London Borough of Barnet
Barnet is a suburban London borough in North London, England. It forms part of Outer London and is the largest London borough by population with 384,774 inhabitants and covers an area of 86.74 square kilometres, the fourth highest. It borders Hertfordshire to the north and five other London boroughs: Harrow and Brent to the west and Haringey to the southeast and Enfield to the east; the borough was formed in 1965 from parts of the counties of Hertfordshire. The local authority is Barnet London Borough Council, based in Hendon; the borough was formed under the London Government Act 1963 in 1965 from the Municipal Borough of Finchley, Municipal Borough of Hendon and the Friern Barnet Urban District of Middlesex and the East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District of Hertfordshire. The Act did not include a name for the new borough. A joint committee of the councils due to be amalgamated suggested "Northgate" or "Northern Heights". Keith Joseph, the Minister of Housing and Local Government chose Barnet.
The place name Barnet is derived from the Old English bærnet meaning "Land cleared by burning". The area covered by the modern borough has a long history. Evidence of 1st-century Roman pottery manufacturing has been found at Brockley Hill and Roman coins from the 3rd and 4th centuries were found at Burnt Oak. Both sites are on the Roman road Watling Street from London and St Albans which now forms the western border of the borough. Hendon is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, but the districts of Barnet and Finchley were not referred to because these areas were included in other manors. In 1471 the Battle of Barnet was fought in Monken Hadley, just within the present borough's boundary, it was here that Yorkist troops led by King Edward IV killed the "Kingmaker" Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and his brother, John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu. Individual articles describe the history and development of the districts of Church End, East Finchley, Golders Green and North Finchley; the residents of London Borough of Barnet are represented at Westminster by Members of Parliament for three parliamentary constituencies.
All three MPs are Conservative. Chipping Barnet is represented by Theresa Villiers. Finchley and Golders Green is represented by Mike Freer. Hendon, in 2010 the most marginal Conservative-held seat in London with a majority of 106 votes, is represented by Matthew Offord; the borough is divided into each with 3 councillors. Following the local government election on 4 May 2006 the Conservative party gained a working majority and full control of the council. Mike Freer became leader of the council on 11 May 2006, replacing Brian Salinger as Conservative group leader, having been Salinger's deputy. Barnet had £27.4 million invested in Icelandic banks Glitnir and Landsbanki when they collapsed October 2008. A report showed; the Conservatives retained control at the 2014 local elections, after which the political composition of the council was: Conservative: 32 Labour: 30 Liberal Democrat: 1 Barnet Council along with the 31 other London boroughs and the City of London Corporation share local government powers with Greater London Authority.
The area covered by London Borough of Barnet and the London Borough of Camden is jointly represented in the London Assembly by Andrew Dismore, a Labour politician, the Member of Parliament for Hendon until 2010. Campaigning on parking, he beat Conservative politician Brian Coleman at the 2012 London Assembly election overturning a 20,000 vote deficit and turning this into a 21,000 vote majority. In 2009, the authority started to introduce a new model of local government delivery in the borough, called'Future Shape', after commissioning a six-month external study; the first stages of'Future Shape' were agreed by the council's cabinet in July 2009. The public-sector union UNISON commissioned its own report on the issues involved in'Future Shape'; the scheme has been dubbed easyCouncil because of its similarity to EasyJet's business model. It is referred to as the commissioning council; the borough covers a group of hills on the northern edge of the London Basin. The bedrock is chalk, covered with clay.
Some of the hills are formed from glacial till deposited at the farthest extent of glaciers during the Anglian glaciation. The pattern of settlement is somewhat diverse. In the north of the borough on the eastern side is Barnet known as High Barnet or Chipping Barnet and Whetstone. In the north on the western side is Edgware and Mill Hill; the central northern part of the borough is countryside. This division is because the eastern side grew around what is now the High Barnet Underground branch of the Northern line; the western side grew around the Midland Railway and what is now the Edgware branch of the Northern line. The north is affluent and rural, although it does include Edgware, a major town. Further south, around the borough's centre, the development becomes more intensive around the suburbs of Cricklewood, Colindale and Finchley. Golders Green is renowned for its Jewish minority ethnic population and forms part of the south of the borough, along with Hampstead Garden Suburb and Childs Hill, which are a mix of being affluent like the north, urban like the central areas.
