Welsh Highland Railway
The Welsh Highland Railway or Rheilffordd Eryri is a 25-mile long, restored 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in narrow gauge heritage railway in the Welsh county of Gwynedd, operating from Caernarfon to Porthmadog, passing through a number of popular tourist destinations including Beddgelert and the Aberglaslyn Pass. At Porthmadog it connects with the Ffestiniog Railway and to the short Welsh Highland Heritage Railway. In Porthmadog it uses the United Kingdom's only mixed gauge flat rail crossing; the restoration, which had the civil engineering built by contractors and the track built by volunteers, received a number of awards. Running from Dinas near Caernarfon to Porthmadog, the current line includes an additional section from Dinas to Caernarfon; the original line had a branch to Bryngwyn and the slate quarries at Moel Tryfan, which has not been restored.. There is the 3⁄4-mile long Welsh Highland Heritage Railway which runs from Porthmadog along the trackbed of the former Cambrian Railways exchange siding and connects to the WHR main line at Pen-y-Mount junction.
The original Welsh Highland Railway was formed in 1922 from the merger of two companies – the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways and the Portmadoc and South Snowdon Railway, successor to the Portmadoc and Beddgelert Tram Railway. It was never a commercial success; the Croesor Tramway had run from Porthmadog since 1863 up into the Croesor Valley and the slate quarries in this area. This was a horse-worked line laid to a nominal 2 ft gauge; the NWNGR had built a 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in narrow gauge line from a junction with the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge London and North Western Railway line at Dinas to Bryngwyn with a branch from Tryfan Junction via Waunfawr to Llyn Cwellyn. The line was extended to South Snowdon in 1881, a total of 9 miles; this closed to passengers in 1916 but goods traffic continued up to its absorption by the WHR in 1922. In 1902, the newly formed PBSSR took over the failed Portmadoc and Beddgelert Tram Railway with the aim of extending it to South Snowdon slate quarry in the Nant Gwynant Pass.
Work was abandoned by the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, although the tunnels through the Aberglaslyn Pass were completed. The name Welsh Highland Railway first appeared in 1921 when a 1914 light railway order was processed, it was drawn up by the local Caernarfonshire authorities and aimed to link the PGSSR and NWNGR but had been delayed by the First World War. It was revived by a Scottish distillery owner, Sir John Henderson Stewart. In July 1921, Stewart obtained control of the Festiniog Railway, in order to obtain extra rolling stock for the WHR; the LRO was passed following a public inquiry. The budget was £75,000 and much of the funding was borrowed from the Ministry of Transport and local authorities. According to the historian Peter Johnson, this would become a burden as the railway needed to generate the unlikely sum of £3,750 profit each year to service the debt. Two further LROs enabled improvements to the railway's alignment at Beddgelert, a new station site in Porthmadog and a link to the Festiniog Railway.
McAlpine & Sons were contracted to refurbish the existing lines and complete the link between Rhyd Ddu and Croesor Junction, thus creating a railway that ran from Dinas to join the Festiniog Railway at Porthmadog. Like the modern day WHR, the railway was opened in stages; the former NWNGR section re-opened on 31 July 1922 and the remainder on 1 June 1923. The WHR venture was beset with problems from the start. Indeed, 1923 was its most successful year. Much hoped-for revenue from quarry traffic never materialised as the slate industry had fallen into decline, its passenger services were unsuccessful and could not compete with the local bus services, which took half the time to complete the same journey. Its rolling stock was out of date, it lacked locomotives and carriages and its marketing was inadequate. In 1924, winter passenger services were discontinued due to poor traffic. A dispute with the Great Western Railway over the costs of the crossing over its line at Porthmadog caused problems, despite the crossing having been used since 1867 without any charges or problems.
