FK Austria Wien
Fußballklub Austria Wien, is an Austrian association football club from the capital city of Vienna. It has won the most national titles of any Austrian club from the top flight, it has won 24 Austrian Bundesliga titles and is one of only two sides that have never been relegated from the Austrian top flight. With 27 victories in the Austrian Cup and six in the Austrian Supercup, Austria Wien is the most successful club in each of those tournaments; the club reached the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup final in 1978, the semi-finals of the European Cup the season after. The club plays at the Franz Horr Stadium, known as the Generali Arena since a 2010 naming rights deal with an Italian insurance company. FK Austria Wien has its roots in Wiener Cricketer, established on 20 October 1910 in Vienna; the club was renamed Wiener Amateur-SV in December of that year and adopted the name Fußballklub Austria Wien on 28 November 1926. The team claimed its first championship title in 1924. Wiener Amateur changed its name to Austria Wien in 1926.
The club won its second league title that year. The 1930s, one of Austria Wien's most successful eras, brought two titles in the Mitropa Cup, a tournament for champions in Central Europe; the star of that side was forward Matthias Sindelar, voted in 1998 as the greatest Austrian footballer. The club's success was interrupted by the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany in 1938, with Austria taunted as "Judenklub". While Jewish players and staff at the club were killed or fled the country, Sindelar died under unresolved circumstances on 23 January 1939 of carbon monoxide poisoning in his apartment, he had refused to play for the combined Germany–Austria national team, citing injury and retirement from international matches. The club was part of the top-flight regional Gauliga Ostmark in German competition from 1938–45, but never finished higher than fourth, they participated in the Tschammerpokal in 1938 and 1941. Nazi sports authorities directed that the team change its name to Sportclub Ostmark Wien in an attempt to Germanize it on 12 April 1938, but the club re-adopted its historical identity immediately on 14 July 1938.
Austria Wien won its first league title for 23 years in 1949, retained it the following year. It won a fifth title in 1953; the club won 16 titles in 33 seasons between 1960 and 1993, starting with three-straight titles in 1961, 1962 and 1963. Forward Ernst Ocwirk, who played in five league title-winning sides in two separate spells at the club, managed the side to 1969 and 1970 Bundesliga titles. Other players of this era included Horst Nemec. From 1973–74 season, Wiener AC formed a joint team with FK Austria Wien, called FK Austria WAC Wien until 1976–77, when Austria Wien opted to revert to their own club's traditional name; the results of the joint team are part of the Austria Wien football history. The 1970s saw the beginning of another successful era, despite no league title between 1970 and 1976 as an aging squad was rebuilt. Eight league titles in the 11 seasons from 1975–76 to 1985–86 reasserted its dominance. After winning the 1977 Austrian Cup national Cup, Austria Wien reached the 1978 European Cup Winners' Cup final, which they lost 4–0 to Belgian club Anderlecht.
The following season, the club reached the semi-finals of the European Cup, losing 1–0 on aggregate to Swedish team Malmö FF. In 1982–83, Austria Wien reached the semi-finals of the Cup Winners' Cup, losing 5–3 on aggregate to Real Madrid. Players at Austria Wien in this era included Herbert "Schneckerl" Prohaska, Felix Gasselich, Thomas Parits, Walter Schachner, Gerhard Steinkogler, Toni Polster, Peter Stöger, Ivica Vastić and Tibor Nyilasi. At the start of the 1990s, Austria Wien enjoyed its most recent period of sustained success: three-straight Bundesliga titles from 1991 to 1993. However, the club declined in the late 1990s due to financial problems which forced key players to be sold. Austria Wien was taken over by Austro–Canadian billionaire Frank Stronach's Magna auto-parts consortium in 1999. Following deals with the Memphis cigarette company, the club was renamed FK Austria Memphis Magna. Stronach's investment in players, with a budget three times larger than the average in the league, saw a first Bundesliga title for ten years in 2002–03.