The A5 forms the border between Barnet and the boroughs of Brent and Harrow, with an exception being the West Hendon area and part of the Welsh Harp. There are 15 council run libraries in the London Borough of Barnet, mobile library and home library services, a local studies an
London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham
The London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham is a London borough in West London and in South West London, forms part of Inner London. Traversed by the east-west main roads of the A4 Great West Road and the A40 Westway, many international corporations have offices in the borough; the local council is Fulham London Borough Council. The borough is amongst the four most expensive boroughs for residential properties in the United Kingdom, along with Kensington And Chelsea, City of Westminster and Camden; the borough is unique in London in having three professional football clubs, Chelsea and Queens Park Rangers. The borough was formed in 1965 by merging the Metropolitan Borough of Hammersmith and the much more ancient Metropolitan Borough of Fulham.. It was known as the "London Borough of Hammersmith" until its name was changed on 1 January 1979 by the borough council; the two had been joined together in the parish of Fulham until 1834 as the hamlet of Hammersmith had no church until much later. They were joined together again under the Fulham District from 1855 to 1886.
Fulham saw vigorous industrialisation and urbanisation from the start of the 19th-century, with the establishment of the world's first energy utility company, at Sands End in 1824, followed by rapid road and rail transport development to the east of the borough. Vacant land by the new railway sidings on the boundary with Kensington and Chelsea London Borough Council led to the development of the internationally recognised Earls Court Exhibition Centre, visited by the reclusive Queen Victoria in 1879 when she attended Bill Cody's Wild West Show at West Brompton. There followed numerous international fairs and exhibitions for a century until the construction of Earls Court II in the borough in the 1980s; this was dismantled after the 2012 Olympics. Meanwhile, at the other end of today's borough, in 1908, the Franco-British Exhibition and Olympic Games were hosted in Hammersmith, at White City, but the site took many decades to be redeveloped. In 1960, the BBC opened the BBC Television Centre, in 2008, Westfield London, a large development with new transport links and a shopping centre completed the redevelopment after one hundred years.
The borough includes the areas: Brook Green Chelsea Harbour College Park East Acton Fulham Hammersmith Old Oak Common Parsons Green Sands End Shepherd's Bush Walham Green West Kensington White Citysee parks and open spaces in Hammersmith and Fulham Since 1964 political control of the council has been held by the following parties: According to the 2001 census Hammersmith and Fulham has a population of 165,242. 60% of the borough's population is White British, 20% white non-British, 5% black Caribbean, 8% black African with various other ethnicities making up the remaining 11 percent. The borough has the second-highest proportion of single adults of any borough in England and Wales, a higher than average proportion for the London area of young adults aged 20–29. Around 50% of households are owner–occupiers, 22% of households were listed as "other" – that is, not single persons living alone or families; these are two or more unrelated adults living together, such as students or cohabiting couples.
The borough comprises a patchwork of affluent as well as some less affluent neighbourhoods. The unemployment rate is well below average at under 5%, although of these, 29% were listed as long-term unemployed. See external links below for more census information from the borough. Virgin Group operates its headquarters at 50 Brook Green. Sony Mobile Communications has its headquarters in the borough. Iberia operates the Iberia House in the borough. All Nippon Airways operates the London Office on the fourth floor of Hythe House. South African Airways has its United Kingdom office in the South African Airways House. CE Europe, a subsidiary of Capcom, has its head office in the George House in Hammersmith in the borough; as of May 2011 it will be relocating to the Metro Building in Hammersmith. Iran Air's London offices are located in the borough; the airline moved there by Wednesday 4 January 2012. Coca-Cola, Disney and L'Oréal all have UK headquarters in Hammersmith, as well as a number of other major businesses.
