Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
Tokyo Bay NK Hall
Tokyo Bay NK Hall was an indoor sporting arena located at the Tokyo Disney Resort in Urayasu, Chiba, in Japan. The capacity of the arena is 7,000 people, it hosts local sporting concerts that require a smaller facility than Ariake Coliseum. 1993 Japan Music Awards on November 16, 1993. Venue for the UFC 23 event. Held the first SASUKE competition in 1997
Urayasu is a city located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of December 1, 2015, the city had an estimated population of 163,258, a population density of 9490 persons per km²; the total area is 17.30 square kilometres. Urayasu is best known as the home of the Tokyo Disney Resort, which opened in April 1983, the headquarters of The Oriental Land Company. Urayasu is located in the delta of the Edo River; the river separates it from the Edogawa ward of Tokyo. There are two parts to Urayasu: the original fishing village on Tokyo Bay, the newer reclaimed land portion that adjoins Tokyo Disneyland; the new landfill area is called "Shin-Urayasu", has an "American" inspired layout, with a grid-like map of wide streets, large sidewalks, palm trees and parks. The buildings are some having views on Tokyo Bay. Urayasu is one of the most sought after areas in the metropolitan area for young families to live. However, plans are under way to turn the local school facilities into retirement facilities in the future.
Urayasu was affected by the March 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. The reclaimed land across most of northern Chiba Prefecture was damaged by soil liquefaction in the earthquake. Urayasu, with major areas of reclaimed land, had as much as 85% of the utility infrastructure, roads and houses damaged or affected to some degree by soil liquefaction; the damage cost the city ¥73.4 billion to repair. Chiba Prefecture IchikawaTokyo Metropolis Edogawa-ku The area around Urayasu was tenryo territory within Shimōsa Province controlled directly by the Tokugawa shogunate during the Edo period. Urayasu served as an important fishing village for the Edo capitol; until the industrialization of the city it was a major center of production of nori, an edible seaweed, the common orient clam, asari, the Japanese cockle. All three are important elements of the traditional Japanese diet. After the Meiji Restoration in 1868 the area became part of Chiba Prefecture. Urayasu Village was created on April 1, 1889 under Higashikatsushika District with the establishment of the municipalities system.
Urayasu became a town in September 1909. Many of the residents of Urayasu perished during the 1944 Bombing of Tokyo. Urayasu grew in the 1960s and 1970s with massive landfill projects along the shores of Tokyo Bay, public housing projects, increasing infrastructure. Urayasu became part of the Keiyō Industrial Zone in this period, which spans from the city across the Tokyo Bay coast of Chiba Prefecture to Futtsu to the south. An area of the Tokyo Bay near the town was reclaimed form. Fishing was abandoned in Urayasu in 1971 due to the industrialization of the city. Urayasu was elevated to city status on April 1, 1981. Tokyo Disneyland opened in 1983 on 200 acres in Maihama. Urayasu is a bedroom community for nearby Chiba and Tokyo; the primary employer in the city is The Oriental Land Company and businesses related to Tokyo Disney Resort. Meikai University Juntendo University Ryotokuji University Public: Urayasu High School Urayasu Minami High School (千葉県立浦安南高等学校Private schools: Tokyo Gakkan Urayasu High School Tokai University Urayasu Junior & Senior High School Urayasu has nine public and two private middle schools, 17 elementary schools.
East Japan Railway Company - Keiyō Line Maihama - Shin-Urayasu - Ichikawa-Shiohama Tokyo Metro - Tokyo Metro Tōzai Line Urayasu Maihama Resort Line - Disney Resort Line Resort Gateway - Tokyo Disneyland - Bayside - Tokyo DisneySea - Resort Gateway Bayshore Route Japan National Route 357 – Orlando, United States, since October 23, 1989 Keita Amemiya – Video game designer Shinnosuke Abe – professional baseball player Keiji Tamada – professional soccer player Momoko Abe – Model and Miss Universe Japan 2017 Daisuke Hayakawa – professional baseball player Official Website Urayasu Tourism Website
Nagoya is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the third-most-populous urban area, it is located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu. It is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama and Kitakyushu, it is the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō metropolitan area. As of 2015, 2.28 million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people. It is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world; the city's name was written as 那古野 or 名護屋. One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka, meaning'peaceful'; the name Chūkyō, consisting of chū + kyō is used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse. Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who succeeded in unifying Japan.