The railway had to resort to escorting passengers across the crossing on foot. After 1923, it was unable to pay debenture interest and, in 1927, the county council sued and put the railway into receivership. Services continued and by 1933, it was run down and the local authorities decided to close it. In 1934, the company agreed to lease the line to the Festiniog Railway Company for 42 years, it was a disaster, with the FR forced to pay rent if the WHR made a loss. The FR Co. attempted to change the line's fortunes by re-focussing on the tourist market. This included painting the carriages bright colours, including yellow and blue and promoting the Aberglaslyn Pass as a destination by renaming Nantmor station as Aberglaslyn, they tried to promote round trip journeys, with passengers taking the standard gauge line to Dinas, travelling on the WHR and the Festiniog Railway to Blaenau Ffestiniog and changing again to take the standard gauge railway to their original starting point. Despite these attempts, the FR Co. were unsuccessful, the last passenger train ran in 1936 and the last goods service in 1937.
The early tourist in
Presteigne is a town and community in Radnorshire, Wales. It was the county town of the historic county of Radnorshire. Despite lying on a minor B road the town has, in common with several other towns close to the Wales-England border, assumed the motto, "Gateway to Wales"; the town sits on the south bank of the River Lugg, which forms the England–Wales border as it passes the town — the border wraps around three sides of the town. Nearby towns are Kington to the south and Knighton to the north, surrounding villages include Norton and Stapleton; the town falls within the Diocese of Hereford. The town began as a small settlement around a Minster church dedicated to St Andrew and at the time of the Domesday Book and formed part of the manor of Humet. By the mid-12th century it was known as'Presthemede' or'the border meadow of the priests'. A century it passed into the control of the Mortimers, powerful Marcher lords, on their fall passed into the hands of the Crown. At the end of the 13th century, the majority of the town's inhabitants English, enjoyed some prosperity but the Black Death and the Glyndŵr rebellion had destroyed this and by the end of the 15th century, the now Welsh, population lived in a struggling village.
A significant victory in their rebellion was won by the forces of Owain Glyndŵr nearby at the Battle of Bryn Glas in 1402. The development of a thriving cloth industry in the Tudor period brought short-lived prosperity, ended by three new epidemics of plague in three successive generations. Thereafter it became a market town and, until the 16th century, a centre for processing locally grown barley into malt. By the Acts of Union, Presteigne - at first jointly with New Radnor - became the county town of Radnorshire and its administrative and judicial centre, housing the county gaol and the Shire Hall. By the end of the 19th century its newer and larger neighbour, Llandrindod Wells, had usurped the role of administrative centre, but Presteigne remained the venue for the Assizes until these were abolished in 1971. After a period of stagnation in the first half of the 20th century, the town has developed a diverse manufacturing base and has begun to exploit its tourism potential while its environment and the development of its social and leisure facilities have helped to attract people to settle.
These include: St Andrew's parish church, parts of which are Anglo-Saxon The Jacobean Radnorshire Arms hotel The Judge's Lodging, decorated in mid-Victorian style. Presteigne attracted national attention in 2004 for an unsuccessful campaign by its Mayor, Councillor Peggy Fraser-Scott to enforce a curfew on the town's youth. Henry Edward's Old English Customs: Curious Requests and Charities mentions the bell-ringer appointed by John Beddoes in 1565 to ring a'day bell' at 8am, a curfew at 8pm. Beddoes specified that in the event of the custom being abandoned for more than a year, the funds set aside for this position would revert to his heirs. Beddoes - a wool merchant - gave his name to Presteigne's secondary school - John Beddoes School - which he established in 1565, endowed with land. During the 1930s, the Ministry of Labour opened a work camp for long-term unemployed young men. Many of the inmates came from the crisis-hit coal mining and heavy industry communities of South Wales. Presteigne was one of a number of Instructional Centres created by the Ministry, it had a satellite camp in Shobdon, Herefordshire.