For a 15-year period Air France had its Ireland office in Hammersmith. In 2006 the UK and Ireland office was moved to London Borough of Hounslow. TAP Portugal runs an administrative office in the Borough, near to Hammersmith Bus Station. Hammersmith & Fulham is administered by 46 councillors; the Labour Party won control of the borough at the 2014 council elections held on 22 May with 26 councilors to the Conservative Party's 20 councilors, following Conservative control of the council since the 2006 council election. The council leader is Stephen Cowan; the borough is divided into all bar two electing three councillors apiece. These are: Addison Askew Avonmore & Brook Green College Park & Old Oak Fulham Broadway Fulham Reach Hammersmith Broadway Munster North End Palace Riverside Parson's Green & Walham Ravenscourt Park Sands End Shepherd's Bush Green Town Wormholt & White CityFormer councillors for Hammer
London Borough of Camden
The London Borough of Camden is a borough in north west London, forms part of Inner London. In Middlesex, some southern areas of the borough, such as Holborn, are sometimes described as part of the West End of London; the local authority is Camden London Borough Council. The borough was created in 1965 from the former area of the metropolitan boroughs of Hampstead, St Pancras, which had formed part of the County of London; the borough was named after Camden Town, which had gained its name from Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden in 1795. The transcribed diaries of William Copeland Astbury made available, describe Camden and the surrounding areas in great detail from 1829–1848. Sir Jan inspired many of his art works in this area. There are 162 English Heritage blue plaques in the borough of Camden representing the many diverse personalities that have lived there; the southern part of the borough is in the Central Activities Zone including Holborn and King's Cross. The northern part of the borough includes the less densely developed areas of Hampstead, Hampstead Heath and Kentish Town.
Neighbouring boroughs are the City of Westminster and the City of London to the south, Brent to the west and Haringey to the north and Islington to the east. It covers all or part of the N1, N6, N7, N19, NW1, NW2, NW3, NW5, NW6, NW8, EC1, WC1, WC2, W1 and W9 postcode areas. Camden Town Hall is located in Judd Street in St Pancras. Camden London Borough Council was controlled by the Labour Party continuously from 1971 until the 2006 election, when the Liberal Democrats became the largest party. In 2006, two Green Cllrs, Maya de Souza and Adrian Oliver, were elected and were the first Green Party councillors in Camden. In 1985 when the borough was rate-capped, the Labour leadership joined the rebellion in which it declared its inability to set a budget in an unsuccessful attempt to force the Government to allow higher spending. Camden was the fourth to last council to drop out of the campaign, doing so in the early hours of 6 June. Borough councillors are elected every four years. Since May 2002 the electoral wards in Camden are Belsize, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, Fortune Green and Fitzjohns, Gospel Oak, Hampstead Town, Highgate and Covent Garden, Kentish Town, King's Cross, Regent's Park, St Pancras and Somers Town, Swiss Cottage and West Hampstead.
Between 2006 and 2010 Labour lost two seats to the Liberal Democrats through by-elections, in Kentish Town and Haverstock wards. A Labour Councillor in Haverstock ward defected to the Liberal Democrats in February 2009; the Conservatives lost two seats, one to the Liberal Democrats in Hampstead, one to the Green Party, Alexander Goodman, in Highgate, taking the total number of Green Party Councillors to three. At the local elections on 6 May 2010 the Labour party regained full control of Camden council; the organisation's staff are led by the Chief Executive, Mike Cooke. The organisation is divided into five directorates: Housing and Adult Social Care Children and Families Culture & Environment Central Services: Finance Legal Strategy and Organisation Development Chief Executives DepartmentThe directorates are headed by a director who reports directly to the Chief Executive; each directorate is divided into a number of divisions headed by an assistant director. They, in turn, are divided into groups.
This is a similar model to most local government in London. Camden forms part of the Barnet and Camden London Assembly constituency, represented by Andrew Dismore of the Labour Party There are two parliamentary constituencies covering Camden: Hampstead and Kilburn in the north, represented by Labour's Tulip Siddiq, Holborn and St. Pancras in the south, represented by Labour's Keir Starmer. In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough were developed and had a total population of 96,795; this continued to rise swiftly throughout the 19th century as the district became built up, reaching 270,197 in the middle of the century. When the railways arrived the rate of population growth slowed, for while many people were drawn in by new employment, others were made homeless by the new central London termini and construction of lines through the district; the population peaked at 376,500 in the 1890s, after which official efforts began to clear the overcrowded slums around St Pancras and Holborn.
After World War II, further suburban public housing was built to rehouse the many Londoners made homeless in the Blitz, there was an exodus from London towards the new towns under the Abercrombie Plan for London. As industry declined during the 1970s the population continued to decline, falling to 161,100 at the start of the 1980s, it has now begun to rise again with new housing developments on brownfield sites and the release of railway and gas work lands around Kings Cross. A 2017 study found that the eviction rate of 6 per 1,000 renting households in Camden is the lowest rate in London; the 2001 census gave Camden a population of 198,000, an undercount, revised to 202,600. The projected 2006 figure is 227,500. On 20 May 1999, the Camden New Journal newspaper documented'Two Camdens' syndrome as a high-profile phenomenon differentiating the characteristics of education services in its constituencies. In 2006, Dame Julia Neuberger's book reported similar variation as a characteristic of Camden's children's health services.
