Shelby County, Tennessee
Shelby County is a county in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 927,644, it is the state's largest county both in terms of population and geographic area. Its county seat is Memphis, a port on the Mississippi River and the second most populous city in Tennessee; the county was named for Governor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky. Shelby County is part of TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is bordered on the west by the Mississippi River. Located within the Mississippi Delta, the county was developed as a center of cotton plantations in the antebellum era, cotton continued as an important commodity crop well into the 20th century; the economy has become more diversified. This area along the Mississippi River valley was long occupied by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. In historic times, the Chickasaw controlled much of this area, they are believed to be descendants of the important Mississippian culture, which established fortified and complex cities. The largest of these was Cahokia, active from about 950CE into the 15th century.
It was developed on the east side of the Mississippi in present-day southern Illinois. The Shelby County area was part of the lands acquired by the United States government from the Chickasaw as part of the Jackson Purchase of 1818. Shelby County was established by European-American migrants in 1819 and named for Isaac Shelby, the former governor of Kentucky who had helped negotiate the land acquisition. From 1826 to 1868, the county seat was located at Tennessee on the Wolf River. After the American Civil War, in recognition of the growth of Memphis and its importance to the state economy, the seat was moved there; the lowlands in the Mississippi Delta, closest to the Mississippi River, were developed for large cotton plantations. Well before the American Civil War, the population of the county was majority black, most of whom were slaves. Memphis developed with many brokers. After the war, many freedmen stayed on the land by working as sharecroppers. Tennessee had competitive politics; the eastern part of the state supported the Republican Party.
Blacks in the west supported the Republican Party. Most conservative whites supported the Democrats. From 1877-1950, there were 20 lynchings of blacks by whites in Shelby County, the highest number of any county in the state. Most blacks were disenfranchised around the turn of the century when the state passed laws raising barriers to voter registration. Blacks were closed out of the political system for more than six decades. In the 20th century, mechanization of agriculture reduced the need for farm workers at a time when industries and railroads in the North were recruiting workers; the Great Migration resulted in many African Americans moving from rural areas into Memphis or out of state to northern cities for work and social and political opportunities. After World War II, highways were constructed that led to development of much new housing on the outskirts of Memphis where land was cheap. Suburbanization, with retail businesses following new residents, took place in the county, drawing population out of the city.
With continued residential and suburban development, the population of the metropolitan area became majority white. Six towns in the county have become incorporated. Residents enjoy many parks in the area as well as attractions in the city of Memphis. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 785 square miles, of which 763 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water, it is the largest county in Tennessee by area. The lowest point in the state of Tennessee is located on the Mississippi River in Shelby County, where the river flows out of Tennessee and into Mississippi. Loosahatchie River Mississippi River Nonconnah Creek Wolf River Tipton County Fayette County Marshall County, Mississippi DeSoto County, Mississippi Crittenden County, Arkansas As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 927,644 people residing in the county. 52.1% were Black or African American, 40.6% White, 2.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 3.3% of some other race and 1.4 of two or more races.
5.6% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 897,472 people, 338,366 households, 228,735 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,189 people per square mile. There were 362,954 housing units at an average density of 481 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 48.56% Black, or African American, 47.34% White, 0.20% Native American, 1.64% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. 2.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 338,366 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.80% were married couples living together, 20.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, 10.00% who were 65 years
McNairy County, Tennessee
McNairy County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,075, its county seat is Selmer. McNairy County is located along Tennessee's border with the state of Mississippi. Sheriff Buford Pusser, whose story was told in the Walking Tall series of movies, was the sheriff of McNairy County from 1964 to 1970. McNairy County is the location of the Coon Creek Science Center, a notable fossil site that preserves Late Cretaceous marine shells and vertebrate remains. McNairy County was formed in 1823 from parts of Hardin County, was named for Judge John McNairy. Purdy was the county seat of McNairy County until 1890. Since Selmer has been the county seat. Buford Pusser served as the sheriff of McNairy County from 1964 to 1970; the courthouse and jail in Selmer were his base of operations. He gained prominence for his fight against illegal distilleries, gambling establishments, corruption in the county, his story has been made famous in the Walking Tall series of movies starring Joe Don Baker, Bo Svenson, Brian Dennehy, Dwayne Johnson, in numerous documentaries and books.