Despite this, head coach Walter Schachner was fired. Although his replacement Christoph Daum could not retain the league title, he won the Austrian Cup. In 2004, Memphis was dropped from the club's name. Austria Wien reached the UEFA Cup quarter-final in 2004 -- 05. On 21 November 2005, Frank Stonach withdrew from the club. Several players were sold to other teams the following summer; the 2005–06 season nonetheless concluded with a Bundesliga and Cup double. The loss of key players and a much lower budget for the 2006 -- 07 season saw. Despite losing 4–1 on aggregate to Benfica in the preliminary round of the UEFA Champions League, the team managed to qualify for the group phase of the UEFA Cup. Former player and coach Thomas Parits became general manager. After the side lost three days 4–0 away to Red Bull Salzburg, Partis terminated coaches Peter Stöger and Frank Schinkels. Georg Zellhofer replaced them; the season saw a sixth-place finish in the Bundesliga despite being in last place at Christmas.
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
B68 Toftir is a Faroese football club, playing in the village of Toftir in Effodeildin. After being promoted to the 1. Deild in 1980, they won the league 3 times: in 1984, 1985, 1992. In 2004 they were relegated. 2005 saw them bounce back to the top flight, coming first in the second division, but they were again relegated from the Premier Division at end of the 2006 season. In 2007 they won the second division, were promoted. In the 2008 season they came 6th out of 10 in the Premier League. In the 2009 season, they finished in 4th place. In 2010 they finished as number 7 in Effodeildin, in 2011 they finished as number 6. In 2012, B68 Toftir ended as number 9 in Effodeildin and were relegated: they only needed to score one more goal against TB Tvøroyri in the final round to stay up, they won the match 4 -- 1. They played in 1. Deild in 2013. Faroe Islands Premier League: 3 1984, 1985, 1992 1. Deild: 4 1980, 2005, 2007, 2013 FSF Trophy: 1 2005 As of 9 May 2016 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Manager: Páll Guðlaugsson Ass. manager: Jóhan Petur Poulsen Ass. manager: Hans Erik Danielsen Caretaker: Jógvan Hendrik Johannessen Caretaker: Trúgvi Súnason í Hjøllum Betuel Hansen Johan Hammer Dánjal Eli Højgaard Johan Hammer Dánjal Eli Højgaard Johan Hammer Marius Danielsen Jóannes á Líðarenda Janus Jensen Haldur Gaardbo Niclas Davidsen Jógvan Højgaard Beinta Mikkelsen Niclas Davidsen B68 Toftir II Portal.fo, Keita og Ndende halda fram í B68 FaroeSoccer.com footballzz.co.uk Official website Islands Soccer news, fixtures, league table, etc
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Djurgårdens IF Fotboll
Djurgårdens IF Fotbollsförening known as Djurgårdens IF, Djurgården Fotboll, Djurgården, Djurgår'n, Dif or DIF, is the association football department of Djurgårdens IF. Founded 1891 in the island Djurgården, the club's home ground is Tele2 Arena, situated in the Johanneshov district of Stockholm. Competing in the highest Swedish tier, the club has won the league eleven times and the cup five times; the league titles have been won during three eras. The first period was the 1910s; the second era occurred in the 1950s and 60s, when Djurgården won the league four times. The most recent era was the first half of the 00s when they won both the league and the cup three times. Fans of the club, called djurgårdare, are found all over Sweden. However, Östermalm, where Djurgården's former home ground Stadion is situated, is by some considered the club's heartland. Djurgården is affiliated to the Stockholms Fotbollförbund. Djurgårdens IF was founded by John G. Jansson, on 12 March 1891 at a café in Alberget 4A in the island Djurgården.