Her insider's view was corroboration – in addition to the 2001 "Inequalities" report by Director of Public Health Dr. Maggie Barker of "stark contrasts in" health and education opportunities – of earlier similar Audit Commission findings and a verification/update of the 1999 CNJ rep
London Borough of Redbridge
The London Borough of Redbridge is a London borough in North East London, England. Its administrative headquarters is at Redbridge Town Hall in Ilford; the local authority is Redbridge London Borough Council. The name comes from a bridge over the River Roding, demolished in 1921; the bridge was made unlike other bridges in the area made of white stone. The name had first been applied to the Redbridge area and Redbridge tube station was opened in 1947, it was earlier known as Hocklee's Bridge. Redbridge is one of London's greenest Boroughs, with more than 35 parks and open spaces to enjoy; these include Hainault Forest Country Park, with 300 acres of countryside including adventure play areas and petting zoo. Roding Valley Park, a wildlife sanctuary with a wide range of flora and fauna and woodland areas to explore. Fairlop Waters Country Park, which offers a huge range of activities both on and off the water; the award-winning Valentines Park, situated next to the beautiful Valentines Mansion, ornamental gardens, bowling green and outdoor gym among other attractions.
Claybury Woods and Park, a conservation area that features and ancient area of oak and hornbeam woodland and wildlife ponds. Six parks have attained the prestigious Green Flag Award. For more information, see Redbridge parks and open spaces Valentines Mansion is a Georgian country house and gardens in the grounds of Valentines Park, Ilford; the 300-year-old restored building attracts thousands of visitors every year. There is a Gardener's Cottage Café and regular art installations and exhibitions. Redbridge Drama Centre in Churchfields, South Woodford, offers young people aged five to 21 the chance to take part in a professional performance and gives the public a year-round opportunity to see live shows in this part of the Borough, it has a television edit suite where film and videos are made. Kenneth More Theatre in Oakfield Road, Ilford opened in 1975 and the theatre in Ilford Town Centre has since served up a diverse programme of amateur and professional performances to the local community with new shows most weeks.
Redbridge Museum is situated in on the second floor of Redbridge Central Library, Clements Road, Ilford. Redbridge Museum explores the many places and events in over 150,000 years of the Borough's history; the museum features interactive displays, family trails and touch displays to help bring the past to life. There are regular changing exhibitions for visitors to enjoy. Redbridge Heritage Centre is situated on the second floor of Redbridge Central Library, Clements Road, Ilford. Redbridge Heritage Centre holds the archive and local studies library for the borough, enabling visitors and residents to explore the history of Redbridge. Redbridge has 13 libraries across the Borough; this includes the Redbridge Central Library, in Clements Road, which had a major refurbishment in 2012. The libraries offer a number of services including reading clubs, story time sessions, study areas and learning resources; the libraries in Redbridge are: Aldersbrook Library Clayhall Library Fullwell Cross Library Gants Hill Library Goodmayes Library Hainault Library Redbridge Central Library Keith Axon Library Seven Kings Library South Woodford Library Uphall School Library Wanstead Library Woodford Green LibraryThere is a mobile library, making weekly stops at several locations in the borough.
Redbridge has a number of sports and leisure facilities including the fantastic road and off-road cycling tracks at Redbridge Cycling Centre, top class water sports at Fairlop Activity Centre, in Fairlop Waters and sporting facilities at Redbridge Sports and Leisure Centre, in Forest Road, Fairlop. Fullwell Cross Leisure Centre, in Barkingside features a dance studio and spa. There are a number of outdoor gyms in the Borough's parks: Ashton Playing Fields Claybury Woods and Park Elmhurst Gardens Forest Road Playing Fields Goodmayes Park Ray Park Valentines ParkThere are two local football teams both playing in the Isthmian League Division One: Redbridge F. C. and Ilford FC. In addition there is fellow Non-League football club Barkingside F. C. who play at The Oakside stadium. The borough was one of the locations of the 2010 Mayor of London's Sky Ride. Along with Ealing, it was the first time the event took place in Outer London boroughs as well as in central London. Redbridge's Valentines Park in Ilford acted as one of Essex County Cricket Club's home grounds in 1923-4 and from 1935 until 2002, when the club stopped playing there due to financial constraints.
