Rafael "Tatito" Hernández Montañez is a Puerto Rican politician affiliated with the Popular Democratic Party. He is a Democrat, he has been a member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives since 2009, representing District 11, which includes the town of Dorado and parts of the towns of Vega Alta and Vega Baja. Rafael "Tatito" Hernández was born April 1972 in Dorado, he received a Bachelor's in Science degree, majoring in Surveying and Cartography from the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico in San Juan, Puerto Rico. To strengthen his preparation, both on an academic and professional level, Hernandez Montañez took several courses such as origin and analysis of loans mortgage in the Mortgage Bankers School and brokerage of real estate at the Alberto Hernandez Real State School, he served in the United States Navy Reserve for eight years. He first ran for the House under the Popular Democratic Party column in 2008, the year of the opposing New Progressive Party's largest landslide election in history.
Though he was not elected as a district representative, the State Elections Commission certified him as an add-on at-large representative under the provisions of the Puerto Rico Constitution that provide for the certification of add-on legislators when the minority falls short in electing 17 members of the House. Once certified, he enjoyed all the privileges of an elected At-Large representative during that term. In 2012, the Popular Democratic Party renominated Hernández for the general election and was elected outright as District 11's representative, winning with 48.83% of the votes in a three-way race. Rafael Hernández Profile on WAPA-TV
Supreme Court of Puerto Rico
The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico —Spanish: Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico — is the highest court of Puerto Rico, having judicial authority to interpret and decide questions of Puerto Rican law. The Court is analogous to one of the state supreme courts of the states of the United States. Article V of the Constitution of Puerto Rico vests the judicial power in the Supreme Court—which by its nature forms the judicial branch of the government of Puerto Rico; the Supreme Court holds its sessions in San Juan. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico was established by the Foraker Act in 1900 and maintained in the 1952 Constitution of Puerto Rico, it is the only appellate court required by the Constitution. All other courts are created by the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico. However, since Puerto Rico is under United States sovereignty, there is a Federal District Court for the island; the justices are appointed by the Governor of Puerto Rico and confirmed by majority vote by the Senate. One of these nine justices serves as Chief Justice.
Unlike the Supreme Court of the United States, the justices of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court do not serve for life, as the Puerto Rico Constitution requires that all judges must retire upon reaching age 70. Although the Constitution of Puerto Rico provides for the Court to be composed of five justices, it contains a provision that the number may be altered, though only by petition of the Court itself; this provision has been used four times in Court history. After the Constitution's ratification, the Court asked for two additional judges. During the early 1960s, the Court once again petitioned for the addition of two more judges, arguing that there was a case backlog on its docket. Subsequently, during the 1970s the Court asked for its number to be reduced back to seven members, arguing that the backlog had been attended to. In 2010 a 4–3 majority of the justices petitioned the Legislative Assembly to once again increase the Court's membership to 9; this decision has generated controversy since it is the first time that such a request has been done without unanimity from the justices.
The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico is defined by the Constitution and the laws of Puerto Rico. In general, the jurisdictional structure parallels that of the state Supreme Courts in the continental United States; the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico has concurrent jurisdiction with federal courts to interpret federal laws, unless the Supremacy Clause requires otherwise. Judgments that stand on federal law grounds may be reviewed by the United States Supreme Court, unless an adequate and independent ground for the decision based in Puerto Rico commonwealth law is present; the Court has the power of judicial review and its decision are considered binding precedent within the jurisdiction of Puerto Rico. The Supreme Court of Puerto Rico regulates the practice of law in Puerto Rico; the term of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court begins on the first Monday of October and ends in the last week of June of the following year. However, during the recess months of July through September, an alternating panel of three justices are allowed to hear cases and their decisions are considered binding precedent.