By 1938, the Ministry had 38 Instructional Centres across Britain. The camp is now a small private housing site. Land owned by Capt Lewis RN, of Clatterbrune House, was used to hold first Italian and German POW's during the Second World War and is now the home of Presteigne St. Andrews Football Club. Sargeants provide a service to Kington with connections from there to Hereford on services operated by Sargeants, buses in the opposite direction to Knighton. A once daily service from Ludlow to Builth Wells is operated via Presteigne; the Kington & Presteigne Railway opened as an extension of the Leominster and Kington Railway on 9 September 1875. The railway line commenced at Titley Junction, passed through Leen farm, to Staunton-on-Arrow, in front of the Rodd farm via Corton into Presteigne. By 1929 it was possible to join one of the three steam trains a day - each way - and make the 6 hour journey to London; the passenger service on this line ended in 1951, but a freight service continued to run every other day until the line was closed for good in 1961.
Presteign railway station was part of the Great Western Railway system. Knighton is the nearest railway station, serviced by Transport for Wales. Royal Naval Captain Peter Puget and his contemporary, Captain Joseph Baker, another naval officer and map-maker Sir Christopher Hatton a courtier of Queen Elizabeth I Mary Morgan, a 19th-century murderer. Grand Prix motorcycle racer and 2011 World Supersport champion Chaz Davies, born in Presteigne in 1987 Bowls player and Commonwealth Games gold-medallist, Robert Weale was raised and educated in the town. Sir Standish Hartstonge, 2nd Baronet, lived in Presteigne in the 1690s; the town has become a local cultural centre. It hosts 2 indigenous festivals. First, the oddly named Sheep Music Festival dedicated to contemporary music, it attracts composers of the calibre of Ian Wilson. The town has an award-winning museum - The Judge's Lodging. - created from Radnorshire's disused Shire Hall and re-opened in 1997 by Robert Hardy. The Church of St Andrew permanently houses a 16th-century Flemish Tapestry
1997 in the United Kingdom
Events from the year 1997 in the United Kingdom. This year is noted for a landslide general election victory for the Labour Party under Tony Blair. Monarch – Elizabeth II Prime Minister – John Major, Tony Blair Parliament – 51st, 52nd 6 January - Allegations of a Tory MP's extramarital affair appear in the News of the World newspaper a week after Conservative Prime Minister John Major put "the family" at the heart of his campaign. Jerry Hayes - married with two children - denied the allegations. 7 January - 2.5 million people take part in a phone-in vote as part of an ITV debate on the British monarchy. A 2-1 majority vote in favour of retaining the institution. 8 January - British boss of Virgin Richard Branson had a lucky escape when his attempt to fly around the world by balloon ended after just 20 hours. The Virgin Challenger carrying Branson and two other men came down in the Algerian desert. 9 January - British yachtsman Tony Bullimore is rescued in the Southern Ocean five days after his boat capsized in freezing waters, the Queen commends his bravery.
15 January Diana, Princess of Wales calls for an international ban on landmines. The strengthening economy is reflected in a national unemployment total of 1,884,700 for last December – the lowest level since January 1991, although the Conservative government who oversaw it are still behind Labour in the opinion polls as the general election looms. 16 January The Conservative Party government loses its majority in the House of Commons after the death of Iain Mills, MP for Meriden. Chris Evans resigns from BBC Radio 1. Since joining the station as a breakfast-time DJ in 1995 Evans had boosted audience numbers by 700,000. 17 January A jury at the Old Bailey rules that 86-year-old Szymon Serafinowicz is unfit to stand trial on charges of murdering Jews during the Holocaust. East 17 singer Brian Harvey is dismissed from the band after publicly commenting that the drug Ecstasy is safe. 20 January – Death of Labour Party MP Martin Redmond ends the government's minority. On the same day, the party vows not to raise income tax if, as seems it wins the forthcoming general election.