Redbridge is home to several Scouting Groups. One such group is 4th Goodmayes Scout Group, which celebrates its 90th year in 2016. In 2011 the population of Redbridge was recorded at 278,970. In common with the other London boroughs this continues a period of growth. Redbridge has the third highest proportion of children and a higher-than-average proportion of older adults while the proportion of working age adults is lower than average; the population density was last recorded at 4,945 residents per km2. The healthy life expectancy at birth for Redbridge residents stands at 65.5 years for males and 62.4 years for females. Redbridge is one of the most ethnically diverse local authorities in the UK. 34% of respondents to the 2011 census stated that they were born outside the UK and 65.5% identified as belonging to an ethnic group other than white British. Redbridge's largest ethnic group is White British, followed by Indian, Pakist
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea is an inner London borough with royal status. It is the second smallest district in England, it includes affluent areas such as Notting Hill, Central Kensington, South Kensington and Knightsbridge. The borough is west of the City of Westminster and east of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, it contains major museums and universities in Albertopolis, department stores such as Harrods, Peter Jones and Harvey Nichols, embassies in Belgravia and Kensington Gardens. The borough is home to the Notting Hill Carnival, Europe's largest, contains many of the most expensive residential properties in the world; the local authority is Chelsea London Borough Council. Its motto, adapted from the opening words of Psalm 133, is Quam bonum in Unum habitare, which translates as'How good it is to dwell in unity'; the borough was formed by the merger of the Royal Borough of Kensington and the Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea, under the London Government Act 1963, which reorganised 86 boroughs and urban districts into 32 London boroughs on 1 April 1965 together with the creation of the Greater London Council.
The new borough was intended to be called only "Kensington", but after protests from thousands of Chelsea residents, the Minister of Housing and Local Government, Sir Keith Joseph, announced on 2 January 1964 that the name of the new borough would be the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Of its history the council states: "Despite the boroughs being separate Kensington and Chelsea still retain their unique characters; the amalgamation of the two boroughs, unpopular as it was at the time, has been accepted. Today conservation combined with the adoption of sympathetic new architecture is seen as a key objective. In every corner of the borough signs of its history can be seen: from Grade 1 listed buildings Kensington Palace and the Royal Hospital, Chelsea to others recalled in street names such as Pottery Lane and Hippodrome Mews."In 200 years the area has been transformed from a "rural idyll" to a thriving part of the modern metropolis. Chelsea had been countryside upon which Thomas More built Beaufort House.
He came to Chelsea in 1520 and built the house, which in his day had two courtyards laid out between the house and the river, in the north of the site acres of gardens and orchards were planted. It was from here in 1535 that More was taken to the Tower and beheaded that year; this area of Cheyne Walk continued its historic significance. Kensington's royal borough status was granted in 1901 as it was the home of Kensington Palace, where Queen Victoria was born in 1819 and lived until her accession in 1837. Commissioned by King William III, Christopher Wren enlarged and rebuilt the original house in 1689, turning it into a fitting royal residence. With the King came many court officials and followers. Kensington Square, until a failing venture, became a popular residential area; the Palace was used by reigning monarchs until 1760 and since by members of the Royal family. Kensington's royal borough status was inherited by the new borough. During the Second World War, civilians suffered great hardship.
A huge army of civilian volunteers was raised, including Auxiliary Fire Service, Red Cross, Air Raid Wardens and Rescue Services. During the Blitz much damage was caused by explosive and incendiary bombs along Chelsea's riverside, but worse was to come in 1944 with flying bombs. Among the buildings either destroyed or damaged with terrible loss of life, were Chelsea Old Church, Church of Our Most Holy Redeemer, Our Lady of Victories, St Mary Abbots, St Stephens Hospital, St Mary Abbot's Hospital, Sloane Square tube station, World's End, the Royal Hospital and Holland House. Kensington and Chelsea is best known today for two events that demonstrate both their traditional and modern aspects; the Chelsea Flower Show, held in the grounds of the Royal Hospital every May, is attended by Royalty and the "cream of society". The borough may be split into the following districts. Due to its high French population it has long held the unofficial title of the 21st arrondissement of Paris. In 2005, the borough had more of its land covered by domestic buildings than anywhere else in England at 19%, over half the national average.