However, in order for any law passed by the Legislative Assembly to be declared unconstitutional, it requires the votes of a majority of the total membership of the Court, therefore, a three-justice panel may not hear constitutional challenges to laws passed by the Legislature. The justices decide. If the case is controversial or carries high public interest, an oral argument may be scheduled, although oral arguments were rare under Chief Justice Hernández Denton; when oral argument occurs, each side has twenty-five minutes to state its respective claims and five minutes for rebuttal. After the sides have ended their argument, each justice has ten minutes to ask questions to each side. Justices may decide to yield the balance of their time to one of their colleagues; because several Federal judges have voluntarily withdrawn from the Puerto Rico Bar Association and was converted by statute into a voluntary membership organization, the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico maintains the official bar records of Puerto Rico licensed attorneys.
The Chief Justice is the presiding officer of the Supreme Court, amongst its functions it directs the administration of the different courts, chairs the Constitutional Redistricting Board which revises Puerto Rico's senatorial and representative districts after every decennial census, presides at the impeachment trial of the Governor of Puerto Rico. During much of the 20th century, the court system in Puerto Rico had consisted of Municipal Courts, District Courts, the Supreme Court. Cases could be appealed from Municipal Courts to commonwealth District Courts. From the commonwealth District Courts cases were appealed to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Supreme Court. Municipal and District courts have existed in Puerto Rico since at least the 19th century; when the United States invaded the island, it set to reorganize the judicial system. The U. S. military regime in Puerto Rico promulgated Order 118 of 1899, by which the system of Criminal Courts and Courts of First Instance and Investigation were replaced by five district courts in San Juan, Mayaguez and Humacao.
Appointments to the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico have traditionally been a politicized and controversial process. The Governor of Puerto Rico appoints someone, affiliated with his own political party. For example, during his sixteen years as Gove
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Juan Manuel Dalmau Ramírez is a Puerto Rican lawyer and politician born on July 23, 1973 in San Juan. He is an advocate of the Puerto Rican independence ideal, a member of the Puerto Rican Independence Party of which he is Secretary General, he appeared in the general elections held on November 8, 2016 as a candidate of the Puerto Rican Independence Party for the position of Senator At-large, as such was elected. Juan Dalmau Ramírez graduated from Colegio Notre Dame High School in Caguas. In 1995 he obtained a Bachelor of Arts with a major in Political Science degree from the University of Puerto Rico, three years in 1998, he acquired his Juris Doctor from the same institution. While studying at the university he chaired the UPR Political Science Students Association and participated in a legislative internship program with former Senator Rubén Berríos Martínez. Subsequently, as a law student he was editor-in-chief of the Revista Jurídica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico for Volume 67. Dalmau Ramírez represented the University of Puerto Rico internationally to establish ties of academic collaboration with the UPR Law Review Journal and other Law Schools abroad.
In 1999, he worked as a Law Clerk of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Hon. José Andreu García; that same year he taught an Introduction to Constitutional Law course at the University of Puerto Rico. In 2000, he obtained his Masters of Law from Harvard University. In 2015, he offered a course in Administrative Law at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico-School of Law in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Juan Dalmau Ramírez is one of the most recognized independence leaders in Puerto Rico. On July 2, 2000 he was arrested along with more than a hundred members of the Puerto Rican Independence Party for acts of civil disobedience on the island-municipality of Vieques. Due to these events, he served a 33-day jail term and, as well as the rest of the PIP militants engaged in civil disobedience, did not recognize the jurisdiction of the Federal Court of the United States in Puerto Rico. In 2000 he worked as a legislative advisor for Manuel Rodríguez Orellana, the PIP Speaker in the Senate; as part of his work he carried out research work on the preparation of files and political persecution by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency against people and organizations that fight for the freedom and independence of Puerto Rico.