In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya. During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya, on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo. A town developed around the temple to support travelers; the castle and shrine towns formed the city. During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance. Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region, its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate.
Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō. Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan; the availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there. Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II; the population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated. Important Japanese aircraft targets were within the city itself, while others were to the north of Kagamigahara, it was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area produced machine tools, railway equipment, metal alloys, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks; these incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres. The XXI Bomber Command established a new U. S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries, it destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to one-fourth of the entire city. Nagoya Castle, being used as a military command post, was hit and destroyed on May 14, 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. In 1959, the city was flooded and damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon. Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain; the city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters.
The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward; the man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows as part of the Shōnai River system; the rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows south at Nonami and west at Ōdaka into the bay; the city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically. Nagoya has 16 wards: Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters; the summer is noticeably wetter than the winter. One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents; the population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km2. As of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
The area i
Kōrakuen Hall is an arena in Bunkyo, Japan, which has hosted many boxing, professional wrestling and mixed martial arts matches. Part of Tokyo Dome City, it is one of Tokyo's biggest attractions, it opened on April 16, 1962, has a capacity of 1,800 people. The venue hosted the boxing events for the 1964 Summer Olympics. In the rounds of pro wrestling, it is considered as being the Madison Square Garden of puroresu, as all of Japan's largest promotions have run some of their larger shows there, much akin to the WWF/E's monthly show at MSG in the 1980s, it is called "hall", in Japan. In March 2011, as the hall suffered structural damage under the influence of the Tōhoku earthquake, the events scheduled for the time being, including WBC triple female world title fight, were postponed or canceled; the repair work was completed on March 18. The Hall was closed until the next day gradually resumed a variety of events, it was announced that a new version of Korakuen Hall would be built in Tokyo Dome City, with a construction finish time of around 2008, it would hold 2,500–3,000 people.
After construction completes, Tokyo Dome Corporation, which owns the original Korakuen Hall as well as the Tokyo Dome, would continue to rent out the original Korakuen Hall, lowering rental prices to allowing smaller promotions to use the building on a regular basis. Since its completion, JCB Hall has been used for pro wrestling events after being christened with a Pro Wrestling Zero1 show in early 2008. During 2009, JCB Hall was used twice for pro wrestling, both times for a tour ending show by Pro Wrestling Noah. In the manga/anime Ashita no Joe, many matches are held there too. Korakuen Hall is featured numerous times in the manga/anime series Fighting Spirit as one of the venues the boxers fight at. Two of the lesser preliminaries in the 20th Choujin Olympics were held here in Kinnikuman while the bigger draws were at Korakuen Stadium. 1964 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. Part 1. Pp. 128–9. Official Korakuen Hall homepage
Masaharu Funaki is a Japanese actor, mixed martial artist and professional wrestler known professionally as Masakatsu Funaki, who has wrestled in All Japan Pro Wrestling, New Japan Pro-Wrestling, Pro Wrestling Fujiwara Gumi, Newborn UWF, Wrestle-1. He is the co-founder of Pancrase, one of the first mixed martial arts organizations and non-rehearsed shoot wrestling promotions. Funaki was Pancrase's biggest star. Not only the organization's co-founder and most popular fighter, Funaki was one of Pancrase's most successful fighters to date, scoring submission victories over numerous MMA champions such as Ken Shamrock, Frank Shamrock, Semmy Schilt, Guy Mezger, Yuki Kondo, Minoru Suzuki, Bas Rutten through the course of his Pancrase career, he is the only fighter in mixed martial arts to hold wins over both Shamrock brothers and Bas Rutten, was the first man to win the King of Pancrase title twice. Funaki is considered to be one of the greatest Japanese fighters in mixed martial arts history. Sherdog.com ranked him as the #1 mixed martial artist in the world for the years 1996 and 1997, had him ranked as a top 4 pound for pound fighter from 1993 to 1998.
