonomous Okrug, Khabarovsk Krai, Magadan Oblast, Primorsky Krai, the Sakha Republic, Sakhalin Oblast. In November 2018, Zabaykalsky Krai and the Republic of Buryatia were added being considered part of the Siberian Federal District.
Since 2000, the term "Far East" has been used in Russia to refer to the federal district, though it is also used more loosely. Defined by the boundaries of the federal district, the Far East has an area of 6.2 million square kilometres —over one-third of Russia's total area. Russia in the early 1900s persistently sought a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean for the navy as well as to facilitate maritime trade; the established Pacific seaport of Vladivostok was operational only during the summer season, but Port Arthur in Manchuria was operational all year. After the First Sino-Japanese War and the failure of the 1903 negotiations between Japan and the Tsars's government, Japan chose war to protect its domination of Korea and adjacent territories. Russia, saw war as a means of distracting its populace from government repression and of rallying patriotism in the aftermath of several general strikes. Japan issued a declaration of war on 8 February 1904. However, three hours before Japan's declaration of war was received by the Russian Government, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the Russian Far East Fleet at Port Arthur.
Eight days Russia declared war on Japan. The war ended in September 1905 with a Japanese victory following the fall of Port Arthur and the failed Russian invasion of Japan through the Korean Peninsula and Northeast China; the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed and both Japan and Russia agreed to evacuate Manchuria and return its sovereignty to China, but Japan was allowed to lease the Liaodong Peninsula, the Russian rail system in southern Manchuria with its access to strategic resources. Japan received the southern half of the Island of Sakhalin from Russia. Russia was forced to confiscate land from Korean settlers who formed the majority of Primorsky Krai's population due to a fear of an invasion of Korea and ousting of Japanese troops by Korean guerrillas. Between 1937 and 1939, the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin deported over 200,000 Koreans to Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, fearing that the Koreans might act as spies for Japan. Many Koreans died on the way in cattle trains due to illness, or freezing conditions.
Many community leaders were purged and executed, Koryo-saram were not allowed to travel outside of Central Asia for the next 15 years. Koreans were not allowed to use the Korean language and its use began to become lost with the involvement of Koryo-mar and the use of Russian. Development of numerous remote locations relied on GULAG labour camps during Stalin's rule in the region's northern half. After that, the large-scale use of forced labour waned and was superseded by volunteer employees attracted by high wages. During the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Soviets occupied Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, Yinlong Island, several adjacent islets to separate the city of Khabarovsk from the territory controlled by a hostile power. Indeed, Japan turned its military interests to Soviet territories. Conflicts between the Jap
Naval Battle of the Han River (1951)
The Naval Battle of the Han River was fought during the Korean War. The main fighting occurred after an Australian frigate was attacked by communist Chinese forces while transiting the Han River in Korea. Up until that time United Nations warships had operated on the river with only limited Chinese resistance. Following the engagement UN naval forces continued to operate on the Han, although riverine operations were suspended two months later. Four Australians were wounded during the engagement, while Chinese casualties have been estimated at around 40 killed and several guns destroyed. Starting in July, a number of small UN warships—including the British Royal Navy frigate HMS Cardigan Bay, the South Korean frigate PF62 and the Royal Australian Navy frigate HMAS Murchison—began operating in the Han River, north-west of the South Korean capital, Seoul; the UN warships were able to penetrate 50 kilometres inland from the Yellow Sea to a wide anchorage at the confluence of a number of narrow channels which were still navigable at high tide.
From this point many important Chinese targets on the north bank of the Han were engaged with naval gunfire. The frigates had been selected for this task as they combined a shallow draft with adequate firepower and range. For the first two months Chinese opposition to UN naval operations on the Han was limited to sniping and small arms fire from the riverbank, occasional fire from 75 mm field-guns which were withdrawn from range; this resistance proved little more than a nuisance to UN operations. Indeed, despite requiring careful navigation, the constant risk of grounding amidst the numerous sand and mud banks, for a number of weeks the UN ships were able to move along the narrow channels to bombard targets from positions close inshore, enabling them to dominate the Han by both day and night; the Chinese soon responded to the threat that this posed, however. On the afternoon of 28 September 1951, Murchison—under the command of Lieutenant Commander Allen Dollard—was ambushed near the mouth of the Yesong River from Chinese positions entrenched and concealed in three nearby villages.
The Chinese engaged with 75 mm field-guns and small arms fire from a range of 2,000 metres, while Murchison responded with the ships' 4-inch main armament and Bofors. The Australians were struck by small arms fire and shrapnel, but achieved direct hits on a 75 mm gun and an enemy trench. No serious damage was sustained, just one man was wounded. 40 Chinese troops were reported killed in the engagement. Two days on 30 September, Murchison was again engaged by Chinese fire while transiting the same stretch of river; this time the fire was heavier and more accurate, the Australian warship was hit several times by 50 mm anti-tank rounds which passed straight through its hull. A 75 mm round exploded in the engine room, although no significant damage was inflicted. In response Murchison returned a heavy weight of fire and attempted to move westward as the Chinese fire started to slacken. A misty rain squall reduced visibility in the narrow channel, forcing Dollard to slow down to a halt; as the rain eased the Murchison began to proceed again but was engaged once more, this time from further to the west by a second group of Chinese weapons from a range of just 600 metres.