The oldest existing business in McNairy County is its newspaper, the Independent Appeal, founded in 1902. It is located in Selmer. In 2009, Tom Evans, a former reporter and photographer for the Independent Appeal, formed his own weekly newspaper, The McNairy County News. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 564 square miles, of which 563 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles is water. The major highways U. S. Route 64 and U. S. Route 45 pass through intersect in Selmer. Between the late 1990s and mid 2010s, both highways were upgraded to four lane divided highways, giving the county quicker access to the surrounding areas. McNairy County's position on Route 64 places it on the historic Lee Highway, which stretches from New York to San Francisco. State Highways 22 and 57 pass through the county. SR 22 along the eastern portion intersecting with US 64 in Adamsville, SR 57 through the southern portion intersecting with US 45 in Eastview. Chester County Hardin County Alcorn County, Mississippi Hardeman County Big Hill Pond State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 24,653 people, 9,980 households, 7,135 families residing in the county.
The population density was 44 people per square mile. There were 11,219 housing units at an average density of 20 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.22% White, 6.23% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.24% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. 0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,980 households out of which 29.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.00% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.50% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 25.60% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.20 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,154, the median income for a family was $36,045. Males had a median income of $30,028 versus $21,450 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,385. About 11.80% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.00% of those under age 18 and 20.80% of those age 65 or over. McNairy County is the site of 5,000-acre Big Hill Pond State Park, forested with timberland and hardwood bottomland; the county is the location of the Coon Creek Science Center, a notable fossil site, located in Leapwood over the Coon Creek Formation, which preserves Late Cretaceous marine shells and vertebrate remains left there 70 million years ago. McNairy County is home to one of the most successful rural arts organizations in the state, AiM. AiM pushes for arts recognition in the county and surrounding area through theatre productions, exhibits of local artists, the bi-annual Artisan Trail.
Finger Ramer National Register of Historic Places listings in McNairy County, Tennessee Official site McNairy County Chamber of Commerce McNairy County at Curlie McNairy County at TNGenWeb Arts in McNairy Homepage McNairy Central High School Reminiscences of the Early Settlement and Early Settlers of McNairy County, Tennessee Let’s Call It Finger: A History of North McNairy County and Finger and Its Surrounding Communities A History of Mount Carmel Cemetery and Meeting House, McNairy County, Tennessee
Union County, Tennessee
Union County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,109, its county seat is Maynardville. Union County is included in TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Union County was formed in 1850 from portions of Grainger, Campbell and Knox counties. There are at least two theories on the source of its name; the name may commemorate the "union" of sections of five counties, or it may reflect East Tennessee's support for the preservation of the Union in the years before the Civil War. The county seat was named "Liberty," but renamed "Maynardville" in honor of attorney and congressman, Horace Maynard, who had defended the county in a court case that sought to block its formation. In the 1930s, the damming of the Clinch River by Norris Dam to form Norris Lake inundated a large part of the county, including the community of Loyston, displaced many residents. With assistance from the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Tennessee Valley Authority developed Big Ridge State Park as a demonstration park on the shore of the lake in Union County.
The park's recreational facilities opened in May 1934. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 247 square miles, of which 224 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water; the county is situated in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, a range characterized by long, narrow ridges alternating with similarly-shaped valleys. Prominent ridges in Union County include Hinds Ridge and Lone Mountain; the southern end of Clinch Mountain forms part of the county's border with Grainger County to the east. The Clinch River, Union County's primary stream, flows through the northern part of the county; this section of the river is part of Norris Lake. Big Ridge Dam, a small non-generating dam, impounds an inlet of Norris Lake, creating Big Ridge Lake at Big Ridge State Park; the "Loyston Sea," one of the widest sections of Norris Lake, is located in Union County just north of the state park. Claiborne County Grainger County Knox County Anderson County Campbell County Big Ridge State Park Chuck Swan State Forest At the 2000 census, there were 17,808 people, 6,742 households and 5,191 families residing in the county.