It had the fifth highest proportion of land covered by non-domestic buildings at 12%. As of 2010
London Borough of Richmond upon Thames
The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south-west London, forms part of Outer London and is the only London borough on both sides of the River Thames. It was created in 1965 when three smaller council areas amalgamated under the London Government Act 1963, it is divided into nineteen wards. The borough is home to The National Archives; the attractions of Kew Gardens, Hampton Court Palace, Twickenham Stadium and the WWT London Wetlands Centre are within its boundaries and draw domestic and international tourism. The borough is half parkland – large areas of London's open space fall within its boundaries, including Richmond Park, Kew Gardens, Bushy Park and Old Deer Park; the predominant other land use is residential. Most businesses within the borough consist of retail, property improvement/development and professional services. Parts of the borough, including Barnes, Richmond, St Margarets, Cambridge Park and Marble Hill, some areas of Twickenham and much of East Sheen rival Stanmore Hill and Kenley as the highest house-price districts and neighbourhoods in Outer London.
In 2006, research commissioned by a major mortgage lender found that, on the quantitative statistical indices used, the borough had the best quality of life in London and was in the top quarter of local authorities nationwide. A neighbouring authority in Surrey achieved the best quality of life in that report. Demography is a diverse picture as in all of London: each district should be looked at separately and those do not reflect all neighbourhoods. Whatever generalisations are used, "the fine-grained texture of London poverty" by its minutely localised geography must always be taken into account according to an influential poverty report of 2010. Richmond upon Thames has the lowest child poverty rates in London at 20% and contains at least one ward with an above-average level of working-age adults receiving out-of-work benefits but this borough – reflecting the best result – has two standard poverty indices of sixteen in which it is placed in the worst quarter of boroughs. Richmond is one of London's wealthiest boroughs on many measures.
It has the lowest rates of poverty, child poverty, low pay, child obesity and adults without level 3 qualifications of any London borough, according to a 2017 research project by Trust for London. London's German business and expatriate community is centred on this borough, which houses the German School London and most of the capital's German expatriates; the Local Authority divides the borough into fourteen loosely bounded neighbourhoods, or "villages", with which residents broadly identify. Some of the neighbourhoods have the same name as their associated political ward, but the boundaries aren't aligned. There is no direct alignment between these areas and postcode districts, which tend to cover much broader areas, crossing the borough boundaries. Although most addresses in the borough have TW postcodes, some have KT postcodes. Parks take up a great deal of the borough and include Richmond Park, Bushy Park, Kew Gardens, Hampton Court Park. There are over open spaces in Richmond upon Thames and 21 miles of river frontage.
140 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt. The borough is home to the National Physical Laboratory and the attractions of Hampton Court Palace, Twickenham Stadium and the WWT London Wetlands Centre that draw domestic and international tourism; the river Thames becomes narrower than at any part of Inner London towards its flow into the borough and becomes non-tidal at Teddington Lock in the borough. The borough was formed in 1965 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Twickenham from Middlesex with the Municipal Borough of Richmond and the Municipal Borough of Barnes from Surrey; the name "Richmond upon Thames" was coined at that time. The borough's history is reflected in the coat of arms, granted on 7 May 1966, it is: Ermine a portcullis or within a bordure gules charged with eight fleurs-de-lis or. The crest is: On a wreath argent and gules out of a mural crown gules a swan rousant argent in beak a branch of climbing red roses leaved and entwined about the neck proper.