In 2001 he was selected as a member of the Political Commission of the Puerto Rican Independence Party, occupying the position of Secretary of Municipal Affairs. In 2002, he was named Secretary General of the organization. In 2003, he was chosen to represent the PIP in the State Elections Commission as Electoral Commissioner, being the youngest person to be appointed to such position; the Puerto Rican Independence Party General Assembly held on October 23, 2011, selected him as a candidate for governor on general election of November 2012. In the Party's General Assembly held on December 13, 2015 he was ratified as the candidate to the Senate at-large for the Puerto Rican Independence Party on the general election of November 8, 2016, was elected Senator at-large. Mr. Juan Dalmau Ramírez is Secretary General and the Speaker in the Senate of the Puerto Rican Independence Party. Dalmau Ramirez has two children. Latin American and Caribbean Congress in Solidarity with Puerto Rico’s Independence Manuel Rodríguez Orellana - PIP Secretary of Relations with North America
Héctor Luis Acevedo
Héctor Luis Acevedo is a politician from Río Piedras, San Juan, Puerto Rico. He is the son of both public servants. Acevedo is married to Carmen Roca Saavedra since 1972 with. Héctor Luis studied in the University of Puerto Rico Elementary School and High School, but completed High School in Spain in the America School of Madrid. There he won the the medal in history, he completed a bachelor's degree in Political Science at the University of Puerto Rico with high honors. He obtained his degree in Law from the University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras in 1972, where he graduated with honors. Acevedo entered the United States Army Reserve as a commissioned officer after completing the ROTC program; as part of its military functions was instructor in the United States Army Command and General Staff College and director of mobilization of the Army Reserve in Puerto Rico. While in university he was elected president of the student council, president of the Alpha Phi Omega fraternity, in 1967 president of the Order of the Arrow.
In 1976, he was appointed Electoral Commissioner when he was only twenty-eight years old, making him the youngest person to hold that position. He remained as Electoral Commissioner until 1984. In 1978, he completed the Lawyer's Education Program at the Harvard Law School; that same year he began working as an assistant to Governor Rafael Hernández Colón. In 1985 he was appointed Secretary of State. In 1988, he was elected Mayor of San Juan in a close race, he was reelected in 1992 by a much larger margin. In 1994, he was elected president of the Popular Democratic Party, in 1996 he ran unsuccessfully for governor of Puerto Rico, losing by a 51% to 45% margin to Pedro Rosselló. Since he dedicates his time to teaching full-time at the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, he is a part-time professor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico School of Law. Considered Gov. Jesús T. Piñero's principal biographer, he is contributing to the biography of former Puerto Rico Senate Vice President Luis Negrón López, the PDP's 1968 gubernatorial candidate.
He is a vice-president of the Boy Scouts of America Puerto Rican Council. In 2003 and in 2013, he was appointed President of the Commission for Electoral Finance Reform. Acevedo is known to be an expert in Puerto Rican electoral law, he lives in Rio Piedras, where he plays basketball with his youngest son. Héctor Luis Acevedo has published various articles in law newspapers. In 1996, he published his book Will Opens Paths, in 1997 Messages from the Mayor's Office, he has edited two books: La Generacion del 40 y la Convencion Constituyente and Los Administradores en la Modernizacion de Puerto Rico. He is the editor of the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico-sponsored biography on Gov. Jesús T. Piñero, he edited the biography of Sen. Luis Negrón López, published by the Interamerican University Press in September, 2007. Many of these books have been made available for free online on the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico's website on the libros para todos section
1992 Puerto Rican general election
General elections were held in Puerto Rico on 3 November 1992. Pedro Rosselló of the New Progressive Party was elected Governor, whilst the PNP won a majority of seats in the House of Representatives and the Senate. Voter turnout was between 82% and 84%
Popular Democratic Party (Puerto Rico)
The Popular Democratic Party is a political party in Puerto Rico that advocates to continue as a Commonwealth of the United States with self-government. The party was founded in 1938 by dissidents from the Puerto Rican Liberal Party and the Unionist Party and promoted policies on the center-left. In recent years, its leaders have described the party as centrist; as one of the long-standing parties on the island, the PPD has played a significant role in the history of Puerto Rico. In the early 1950s, for example, the party held a majority in the delegation convened to draft the Constitution of Puerto Rico. Once the constitution was ratified, the document was proclaimed by the party's leader and co-founder, Luis Muñoz Marín—who, in doing so, became the first Puerto Rican governor elected by the people of Puerto Rico; the party ruled all branches of the Puerto Rican government afterward for 36 of the past 67 years, while establishing many of the institutions that permeate Puerto Rican society today.