30 January - An underground anti-road protest ended as the last protester known as "Swampy" emerged from the network of tunnels beneath the A30 extension site in Devon. 4 February – Moors Murderer Myra Hindley is informed by Home Secretary Michael Howard that she will never be released from prison. Hindley, who has now been in prison for more than 30 years, was issued with a whole life tariff by the Home Secretary David Waddington in 1990, but not informed of the ruling until just over two years ago. 6 February – The Court of Appeal rules that Mrs Diane Blood of Leeds can be inseminated with her dead husband's sperm. Mrs Blood had been challenging for the right to use the sperm of her husband Stephen since just after his death two years ago. 12 February - A 23 year old British soldier is shot dead in Northern Ireland. Lance Bombardier Stephen Restorick was shot by a sniper while manning a checkpoint in Bessbrook, he is the last British soldier to be killed by the Provisional IRA. 14 February - The Daily Mail newspaper accused five young men of the murder of Stephen Lawrence on its front page the day after a coroner's inquest found that the teenager had been unlawfully killed in an unprovoked racist attack by five white youths in April 1993.
22 February – Scientists at the Roslin Institute announce the birth of a cloned sheep named Dolly seven months after the fact. 27 February – The government loses its Commons majority again after the Labour victory at the Wirral South by-election. 10 March – 160 vehicles are involved in a motorway pile up on the M42 motorway at Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. Three people are killed and 60 injured. 17 March – John Major announces that the general election will be held on 1 May. Despite the opinion polls having shown a double digit Labour lead continuously since late 1992, Major is hoping for a unique fifth successive term of Conservative government by pinning his hopes on a strong economy and low unemployment – no incoming government since before the First World War has inherited economic statistics as strong as the ones that Labour will should they win the election. 18 March – The Sun newspaper, a traditional supporter of the Conservative Party, declares its support for Tony Blair and Labour. It condemns the Conservatives as "tired and rudderless" – a stark contrast to its support for them in the run-up to the 1992 election where it waged a high-profile campaign against the Labour leader Neil Kinnock and, after the Conservative victory, claimed responsibility for the result.
23 March – Unemployed continues to fall and now stands at just over 1,800,000 – its lowest level since December 1990. 30 March – Channel 5, Britain's fifth terrestrial television channel and its first new one since the launch of Channel 4 in November 1982, is launched. 31 March – BBC pre-school children's television series Teletubbies first airs. April – Nursery Education Voucher Scheme introduced, guaranteeing a government-funded contribution to the cost of preschool education for 4-year-olds. 8 April BBC journalist Martin Bell announces that he is to stand as a candidate against Neil Hamilton in the Tatton constituency on an anti-corruption platform. A MORI opinion poll shows Conservative support at a four-year high of 34%, but Labour still look set to win next month's general election as they have a 15-point lead.[https://www.webcitation.org/5wfdoQEpw?url=http://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/poll.aspx?oIte
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law. In some countries, it is synonymous with a vote on a ballot question; some definitions of'plebiscite' suggest that it is a type of vote to change the constitution or government of a country. However, some other countries define it differently. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In Ireland, the vote to adopt its constitution was called a "plebiscite", but a subsequent vote to amend the constitution is called a'referendum', so is a poll of the electorate on a non-constitutional bill; the word referendum is a general word used for both legislative referrals and initiatives.'Referendum' is the gerundive form of the Latin verb refero "to carry back". As a gerundive is an adjective, not a noun, it cannot be used alone in Latin and must be contained within a context attached to a noun such as Propositum quod referendum est populo, "A proposal which must be carried back to the people".
The addition of the verb sum to a gerundive, denotes the idea of necessity or compulsion, that which "must" be done, rather than that, "fit for" doing. Its use as a noun in English is thus not a grammatical usage of a foreign word, but is rather a freshly coined English noun, which therefore follows English grammatical usage, not Latin grammatical usage; this determines the form of the plural in English, which according to English grammar should be "referendums". The use of "referenda" as a plural form in English is thus insupportable according to the rules of both Latin and English grammar alike; the use of "referenda" as a plural form is posited hypothetically as either a gerund or a gerundive by the Oxford English Dictionary, which rules out such usage in both cases as follows: Referendums is logically preferable as a plural form meaning'ballots on one issue'. The Latin plural gerundive'referenda', meaning'things to be referred' connotes a plurality of issues, it is related to the political agenda, "those matters which must be driven forward", from ago, to drive.