The population density was 80 per square mile. There were 7,916 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.46% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. 0.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,742 households of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.00% were non-families. 19.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 2.99. 25.70% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 31.00% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.60 males. The median household income was $27,335 and the median family income was $31,843. Males had a median income of $26,436 versus $18,665 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,375. About 16.80% of families and 19.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.10% of those under age 18 and 27.80% of those age 65 or over. Big Ridge Elementary School Horace Maynard Middle School Luttrell Elementary School Maynardville Elementary School Paulette Elementary School Sharps Chapel Elementary School Tennessee Virtual Academy Union County Alternative Center Grades 6-12 Union County High School Roy Acuff Museum Big Ridge State Park Luttrell Maynardville Plainview Alder Springs Braden Sharps Chapel Loyston Roy Acuff, entertainer Chet Atkins, entertainer Jake Butcher, former banker and politician, convicted of fraud Kenny Chesney, entertainer John Rice Irwin and founder of Museum of Appalachia Florence Reece, who wrote the song "Which Side Are You On?", was born in Sharps Chapel in 1900.
Carl Smith, entertainer National Register of Historic Places listings in Tennessee#Union County Official site Union County Chamber of Commerce Union County Public Schools TNGenWeb Union County at Curlie
Anderson County, Tennessee
Anderson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, its population was 75,129, its county seat is Clinton. Anderson County is included in TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Before the formation of Anderson County, that territory was land of what is today called the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, settled by several pioneer families including the Wallace, Freels and Tunnell families. Although the Treaty of Holston, signed in 1791, was intended as a negotiation with the Cherokee to prohibit settlement of the area including what is today Anderson County, the treaty became ineffective as more settlers moved through the Appalachian Mountains from Virginia and North Carolina into Tennessee; the flooding of white settlers into the Indian domain was cause for several skirmishes, which eased after the Treaty of Tellico in 1798 allowed for greater ease in settling the area. Anderson County was partitioned from a portion of Grainger County, Tennessee as well as a portion of Knox County, Tennessee, in 1801.
Anderson County was named in honor of Joseph Anderson, at that time U. S. senator from Tennessee, whose career included judge of the Superior Court of the Territory South of the River Ohio and Comptroller of the U. S. Treasury. Like many East Tennessee counties, the residents of Anderson County were opposed to secession on the eve of the Civil War. On June 8, 1861, Anderson Countians voted against Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession, 1,278 to 97; the construction of Norris Dam, the first dam built by the Tennessee Valley Authority, brought major changes to the county in the 1930s. 2900 families were relocated from reservoir lands in Anderson and nearby counties during the construction, which began in 1933 and was completed in 1936. The town of Norris was built as a planned community to house the workers involved in the construction of this dam; as a result of the dam completion and operation, the temperature of the downstream Clinch River bed changed, so that a former pearl industry, successful for many years evaporated as the mussels, once prevalent in the river, were not able to sustain life in the changed climate.
During World War II, the federal government's Manhattan Project brought more change to the county, including the displacement of more families and the founding of Oak Ridge. The Museum of Appalachia in Norris commemorates pioneer and rural life of past decades in Anderson County and the surrounding region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 345 square miles, of which 337 square miles is land and 7.6 square miles is water. Campbell County Union County Knox County Roane County Morgan County Scott County Manhattan Project National Historical Park Norris Dam State Park North Cumberland Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 71,330 people, 29,780 households, 20,518 families residing in the county; the population density was 211 people per square mile. There were 32,451 housing units at an average density of 96 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.36% White, 3.88% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.38% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races.
1.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the 2000 Census the largest ancestry groups in Anderson County were English, German, Scots-Irish and Scottish. There were 29,780 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.80% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.10% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,483, the median income for a family was $42,584.
Males had a median income of $33,710 versus $23,467 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,009. About 10.20% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.40% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. Anderson County has a thriving tourism industry, thanks to major attractions such as Norris Lake, the Museum of Appalachia, American Museum of Science and Energy, the county is considered a part of the Norris Highlands. Clinton Norris Oak Ridge Rocky Top Oliver Springs Andersonville National Register of Historic Places listings in Anderson County, Tennessee Official site Anderson County Chamber of Commerce Anderson County at Curlie Anderson County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Anderson county landforms
Reform Party of the United States of America
The Reform Party of the United States of America known as the Reform Party USA or the Reform Party, is a political party in the United States, founded in 1995 by Ross Perot. Perot, who received 18.9% of the popular vote as an independent candidate in the 1992 presidential election and wanted to participate in the 1996 presidential election, thought Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital issues. Perot claimed to represent a viable alternative to Republicans and Democrats, and, as a result, founded the Reform Party. Perot won 8.4% of the popular vote in 1996. Although he came nowhere close to winning the presidency, no other third-party or independent candidate has since managed to receive as high a share of the vote; the party has nominated several notable candidates over the years, including Perot himself, Pat Buchanan, Ralph Nader. Donald Trump ran for president on the Reform Party ticket in 2000 before switching to the Republican Party and becoming president in 2016.