Today, the party is one of the two major parties in Puerto Rico with significant political strength. In the executive branch, the party's last governor was Alejandro García Padilla who governed the island from 2013–2017, it holds minorities in the legislative and judicial branches by holding minorities in the Senate, in the House, in the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, however, is from the PPD. In the municipal landscape, the party holds more than half of the seats of mayors. Ideologically, the PPD differs from the other parties active in the island. For example, the party's opponent has been the New Progressive Party, which advocates for Puerto Rico to become a state of the United States. Both parties have ruled the island unopposed for years after the Puerto Rican constitution was ratified in 1952. Members of the party are referred to in different terms depending on their faction. In general, those affiliated to the party are called populares and affiliate with the Democratic Party of the United States.
Internally, members aligned with the delegation that drafted the constitution compose the largest faction and are referred to as'conservatives'. A smaller'liberal' faction is referred to as the soberanistas, advocates for Puerto Rico to enter a compact of free association with the United States rather than remain an unincorporated part of the United States. Dissidents expelled from the Liberal Party of Puerto Rico, founded the PPD in 1938. Many of them were part of the old socialist movement of Puerto Rico; the dissident faction calling themselves the Partido Liberal, Auténtico y Completo, was led by Luis Muñoz Marín. In 1937, the debate had concerned the differences between the moderate demands of autonomy leading to gradual independence by the Liberal Party faction led by Barcelo, the desire for more radical demands of immediate independence and social reform by Muñoz and his followers. In 1940, the highest elective political office in Puerto Rican was as president of its Senate. At the time, the governor was appointed by the president of the United States.
In the 1940 election, the Popular Democratic Party of Puerto Rico finished in a dead heat with the Liberal Party. Luis Muñoz Marin of the PPD brokered an alliance with minor Puerto Rican factions so as to secure his position as Senate president; the elections in 1944 and 1948 resulted in greater victory margins for the PPD. Once Jesús T. Piñero stepped down as the first Puerto Rican named governor, the governor's office became an elected position. In 1949, under the leadership of Luis Muñoz Marín, the PPD won the first gubernatorial elections in Puerto Rico, Muñoz became the first elected governor of the island, he served for what is the longest continuous rule by a governor in Puerto Rican history, being re-elected three times, serving a total of four 4-year terms, or 16 years. This record has been surpassed only by one of the governors under Spanish rule. On May 21, 1948, one of the PPD introduced a bill that would restrain the rights of the independence and nationalist movements in the island.
Controlled by the PPD, the legislature passed the Bill. The Bill known as the "Ley de la Mordaza", made it illegal to display a Puerto Rican flag, to sing a patriotic tune, to talk of independence, to fight for the liberation of the island; the Bill which resembled the anti-communist Smith Law passed in the United States, was signed and made into law on June 10, 1948, by the U. S.-appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Jesús T. Piñero and became known as "Ley 53"; the new law made it a crime to print, sale, to exhibit or organize or to help anyone organize any society, group or assembly of people whose intentions are to paralyze or destroy the insular government. Anyone accused and found guilty of disobeying the law could be sentenced to ten years of prison, be fined $10,000 dollars or both. According to Dr. Leopoldo Figueroa, a member of the Puerto Rico House of Representatives, the law was repressive and violated the First Amendment of the US Constitution which guarantees Freedom of Speech, he pointed out that the law was a violation of the civil rights of the peopl