Most of the founding members were young working class men. The club focused on winter sports and athletics; the first real football field in Stockholm was created in 1896. Djurgårdens IF's football department was formed in 1899, with the help of former GAIS player Teodor Andersson. Djurgården played their first match in July 1899, a 1–2 loss against AIK; the first real achievement was made in 1902 when the team finished second in the tournament Rosenska Pokalen. Just two years in 1904, the first Swedish Championship final of the club was played, ending in a defeat against Örgryte IS; the team finished second in three more finals before the first Championship victory came in 1912 after two draws in the final matches against Örgryte, a replay which Djurgården won. The club won three more Swedish Championships in the early years, in 1915 against Örgryte, 1917 against AIK and 1920 against IK Sleipner. However, DIF never managed to win Svenska Serien, the top Swedish league of the period, before the club's first great era ended.
Between 1911 and 1935, Tranebergs Idrottsplats was the homeground for Djurgården. For the 1912 Summer Olympics, Stockholms Stadion was built, it became Djurgården's permanent home arena in 1936. The club did not qualify for the first season of Allsvenskan, only reached that league twice between 1924 and 1944, being directly relegated back down to Division 2 both times; the club did play three seasons in the third highest league, Division 3, between 1929 and 1932. From 1944 on, the club became a stable Allsvenskan club. In 1951, the team became runners-up in Svenska Cupen after Malmö FF; the second great era took place in the 1950s and 1960s, winning Allsvenskan four times during the period. Djurgården's fifth Swedish championships, first Allsvenskan championship, was taken in the 1954–55 season under the lead of Frank Soo. In the 1955–56 season, Djurgården became the first Swedish team to enter the European Cup. Beating Gwardia Warszawa in the first round, Djurgården advanced to quarter finals against Scottish Hibernian that they lost by 1–4 over two matches.
In 1959, both the football team and Djurgårdens IF's hockey team won their respective Swedish Championships of Sweden's two most popular sports, a remarkable happening. The 1959 title was secured on Råsunda Stadium, in front of 48,894 people, marking a record attendance for Djurgården, with a team of Sven Tumba, Birger Eklund, Lars Broström, John Eriksson, Hans Karlsson, Gösta Sandberg, Olle Hellström, Stig Gustafsson, Arne Arvidsson, Hans Mild and Sigge Parling; the year after, in the 1960 season Djurgården finished 11th and was relegated to Division 2. The team only needed one year to return to Allsvenskan. In 1964 and 1966, Djurgården took its seventh and eight championships, with 1966 marking the end of the career of Gösta Sandberg. Sandberg played 322 league scored 77 goals. Gösta Sandberg is known as "Mr Djurgården" and was in 1991 named "Djurgårdare of the century". Sandberg played for the club's Bandy and Ice Hockey section, he died on his way home after attending the Tvillingderbyt in 2006.
It's during this era that the nickname "Järnkaminerna" was established, due to the clubs physical playing style. The ideal of a strong and uncomprimising Djurgården player might be traced back to the clubs working class roots; the 1970s saw no greater successes, however Djurgården was steady in Allsvenskan and had three third-places and a final loss in the 1975 Svenska Cupen Final as the best results. Gary Williams became the first foreign player in the team in the 1977 season; the 1980s was not a good decade for the club, being relegated from Allsvenskan in 1981, losing two promotion play-offs, before making a one-year visit in the highest league in 1986, although DIF returned two years and stayed in Allsvenskan for five consecutive seasons, but had no greater success except losing the Championship final in 1988. In 1987, Djurgårdens IF Fotboll presented a 12 million SEK deficit and transformed into an aktiebolag. Former England striker Teddy Sheringham had a brief spell at Djurgården early in his career, as a 19-year-old loanee in 1985.
The 1990s saw Djurgården being relegated from Allsvenskan no less than three times, being promoted back two times. During this decade, the club was close to bankruptcy; the 1995 season ended bad. In the middle of 1999 season, Zoran Lukic and Söre
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
The Faroe Islands, or the Faeroe Islands—a North Atlantic archipelago located 200 miles north-northwest of the United Kingdom and about halfway between Norway and Iceland—are an autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark. Total area is about 1,400 square kilometres with a population of 50,322 in October 2017; the terrain is rugged. Temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream. Between 1035 and 1814, the Faroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, along with two other Norwegian island possessions: Greenland and Iceland; the Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. The Faroese have control of most of their domestic affairs; those that are the responsibility of Denmark include military defence and the justice department and foreign affairs. However, as they are not part of the same customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy and can establish trade agreements with other states.