The supporters are: On either side a griffin gules and beaked azure, each supporting an oar proper, the blade of the dexter dark blue and that of the sinister light blue. The portcullis was taken from the arms of the Municipal Borough of Richmond. Red and ermine are the royal livery colours, reflecting Richmond's royal history; the swan represents the River Thames. The oars are from the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club, reflecting the fact that the Boat Race between the two universities ends at Mortlake in the borough. Since its formation, the council has most been led either by the Conservatives or by the Liberal Democrats; the Lib Dems make up the majority in the council. London Heathrow Airport is located a few kilometres west; the borough is served by many Transport for London bus routes. The borough is connected to central London and Reading by the National Rail services of the South Western Railway; the London Underground's District line serves Richmond and Kew Gardens stations: both are served by London Overground tra
London Borough of Bromley
The London Borough of Bromley is the most south-eastern of the 32 London boroughs that, along with the City of London, make up Greater London. The borough is named after its principal town; the local authority is Bromley London Borough Council. The borough occupies 59 square miles; the majority of the borough is Metropolitan Green Belt, including nearly all of the land south of the A232-A21 route between West Wickham and Pratts Bottom. It is perhaps the most rural borough and contains more of the North Downs than any other, as that escarpment is broad between Bromley and Banstead. Most of the population lives in the north and west of the borough, with an outlier at Biggin Hill in the far south; the borough shares borders with the London Boroughs of Lewisham and Greenwich to the North, Bexley to the North East and Lambeth to the North West, as well as Croydon to the West. It borders the Sevenoaks District of Kent to the East and South, the Tandridge District of Surrey to the South West. Westerham Heights, the highest point in London at an altitude of 804 feet, is on the southern boundary.
The Prime Meridian passes through Bromley. About 30% of the land in Bromley is farmland, the highest figure of a London Borough; the borough was formed on 1 April 1965 by the London Government Act 1963. It covered the areas of the Municipal Borough of Bromley, the Municipal Borough of Beckenham, Penge Urban District, Orpington Urban District and the Chislehurst part of Chislehurst and Sidcup Urban District; the local government authorities that until had administered those other areas were similtaneously abolished by the London Government Act on 1 April 1965. In 1969, after a local campaign, local government responsibility for the village of Knockholt was transferred to the neighbouring Sevenoaks Rural District: before 1965, it had been part of the Orpington Urban District; the borough is urban and rural, the former to the north and much part of the built-up area of suburban London. The principal parts of the northern section, from west to east, are Beckenham, which includes Eden Park and Elmers End.
The built-up area around Orpington not only encompasses its direct outskirts of Chelsfield, Derry Downs, Goddington and Petts Wood. Other smaller suburban areas include Anerley and nearby Crystal Palace. In addition, parts of Mottingham, Sydenham and Ruxley lie within the borough boundaries. There are two main built-up areas in the southern part of the borough: West Wickham. Biggin Hill and Keston with Leaves Green and Nash are separate, rural settlements. Local attractions include Down House, Chislehurst Caves, Holwood House, Crofton Roman Villa, the site of The Crystal Palace. Bromley is divided into 22 wards with a total of 60 council seats; these are represented by: Conservative: 50 Labour: 8 Independents: 2Bromley was under Conservative control from its creation until the local elections of 7 May 1998 when a Liberal Democrat/Labour coalition assumed power. After a number of by-elections and a defection, the Conservatives regained control on 5 July 2001; the 22 wards are shown on the accompanying map.
Ward names straddle the named settlements and suburban areas above: their boundaries are fixed, whereas the latter are not. In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 8,944; this rose throughout the nineteenth century, as the district became built up. When the railways arrived, the rate of population growth increased; the population peaked in the 1970s. In the 2011 UK Census, the borough had a population of 309,392. All major religions are represented, but of those stating a choice, 60.07% described themselves as Christian. In 2001, of the population, 43.47% were in full-time employment and 11.06% in part-time employment – compared to a London average of 42.64% and 8.62%, respectively. Residents were predominantly owner-occupiers, with 32.53% owning their house outright, a further 42.73% owning with a mortgage. Only 1.42% were in local authority housing, with a further 12.74% renting from a housing association, or other registered social landlord. A study in 2017 showed.
The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2011 census in Bromley. Bromley is one of only six London Boroughs not to have at least one London Underground station within its boundaries. However, the borough has many railway stations served by London Overground, Thameslink and Southern; the borough has several stops on the Tramlink network. It was reported that Boris Johnson plans to introduce either an extension of the Bakerloo Line to Hayes, in Bromley, passing through Beckenham Junction, or an extension of the DLR to Bromley North. One last option is the extension of the London Overground to Bromley North; the most is the extension of the Bakerloo Line, but would not be scheduled to begin till 2040, if accepted. National Rail stations: Crystal Palace Birkbeck Beckenham Junction Shortlands Bromley North Bromley South St Mary Cray Sundridge Park Ravensbourne Bickley Elmstead Woods Chislehurst Petts Wood Orpington Chelsfield Knockholt Kent House Penge East Penge West Anerley Lower Sydenha