Returning fire vigorously, the Australians destroyed several Chinese positions and subsequently managed to fight their way clear. The warship suffered seven shell holes as well as extensive, although minor, damage from shrapnel and small arms fire. One of the ship's Bofors guns had been put out of action. Three more Australians were wounded during this encounter, including one seriously. Despite the incident, UN river patrols continued, although they were restricted due to the increasing threat posed to the ships from Chinese positions along the shore. In November 1951, however, it was decided to cease operations on the Han altogether. A total of 14 UN warships were engaged in these operations over a four-month period.
Blockade of Wonsan
The Blockade of Wonsan, or the Siege of Wonsan, from February 16, 1951 to July 27, 1953, during the Korean War, was the longest naval blockade in modern history, lasting 861 days. UN naval forces from the United States kept the strategically important city of Wonsan from being used by the North Korean Navy; the blockade served to divert communist troops from the front line. North Korean resistance used artillery to oppose the American fleet, although this was ineffective, the city was damaged by UN naval aircraft and warships. Wonsan was a strategic point during the war, located on North Korea's southeastern coast with a large harbor, an airfield, a petroleum refinery, 75,000 people, as many as 80,000 troops, including several artillery batteries. After the Battle of Inchon, in which General Douglas MacArthur landed on the northwestern shores of the Korean peninsula, he ordered X Corps to make a landing at Wonsan where they would proceed west, link up with the Eighth Army and advance towards Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea.
North Korean naval forces had been well supplied by the Soviet Union and China with all sorts of sea mines and they were used as much as possible to defend Wonsan. Soviet military advisors were employed to create more effective mine fields. One of the first objectives of the operation was to begin plotting the locations of mines and destroy them; because of this, the use of minesweepers became a necessity and dozens would serve in the blockade. Operation Wonsan, or the Clearance of Wonsan, began on October 10 of 1950, ten days before the landing was scheduled to take place. Rear Admiral James H. Doyle commanded Task Force 90, a fleet of dozens of American warships which were used in the clearance. Two days on October 12, mines sank the sweepers USS Pledge and USS Pirate, killing twelve men and wounding dozens of others, all while under accurate fire from North Korean shore batteries; the United States Navy Pacific Fleet responded by starting the production of new minesweepers in the largest shipbuilding program since World War II.
Other vessels were damaged by mines and battery fire as well but the loss of the Pirate and Pledge proved to be the major engagement during the operation. Operation Tailboard was the codename for the United States Army landing at Wonsan, it was found to have been unnecessary. Preparations began over 800 miles away at Inchon where on October 15, thousands of marines and soldiers, 30,184 in total, embarked transports to participate in the landing; when they arrived off Wonsan on October 20, the clearance of the mine fields was still taking place so for five days X Corps and the 1st Marine Division were forced to remain on ship to wait for a clear path to the beaches. When it came time to land on October 25, the North Koreans had withdrawn and the British and South Koreans were securing the area; the landing was not needed and MacArthur was criticized for not using the X Corps in the pursuit of the retreating North Korean Army on the Inchon front. On October 19, the South Korean Army captured Pyongyang so instead of heading there the American army went north along the coast to occupy Hungnam and the Chosin Reservoir areas while the 3rd Infantry Division landed at Wonsan in November as reinforcements.
UN forces would not hold Wonsan for long: after the massive Chinese intervention in the war, Allied forces were ordered to evacuate Wonsan on December 9, 1950, taking 7,009 refugees, 3,384 military personnel, 1,146 vehicles and 10,013 tons of cargo in the process. General MacArthur's plan was to regroup in Japan before launching another offensive, while holding Pusan Perimeter; when the North Koreans and Chinese recaptured the city, defenses were rebuilt in a more formidable way, additional sea mines were deployed and new artillery batteries were erected. The blockade began on February 16, 1951 and would last 861 days until the armistice in July 1953. During nearly three years of blockading United States Navy ships and aircraft engaged shore batteries repeatedly. Several American vessels were damaged by land based artillery fire. UN Task Group 95.2 was assigned to the blockade and they first bombarded Wonsan on February 17, 1951, targeting everything used by the communists and causing heavy damage.
On February 19, the destroyer USS Ozbourn, under Commander Charles O. Akers, was fired on by shore batteries in the Wonsan area, she received two direct hits and several near misses and rescued a downed pilot from USS Valley Forge with a motor boat, while he was adrift in a mine field. The boat officer of the boat received a Bronze Star for the rescue. Ozbourn returned to San Diego in April 1951 for repairs and sailed back to North Korea. On February 24, the undefended island of Sindo-ri, in Wonsan Harbor, was captured by South Korean marines supported by two American destroyers and two frigates. Wonsan shore batteries dueled with UN warships on March 3, but there were no recorded hits; the battleship USS New Jersey participated in her first shore bombardment mission of the war on May 20, 1951. While patrolling off Wonsan, North Korean batteries opened fire and she was struck by one shell. Damaged, she sustained one man killed and two wounded, her only casualties during the war. Another shot was a near miss and passed over New Jersey from aft to port.