The name and use of the'referendum' is thought to have originated in the Swiss canton of Graubünden as early as the 16th century. The term'plebiscite' has a similar meaning in modern usage, comes from the Latin plebiscita, which meant a decree of the Concilium Plebis, the popular assembly of the Roman Republic. Today, a referendum can often be referred to as a plebiscite, but in some countries the two terms are used differently to refer to votes with differing types of legal consequences. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In contrast, Ireland has only held one plebiscite, the vote to adopt its constitution, every other vote has been called a referendum. Plebiscite has been used to denote a non-binding vote count such as the one held by Nazi Germany to'approve' in retrospect the so-called Anschluss with Austria, the question being not'Do you permit?' but rather'Do you approve?' of that which has most already occurred.
The term referendum covers a variety of different meanings. A referendum can be advisory. In some countries, different names are used for these two types of referendum. Referendums can be further classified by who initiates them: mandatory referendums prescribed by law, voluntary referendums initiated by the legislature or government, referendums initiated by citizens. A deliberative referendum is a referendum designed to improve the deliberative qualities of the campaign preceding the referendum vote, and/or of the act of voting itself. From a political-philosophical perspective, referendums are an expression of direct democracy. However, in the modern world, most referendums need to be understood within the context of representative democracy. Therefore, they tend to be used quite selectively, covering issues such as changes in voting systems, where elected officials may not have the legitimacy or inclination to implement such changes. Since the end of the 18th century, hundreds of national referendums have been organised in the world.
Italy ranked second with 72 national referendums: 67 popular referendums, 3 constitutional referendums, one institutional referendum and one advisory referendum. A referendum offers the electorate a choice of accepting or rejecting a proposal, but not always; some referendums give voters the choice among multiple choices and some use Transferable voting even. In Switzerland, for example, multiple choice referendums are common. Two multiple choice referendums were held in Sweden, in 1957 and in 1980, in which voters were offered three options. In 1977, a referendum held in Australia to determine a new national anthem was held in which voters had four choices. In 1992, New Zealand held a five-option referendum on their electoral system. In 1982, Guam had referendum that used six options, with an additional blank option for anyone wishing to vote for their own seventh option. A multiple choice referendum pose
Sir Martyn John Dudley Lewis is a Welsh television news presenter and journalist. He was a presenter for various BBC News programmes between 1986 and 1999 and was known for his involvement in the coverage of the death of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997, he is active in the charity sector and is the Founder & Executive Chairman of YourBigDay Ltd. Lewis was born in Swansea, though was educated at the co-educational Dalriada School in Northern Ireland and graduated with a BA degree from Trinity College, Dublin, he joined BBC Northern Ireland in 1967. Lewis holds an honorary Doctorate of Letters from the University of Ulster and is a Freeman of the City of London, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a Member of the Garrick Club and the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, he was a news presenter and reporter on HTV and ITN, before joining the BBC in October 1986 to present BBC News bulletins until the major relaunch of all output in 1999–2000. Lewis became the first presenter of the One O'Clock News on BBC One on 27 October 1986 when it was launched as part of the introduction of the channel's daytime schedule, replacing News After Noon.
Subsequently, he presented other bulletins including Nine O'Clock News. He created a modicum of controversy in 1993 when he claimed that television should feature more "good news", he subsequently stated. Lewis played a prominent role in the announcement of the death of Diana, Princess of Wales on Sunday 31 August 1997, he was called into the BBC in the early hours of that morning to present short national bulletins about the car accident in Paris. He returned home afterwards to get some sleep – expecting the Princess to pull through – only to be drafted in again in time for the special 6 am bulletin covering Diana's death. During the marathon coverage, simulcast on BBC1, BBC World as well as broadcasters around the world which took in the BBC news feed, Lewis was brought to tears following Tony Blair's "People's Princess" statement, his uninterrupted presenting stint ended mid-afternoon. On 26 April 1999, a few weeks before the BBC relaunched its news programmes, he presented the Six O'Clock news bulletin with Jennie Bond on the day his co-host Jill Dando was murdered outside her home in West London.