Its most significant victory came when Jesse Ventura was elected Governor of Minnesota in 1998, although he left the party shortly into his term. In around the year 2000, party infighting and scandals led to a major decline in the party's strength. Beginning with Buchanan's poor showing in the 2000 election, no Reform Party presidential candidate has been able to attain at least 1% of the vote; the party grew out of Ross Perot's efforts in the 1992 presidential election, where—running as an independent—he became the first non-major party candidate since 1912 to have been considered viable enough to win the presidency. Perot received attention for focusing on fiscal issues such as the federal deficit and national debt. A large part of his following was grounded in the belief he was addressing vital problems ignored by the two major parties. A Gallup poll showed Perot with a slim lead, but on July 19 he suspended his campaign, accusing Republican operatives of threatening to sabotage his daughter's wedding.
He was accused by Newsweek of being a "quitter" in a well-publicized cover-page article. After resuming his campaign on October 1, Perot was dogged by the "quitter" moniker and other allegations concerning his character. On Election Day many voters were confused as to whether Perot was still a candidate, he ended up receiving about 18.9% of the popular vote, a record level of popularity not seen in an independent candidacy since former President Theodore Roosevelt ran on the "Bull Moose" Progressive Party ticket in 1912. He continued being politically involved after the election, turning his campaign organization into a lobbying group. One of his primary goals was the defeat of the North American Free Trade Agreement during this period. In 1995, Republicans took control of the House of Representatives on the strength of the "Contract with America", which recognized and promised to deal with many of the issues Perot's voters had mobilized to support in 1992. However, two of the major provisions failed to secure the two-thirds congressional majorities required to be submitted to the states.
Dissatisfied, the grassroots organizations that had made Perot's 1992 candidacy possible began to band together to found a third party intended to rival the Republicans and Democrats. For legal reasons, the party ended up being called the "Reform Party". A drive to get the party on the ballot in all fifty states succeeded, although it ended with lawsuits in some regions over state ballot access requirements. In a few areas, minor parties became incorporated as state party organizations. At first, when the 1996 election season arrived, Perot held off from entering the contest for the Reform Party's presidential nomination, calling for others to try for the ticket; the only person who announced such an intention was Dick Lamm, former Governor of Colorado. After the Federal Election Commission indicated only Perot and not Lamm would be able to secure federal matching funds—because his 1992 campaign was as an independent—Perot entered the race; some were upset that Perot changed his mind, because in their view, Perot overshadowed Lamm's run for the party nomination.
This built up to the beginning of a splinter within the movement, when it was alleged certain problems in the primary process—such as many Lamm supporters not receiving ballots, some primary voters receiving multiple ballots—were Perot's doing. The Reform Party claimed these problems stemmed from the petition process for getting the Reform Party on the ballot in all of the states, since the party claimed they used the names and addresses of petition signers as the basis of who received ballots. Primary ballots were sent by mail to designated voters. Perot was nominated and he chose economist Pat Choate as his vice-presidential candidate. Between 1992 and 1996, the Commission on Presidential Debates changed its rules regarding how candidates could qualify to participate in the presidential debates; as Perot had done well in debates, it was a decisive blow to the campaign when the Commission ruled that he could not participate on the basis of somewhat vague criteria — such as that a candidate was required to have been endorsed by "a substantial number of major news organizations," with "substantial" being a number to be decided by the Commission on a case-by-case basis.