She responded by bombarding the enemy position until they were silenced. The type of warfare experienced at Wonsan would last throughout the war. Operation Fireball was the code name for a bombardment of the Wonsan area from May through September, it involved the cooperation of naval vessels and aircraft from the 5th Air Force which caused heavy damage to the North Koreans. On the night of May 21 and May 22, during the height
Battle of Inchon
The Battle of Inchon was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations. The operation involved some 75,000 troops and 261 naval vessels, led to the recapture of the South Korean capital of Seoul two weeks later; the code name for the operation was Operation Chromite. The battle ended on 19 September. Through a surprise amphibious assault far from the Pusan Perimeter that UN and South Korean forces were defending, the undefended city of Incheon was secured after being bombed by UN forces; the battle ended a string of victories over the Korean People's Army. The subsequent UN recapture of Seoul severed the KPA's supply lines in South Korea; the UN and South Korean forces were commanded by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of the United States Army. MacArthur was the driving force behind the operation, overcoming the strong misgivings of more cautious generals to a risky assault over unfavorable terrain.
The battle was followed by a rapid collapse of the North Korean army. From the outbreak of the Korean War following the invasion of South Korea by North Korea on 25 June 1950, the Korean People's Army, had enjoyed superiority in both manpower and ground combat equipment over the South Korean Army and United Nations forces dispatched to South Korea to prevent it from collapsing; the North Korean strategy was to aggressively pursue UN and South Korean forces on all avenues of approach south and to engage them, attacking from the front and initiating a double envelopment of both flanks of the defending units, which allowed the North Koreans to surround and cut off the opposing force, forcing it to retreat in disarray. From their initial 25 June offensive to fighting in July and early August, the North Koreans used this tactic to defeat the UN forces they encountered and push it south. However, with the establishment of the Pusan Perimeter in August, UN forces held a continuous line which the North Koreans could not flank.
The KPA advantages in numbers decreased daily as the superior UN logistical system brought in more troops and supplies to the UN forces. When the North Koreans approached the Busan Perimeter on 5 August, they attempted the same frontal assault technique on the four main avenues of approach into the perimeter. Throughout August, they conducted direct assaults resulting in the Battle of Masan, the Battle of Battle Mountain, the First Battle of Naktong Bulge, the Battle of Taegu, the Battle of the Bowling Alley. On the east coast of the Korean Peninsula, the South Koreans repulsed three North Korean divisions at the Battle of P'ohang-dong; the North Korean attacks stalled. All along the front, the North Korean troops reeled from these defeats, the first time in the war North Korean tactics had failed. By the end of August the North Korean troops had been pushed beyond their limits and many of the original units were at far reduced strength and effectiveness. Logistic problems wracked the KPA, shortages of food, weapons and replacement soldiers proved devastating for North Korean units.
However, the North Korean force retained high morale and enough supply to allow for another large-scale offensive. On 1 September the North Koreans threw their entire military into one final bid to break the Pusan Perimeter, the Great Naktong Offensive, a five-pronged simultaneous attack across the entire perimeter; the attack caught UN forces by surprise and overwhelmed them. North Korean troops attacked Kyongju, surrounded Taegu and Ka-san, recrossed the Naktong Bulge, threatened Yongsan, continued their attack at Masan, focusing on Nam River and Haman. However, despite their efforts, in one of the most brutal fights of the Korean War, the North Koreans were unsuccessful. Unable to hold their gains, the KPA retreated from the offensive a much weaker force, vulnerable to counterattack. Days after the beginning of the war, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, the US Army officer in command of all UN forces in Korea, envisioned an amphibious assault to retake the Seoul area; the city had fallen in the first days of the war in the First Battle of Seoul.
MacArthur wrote that he thought the North Korean army would push the Republic of Korea Army back far past Seoul. He said he decided days after the war began that the battered and under-equipped South Koreans, many of whom did not support the South Korean government put in power by the United States, could not hold off the North Korean forces with American support. MacArthur felt that he could turn the tide if he made a decisive troop movement behind North Korean lines, preferred Inchon, now known as Incheon, over Chumunjin-up or Kunsan as the landing site, he had envisioned such a landing, code named Operation Bluehearts, for 22 July, with the US Army's 1st Cavalry Division landing at Incheon. However, by 10 July the plan was abandoned as it was clear the 1st Cavalry Division would be needed on the Pusan Perimeter. On 23 July, MacArthur formulated a new plan, code-named Operation Chromite, calling for an amphibious assault by the US Army's 2nd Infantry Division and the United States Marine Corps' 5th Marine Regiment in mid-September 1950.
This, too fell through. MacArthur decided instead to use the US Army's 7th Infantry Division, his last reserve unit in East Asia, to conduct the operation as soon as it could be raised to wartime strength. In preparation for the invasion, MacArthur activated the US Army's X Corps to act as the command for the landin
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n