The islands have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation. The Faroe Islands have their own national teams competing in certain sports. In Faroese, the name appears as Føroyar. Oyar represents the plural of oy, older Faroese for "island". Due to sound changes, the modern Faroese word for island is oyggj; the first element, før, may reflect an Old Norse word fær, although this analysis is sometimes disputed because Faroese now uses the word seyður to mean "sheep". Another possibility is that the Irish monks, who settled the island around 625, had given the islands a name related to the Gaelic word fearrann, meaning "land" or "estate"; this name could have been passed on to the Norwegian settlers, who added oyar. The name thus translates as either "Islands of Sheep" or "Islands of Fearrann". In Danish, the name Færøerne contains the same elements, though øerne is the definite plural of ø. In English, it may be seen as redundant to say the Faroe Islands, since the oe comes from an element meaning "island".
Most notably in the BBC Shipping Forecast, where the waters around the islands are called Faeroes. The name is sometimes spelled "Faeroe". Archaeological evidence shows settlers living on the Faroe Islands in two successive periods before the Norse arrived, the first between 300 and 600 AD and the second between 600 and 800 AD. Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, which further suggests people may have lived on the islands before the Vikings arrived. Archaeologist Mike Church noted, he suggested that the people living there might have been from Ireland, Scotland, or Scandinavia with groups from all three areas settling there. A Latin account of a voyage made by Brendan, an Irish monastic saint who lived around 484–578, includes a description of insulae resembling the Faroe Islands; this association, however, is far from conclusive in its description. Dicuil, an Irish monk of the early 9th century, wrote a more definite account. In his geographical work De mensura orbis terrae he claimed he had reliable information of heremitae ex nostra Scotia who had lived on the northerly islands of Britain for a hundred years until the arrival of Norse pirates.
Norsemen settled the islands c. 800, bringing Old West Norse, which evolved into the modern Faroese language. According to Icelandic sagas such as Færeyjar Saga, one of the best known men in the island was Tróndur í Gøtu, a descendant of Scandinavian chiefs who had settled in Dublin, Ireland. Tróndur led the battle against the Norwegian monarchy and the Norwegian church; the Norse and Norse–Gael settlers did not come directly from Scandinavia, but rather from Norse communities surrounding the Irish Sea, Northern Isles and Outer Hebrides of Scotland, including the Shetland and Orkney islands. A traditional name for the islands in Irish, Na Scigirí refers to the Skeggjar "Beards", a nickname given to island dwellers. According to the Færeyinga saga, more emigrants left Norway who did not approve of the monarchy of Harald Fairhair; these people settled the Faroes around the end of the 9th century. Early in the 11th century, Sigmundur Brestisson – whose clan had flourished in the southern islands before invaders from the northern islands exterminated it – escaped to Norway.
He was sent back to take possession of the islands for Olaf Tryggvason, King of Norway from 995 to 1000. Sigmundur introduced Christianity, forcing Tróndur í Gøtu to convert or face beheading and, though Sigmundur was subsequently murdered, Norwegian taxation was upheld. Norwegian control of the Faroes continued until 1814, when the Kingdom of Norway entered the Kalmar Union with Denmark, it resulted in Danish control of the islands; the Reformation with Protestant Evangelical Lutheranism and Reformed reached the Faroes in 1538. When the union between Denmark and Norway dissolved as a result of the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, Denmark retained possession of the Faroe Islands. Following the turmoil caused by the Napoleonic Wars in 1816, the Faroe Islands became a county in the Danish Kingdom; as part of Mercantilism, Denmark maintained a monopoly over trade with the Faroe Islands and forbade their inhabitants trading