He appeared on rival ITN that evening to pay tribute to his dead colleague. He presented his last bulletin at the start of May 1999 from Edinburgh, reporting on Scottish devolution, signing off with, "And from me, it's goodbye." As part of the celebrations for ITN's 50th anniversary, he returned to television news to present a special edition of the ITV Evening News with Mary Nightingale in September 2005. Lewis was the long-running host, from 1993, of the BBC news-based quiz show Today's the Day and the primetime BBC TV series Crimebeat, he retired from newsreading in 1999 and since has presented occasional programmes on ITV including Dateline Jerusalem and Ultimate Questions. He played himself in brief cameo roles in several films, appearing as a newsreader in the 1999 James Bond film The World Is Not Enough, in The Bill and The Vicar of Dibley in 2000, in archive footage featured in the 2006 film The Queen, as well as Argo and The James Bond Story. In 2008, he appeared in the video on board the Heathrow Express as a guide to the airport security.
In 2013, he appeared as the presenter in television commercials for Calgon, acting out interviews with'experts' in a series entitled "Smart Washing with Calgon". Lewis was chairman and co-founder of Teliris, one of the first telepresence systems developed, he was involved in the marketing of this solution through personal contacts, speaking engagements and "Telepresence Times", his vlog launched in 2009. He retired as chairman in 2012, he is Founder & Executive Chairman of YourBigDay Ltd, which uses the ITN & Reuters archives to produce birthday & anniversary videos covering most of the last century. Lewis is a vice-president of Hospice UK, Marie Curie Cancer Care, Macmillan Cancer Support, East Anglia Children’s Hospices and Demelza Children’s Hospice, he is president of United Response, a charity supporting people with learning disabilities or mental health needs to live in the community, in England and in Wales. He founded the youth charity YouthNet in 1995, stayed as chairman until stepping down in July 2014, though he remains an advisor.
The charity provides advice and support through websites aimed at young people. From 2010 to 2016 he was chair of the National Council for Voluntary Organisations, an umbrella body for charities in England and Wales with over 13,000 members, he is chairman of the Queen's Award for Voluntary Service. He was chairman of Families of the Fallen 2010–15, he is a patron of The Patchwork Foundation, the quarterly broadsheet Positive News, Dementia UK. In September 2015, it was announced that Lewis had become the first ambassador of Pennies, a fintech charity that enables charitable micro-donations, he married Liz Carse in 1970. They met while working at HTV Wales in the late sixties – she as a continuity announcer, he as a reporter and presenter. Liz died in 2012 after a long battle with Huntington's Disease. Martyn and Liz have Kate Lewis and singer-songwriter Sylvie Lewis. Martyn is now married to Patsy Baker, Senior Group Adviser to the Huntsworth Group of public relations companies. Lewis was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1997 for his services to young people and the hospice movement and was knighted in the 2016 New Year Honours
Welsh Highland Railway restoration
The restoration of the Welsh Highland Railway has a colourful and complex history. This article provides the modern history; the Welsh Highland Railway was a poorly-funded job creation scheme, conceived in the early 1920s, to complete the construction of a 22-mile narrow gauge railway route from Dinas, three miles from Carnarvon to Portmadoc. An earlier scheme to achieve this – the Portmadoc Beddgelert and South Snowdon Railway – had been abandoned in 1905/6 after it ran out of money; the Welsh Highland Railway Company was created in 1922, by a light railway order under the Light Railways Act 1896, construction began that year. The work involved joining two pre-existing railways with a new section of track; the northern half of the WHR incorporated the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways, built in the 1870s, from Dinas to Rhyd Ddu, at the foot of Snowdon, together with its branch from Tryfan Junction to Bryngwyn. The southern end of the route incorporated an upgraded three-mile section of the Croesor Tramway, built in the 1860s.