The son of a movie theater owner, Masaharu Funaki was exposed to martial arts films at an early age. He idolized Bruce Lee above all others, but eagerly watched the films of Sammo Hung and Sonny Chiba, his father would abandon young Funaki and his family. Instead of entering high school, he applied to New Japan Pro-Wrestling, who sent him to the New Japan dojo, he was in the same class as Keiichi Yamada, Shinya Hashimoto, Minoru Suzuki, Masahiro Chono, Chris Benoit. The New Japan Dojo had a reputation for being harsh on its trainees, both mentally and physically, with the intent of only graduating the best of each class. However, Funaki stunned the New Japan trainers with his athleticism and natural talent for submission grappling. Along with the former Olympic alternate Minoru Suzuki, Funaki formed a strong bond with the dojo's head grappling instructor, Yoshiaki Fujiwara. Funaki debuted as a junior heavyweight at the age of 15. After debuting for New Japan in a losing effort against three-year veteran Tatsutoshi Goto, Funaki did not receive a push from the promotion, stuck in the junior heavyweight division during a time when NJPW owner Antonio Inoki decided to shift the focus of the company towards the heavyweight division.
Funaki did, have many memorable matches with Naoki Sano and Keiichi Yamada and became the first person to take the Shooting Star Press from Yamada. In 1988, he was sent on a learning excursion to Europe, competing in the Catch Wrestling Association in Austria and Germany and for All Star Wrestling in England; when New Japan top draw Akira Maeda became so frustrated with backstage politics that he shoot kicked Riki Choshu and broke his eye socket, was subsequently suspended for refusing to go on an excursion to Mexico, Maeda left NJPW to form the Newborn UWF promotion. Funaki, seeing an opportunity to showcase his talents, wanted to follow. Maeda negotiated the acquisition of Funaki's contract, along the contracts of friend Minoru Suzuki and mentor Yoshiaki Fujiwara for an undisclosed amount of money. In Newborn UWF, Funaki became a top draw for the promotion acting as a nemesis to Akira Maeda; when Newborn UWF folded in December 1990, Funaki decided to sign with mentor Fujiwara's new Pro Wrestling Fujiwara Gumi promotion.
Funaki left PWFG in 1993 to form the mixed martial arts promotion Pancrase. Funaki's MMA career began. Funaki went on to defeat Bas Rutten, Ken Shamrock, Frank Shamrock, Minoru Suzuki, Guy Mezger, among others. Frank Shamrock said, "Funaki was like a mad scientist, he took the idea of submissions to an higher level than the rest of the Japanese contingent. He had this insatiable desire to push his body harder, and as an entertainer he understood the need to entertain."This realization for the need to entertain resulted in Funaki "carrying" some of their opponents during fights. In essence, in order to entertain the crowd and Suzuki would give their opponents opportunities to create drama before finishing them off. Josh Barnett said, "when you're that good, you can have a guy thinking he's doing so much better than he expected and have no idea that they're just letting you last like a cat playing with a mouse." Frank Shamrock added, "I know for a fact those guys were light years ahead of everyone else, they were so good that they would go towards entertainment before they finished a match."
However, this did backfire on Funaki on at least one occasion. In a match against Jason DeLucia, Funaki allowed Delucia to catch him in a kneebar in order to create drama and planned on using a rope escape once Delucia had the submission locked in. Funaki mistakenly allowed himself to get too far from the ropes and was forced to tap out. Funaki debuted in the main event of Pancrase's first show, taking on apprentice and training partner Ken Shamrock. Although Funaki led the pace of the match earlier with strikes, Shamrock captured his back, took him down and submitted him with an
Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan by population, the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture, it lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area. Yokohama's population of 3.7 million makes it Japan's largest city. Yokohama developed as Japan's prominent port city following the end of Japan's relative isolation in the mid-19th century, is today one of its major ports along with Kobe, Nagoya, Hakata and Chiba. Yokohama means "horizontal beach"; the current area surrounded by Maita Park, the Ōoka River and the Nakamura River had been a gulf divided by a sandbar from the open sea. This sandbar was the original Yokohama fishing village. Since the sandbar protruded perpendicularly from the land, or horizontally when viewed from the sea, it was called a "horizontal beach". Yokohama was a small fishing village up to the end of the feudal Edo period, when Japan held a policy of national seclusion, having little contact with foreigners.