Perot could not have qualified for the debates in 1992 under these rules, was able to show that various famous US presidents would have been exclud
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Henry Ross Perot is an American business magnate and former politician. As the founder of the successful Electronic Data Systems corporation, he became a billionaire, he ran an independent presidential campaign in 1992 and a third party campaign in 1996, establishing the Reform Party in the latter election. Both campaigns were among the strongest presidential showings by a third party or independent candidate in U. S. history. Born in Texarkana, Texas, he became a salesman for IBM after serving in the United States Navy. In 1962, he founded a data processing service company. In 1984, General Motors bought a controlling interest in the company for $2.4 billion. Perot established Perot Systems in 1988 and was an angel investor for NeXT, a computer company founded by Steve Jobs after he left Apple. Perot became involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, arguing that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia after the Vietnam War. During President George H. W. Bush's tenure, Perot became active in politics and opposed the Gulf War and ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
In 1992, Perot announced his intention to run for president and advocated a balanced budget, an end to the outsourcing of jobs, the enactment of electronic direct democracy. A June 1992 Gallup poll showed Perot leading a three-way race against President Bush and presumptive Democratic nominee Bill Clinton. Perot withdrew from the race in July, but re-entered the race in early October after he qualified for all 50 state ballots, he chose Admiral James Stockdale as his running mate and appeared in the 1992 CPD debates with Bush and Clinton. In the election, Perot did not win any electoral votes, he won support from across the ideological and partisan spectrum, but performed best among self-described moderates. Perot ran for president again in 1996, he won 8.4 % of the popular vote against Republican nominee Bob Dole. Perot did not seek public office again after 1996 and did not enter the 2000 Reform Party presidential primaries, he endorsed Republican George W. Bush over Reform nominee Pat Buchanan in the 2000 election and supported Republican Mitt Romney in 2008 and 2012.
In 2009, Dell acquired Perot Systems for $3.9 billion. According to Forbes, Perot was the 167th richest person in the United States in 2016. Perot was born in Texarkana, the son of Lula May Perot and Gabriel Ross Perot, a commodity broker specializing in cotton contracts, his patrilineal line traces back to an immigrant to French Louisiana in the 1740s. He attended, he graduated from Texas High School in Texarkana in 1947. One of Perot's childhood friends was Hayes McClerkin, who became the Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives and a prominent lawyer in Texarkana, Arkansas. Perot made Eagle Scout in 1942, after 13 months in the program, he is a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award. From 1947 to 1949, he attended Texarkana Junior College entered the U. S. Naval helped establish its honor system. Perot said his appointment notice to the academy—sent by telegram—was sent by W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel, Texas's 34th governor and former senator. Perot married Margot Birmingham of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1956.
After he left the Navy in 1957, Perot became a salesman for IBM. He became a top employee and tried to pitch his ideas to supervisors, who ignored him, he left IBM in 1962 to found Electronic Data Systems in Dallas and courted large corporations for his data processing services. Perot was refused. EDS received lucrative contracts from the U. S. government in the 1960s, computerizing Medicare records. EDS went public in 1968 and the stock price rose from $16 a share to $160 within days. Fortune called Perot the "richest Texan" in a 1968 cover story. In 1984 General Motors bought controlling interest in EDS for $2.4 billion. In 1974, Perot gained some press attention for being "the biggest individual loser on the New York Stock Exchange" when his EDS shares dropped $450 million in value in a single day in April 1970. Just prior to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the government of Iran imprisoned two EDS employees in a contract dispute. Perot sponsored their rescue; the rescue team was led by retired U.
S. Army Special Forces Colonel Arthur D. "Bull" Simons. When the team was unable to find a way to extract the two prisoners, they decided to wait for a mob of pro-Ayatollah revolutionaries to storm the jail and free all 10,000 inmates, many of whom were political prisoners; the two prisoners connected with the rescue team, the team spirited them out of Iran via a risky border crossing into Turkey. The exploit was recounted in On Wings of Eagles by Ken Follett, which became a best-seller. In the 1986 mini-series, Perot was portrayed by Richard Crenna. In 1984, Perot bought a early copy of Magna Carta, one of only a few to leave the United Kingdom, it was lent to the National Archives in Washington, D. C. where it was displayed alongside the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. In 2007, it was sold by the Perot Foundation "for medical research, for improving public education and for assisting wounded soldiers and their families." The document sold for US$21.3 million on Dec. 18, 2007, to David Rubenstein, managing director of the Carlyle Group, is kept on display at the National Archives.
After Steve Jobs lost the original power struggle at Apple an