Between Rhyd Ddu and Croesor Junction, some new construction on the link between these earlier railways had been carried out by the PB&SSR around Beddgelert in 1905/6, but these works lay unfinished. The PB&SSR section of the route had been intended to use electric traction, would have included steep gradients; however the WHR was to use steam traction. As a result, new track had to be built, giving rise to the reverse curves above Beddgelert, which gave an gradient of 1 in 40 over a longer route. At its southern end, the WHR was linked to the Festiniog Railway at Portmadoc and the FR provided a new station to serve both lines. FR locomotives and rolling stock became a familiar sight on the WHR with through workings. Construction of the WHR was funded by the Ministry of Transport, the local authorities and the construction company McAlpine; these made loans to the WHLR Company, of £70,000 in all, in the form of debentures. Thus the railway was in debt from the moment; the railway was opened throughout in 1923.
With various local government officers appointed as receiver, the WHR continued to operate as a tourist attraction, until the end of 1933, when the local authority debenture holders declared their intention to close it. This prompted the Festiniog Railway to take out a 42-year lease on the WHR from 1 July 1934, but the poor traffic declined further, the FR ceased to operate the WHR after the 1936 season. For the FR, the lease made no provision for early termination, it took until 1942. This legal decision followed the requisitioning of the WHR's track and rolling stock in the Second World War scrap-metal drive. Having managed to rid itself of the WHR lease, the Festiniog Railway continued to operate on a freight-only basis throughout the Second World War, but closed completely in August 1946. With little hope of reviving the WHR, a winding up order was made on 1 June 1944, at the instigation of Caernarvonshire County Council, Mr Alwynne Thomas, a Llandudno accountant, was appointed as liquidator.
One consequence of the winding up order was that any transfer of shares or debentures could not be validated, nor could new directors be appointed, without a court order. Over time the surviving WHLR directors died, were not replaced; the liquidator's task was to dispose of the WHLR Company's assets and distribute any monies raised among the creditors, before winding the company up. By the time of his appointment the locomotives, rolling stock and most of the track had gone, the company's principal asset was the now empty trackbed. Peter Johnson, author of numerous WHR books, notes that "The debentures were not secured and, in 1923, the local authorities made the WHR agree to be party to a mortgage deed defining the terms of interest and principal repayment." This placed the debenture holders in a strong position. Following council boundary changes, the main debenture holders were the Department of Transport, Carnarvonshire County Council 17.7%, Merioneth District Council 3.5%, Dwyfor District Council 13%, McAlpines 11.8%, Branch Nominees Ltd 11.7% with 0.1% thought untraceable through a Mrs Conbran/Sir John Stewart.
Of the shares in the 1922 company, some 88.4% were known to have been held by H. J. passed to his successors. The liquidator was interested in obtaining the best deal for the debenture holders, who had funded the railway's construction and were owed a substantial sum of money, thus at first, he was to sell the trackbed to the highest bidder. However, due to the continued existence of the 1922 light railway order, disposal of the trackbed was not an easy matter. For a start, the LRO gave its holder legal entitlement to own the trackbed, since the LRO was made out to the WHLR Company, it meant that the WHLR Company owned the trackbed. Secondly, although the liquidator could, did, sell off some land (notably at Dinas
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301. Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession; the title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales; the Prince of Wales has other titles and honours. The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations; the wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales.
Prince Charles's first wife, used that title but his second wife, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana. The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales; the current Prince now assists the Queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the Queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending State dinners during State visits. He has represented the Queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals; the Queen has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants. For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller states. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was known as King of the Britons.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales. In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru; the literal translation of Tywysog is "leader". Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown; the first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae. His grandson Llywelyn the Great is not known to have used the title "Prince of Wales" as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, he did use the title "Prince of North Wales" as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd. In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as "Prince of Wales" around 1244. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, used the style as early as 1258.
In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's invasion of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown. Three Welshmen, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283; the first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, the prince was imprisoned in London. In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch, an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance, it is Owain Glyndŵr, whom many Welsh people regard as having been the last native Prince.
On 16 September 1400, he was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters, held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV; the tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and produced his infant son, born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English. William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son o