A major turning point in Japanese history happened in 1853–54, when Commodore Matthew Perry arrived just south of Yokohama with a fleet of American warships, demanding that Japan open several ports for commerce, the Tokugawa shogunate agreed by signing the Treaty of Peace and Amity. It was agreed that one of the ports to be opened to foreign ships would be the bustling town of Kanagawa-juku on the Tōkaidō, a strategic highway that linked Edo to Kyoto and Osaka. However, the Tokugawa shogunate decided that Kanagawa-juku was too close to the Tōkaidō for comfort, port facilities were instead built across the inlet in the sleepy fishing village of Yokohama; the Port of Yokohama was opened on June 2, 1859. Yokohama became the base of foreign trade in Japan. Foreigners occupied the low-lying district of the city called Kannai, residential districts expanding as the settlement grew to incorporate much of the elevated Yamate district overlooking the city referred to by English speaking residents as The Bluff.
Kannai, the foreign trade and commercial district, was surrounded by a moat, foreign residents enjoying extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound. Interactions with the local population young samurai, outside the settlement caused problems. To protect British commercial and diplomatic interests in Yokohama a military garrison was established in 1862. With the growth in trade increasing numbers of Chinese came to settle in the city. Yokohama was the scene of many notable firsts for Japan including the growing acceptance of western fashion, photography by pioneers such as Felice Beato, Japan's first English language newspaper, the Japan Herald published in 1861 and in 1865 the first ice cream and beer to be produced in Japan. Recreational sports introduced to Japan by foreign residents in Yokohama included European style horse racing in 1862, cricket in 1863 and rugby union in 1866. A great fire destroyed much of the foreign settlement on November 26, 1866 and smallpox was a recurrent public health hazard, but the city continued to grow – attracting foreigners and Japanese alike.
After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the port was developed for trading silk, the main trading partner being Great Britain. Western influence and technological transfer contributed to the establishment of Japan's first daily newspaper, first gas-powered street lamps and Japan's first railway constructed in the same year to connect Yokohama to Shinagawa and Shinbashi in Tokyo. In 1872 Jules Verne portrayed Yokohama, which he had never visited, in an episode of his read novel Around the World in Eighty Days, capturing the atmosphere of the fast-developing, internationally oriented Japanese city. In 1887, a British merchant, Samuel Cocking, built the city's first power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became the basis for the Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company; the city was incorporated on April 1, 1889. By the time the extraterritoriality of foreigner areas was abolished in 1899, Yokohama was the most international city in Japan, with foreigner areas stretching from Kannai to the Bluff area and the large Yokohama Chinatown.
The early 20th century was marked by rapid growth of industry. Entrepreneurs built factories along reclaimed land to the north of the city toward Kawasaki, which grew to be the Keihin Industrial Area; the growth of Japanese industry brought affluence, many wealthy trading families constructed sprawling residences there, while the rapid influx of population from Japan and Korea led to the formation of Kojiki-Yato the largest slum in Japan. Much of Yokohama was destroyed on September 1923 by the Great Kantō earthquake; the Yokohama police reported casualties at 30,771 dead and 47,908 injured, out of a pre-earthquake population of 434,170. Fuelled by rumours of rebellion and sabotage, vigilante mobs thereupon murdered many Koreans in the Kojiki-yato slum. Many people believed. Martial law was in place until November 19. Rubble from the quake was used to reclaim land for parks, the most famous being the Yamashita Park on the waterfront which opened in 1930. Yokohama was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by U.
S. air raids during World War II. An estimated seven or eight thousand people were killed in a single morning on