2004 London Assembly election
An election to the Assembly of London took place on 10 June 2004, along with the London mayoral election, 2004. The Assembly is elected by the Additional Member System. There are fourteen directly elected constituencies, nine of which were won by the Conservatives and five by the Labour Party. An additional eleven members were allocated by a London wide top-up vote, with the proviso that parties must win at least 5% of the vote to qualify for list seats; this latter rule prevented both the British National Party and the Respect Party from winning a seat each as both fell just short of the 5% threshold. This election saw losses for Labour and the Greens and gains for both the Liberal Democrats and UKIP, who achieved their first representation in the Assembly since its creation in 2000; the Conservative Party gained Brent and Harrow from Labour, however they lost it again in the 2008 election. There were large swings away from Labour in Barnet and Camden and East, Ealing and Hillingdon and Lewisham, Havering and Redbridge and West Central.
The Liberal Democrats lost votes in most constituencies, but made gains in Enfield and Haringey and Southwark and Merton and Wandsworth. UKIP gained large percentages of the vote in Bexley and Bromley and Sutton, Greenwich and Lewisham and Havering and Redbridge. Overall turnout: 36.97% Bob Blackman Dee Doocey Damian Hockney Peter Hulme-Cross Joanne McCartney Murad Qureshi Toby Harris Samantha Heath Noel Lynch Eric Ollerenshaw Meg Hillier Diana Johnson Guardian: collection of manifestos MayorWatch London Elections Guide
The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority, that scrutinises the activities of the Mayor of London and has the power, with a two-thirds majority, to amend the Mayor's annual budget and to reject the Mayor's draft statutory strategies. The London Assembly was established in 2000 and meets at City Hall on the south bank of the River Thames, close to Tower Bridge; the Assembly is able to investigate other issues of importance to Londoners, publish its findings and recommendations, make proposals to the Mayor. The Assembly comprises 25 Assembly Members elected using the Additional Member System of proportional representation, with 13 seats needed for a majority. Elections take place every four years – at the same time as for the Mayor. There are 14 geographical super-constituencies each electing one Member, with a further 11 members elected from a party list to make the total Assembly Members from each party proportional to the votes cast for that party across the whole of London using a modified D'Hondt allocation.
A party must win at least 5 % of the party list vote. Members of the London Assembly have the post-nominal title'AM', as do Members of the Welsh Assembly and the Northern Ireland Assembly; the annual salary for a London Assembly Member is £55,000. Since its creation in 2000, thirteen Assembly Members have subsequently been elected to the House of Commons: David Lammy, Meg Hillier and Diana Johnson for Labour. One Assembly Member, Jenny Jones, was appointed to the House of Lords as the first life peer for the Green Party, sat in the Assembly until May 2016. Sally Hamwee, Graham Tope and Toby Harris were life peers elected to the assembly, while Lynne Featherstone and Dee Doocey were appointed peers after leaving the Assembly. In addition, Val Shawcross, Assembly Member for Lambeth and Southwark was selected, but unsuccessful, as the Labour parliamentary candidate for the constituency of Bermondsey and Old Southwark at the 2010 general election, as was Navin Shah who stood for Labour in Harrow East in 2017.
Andrew Dismore, Graham Tope, Richard Tracey are all former MPs who were elected to the Assembly. One Assembly Member – John Biggs, former AM for City and East – became the directly-elected Mayor of Tower Hamlets in 2015, he is serving as the Mayor, having been re-elected in 2018. London Assembly elections have been held under the Additional Member System, with a set number of constituencies elected on a first-past-the-post system and a set number London-wide on a closed party list system. In December 2016, an Electoral Reform Bill was introduced which would have changed the election system to first-past-the-post. At the 2017 UK general election, the Conservative Party manifesto proposed changes to how the assembly is elected, to first-past-the-post.. However since the general election of 2017, which resulted in a hung Parliament with the Conservatives and the DUP in a supply and confidence arrangement, no action has been taken with regard to the electoral arrangements of the London Assembly and it is assumed that the 2020 elections will be held on the current electoral system of MMP On 12 December 2018, following Peter Whittle's departure from UKIP, he and David Kurten disbanded the UKIP grouping and formed the Brexit Alliance group, though David Kurten still remains a member of UKIP.
The Assembly has formed the following committees: Audit Panel, chaired by Peter Whittle Budget and Performance Committee, chaired by Gareth Bacon Budget Monitoring Sub-Committee, chaired by Gareth Bacon Confirmation Hearings Committee Devolution Working Group Economy Committee, chaired by Susan Hall Education Panel, chaired by Jennette Arnold Environment Committee, chaired by Caroline Russell GLA Oversight Committee, chaired by Gareth Bacon Health Committee, chaired by Onkar Sahota Housing Committee, chaired by Sian Berry Online Crime Working Group Planning Committee, chaired by Nicky Gavron Police and Crime Committee, chaired by Stephen O'Connell Regeneration Committee, chaired by Navin Shah Transport Committee, chaired by Caroline PidgeonThe Police and Crime Committee was set up under the terms of the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 in order to scrutinise the work of Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime, which replaced the Metropolitan Police Authority. The initial chair of the Police and Crime Committee was Joanne McCartney, with deputy chairs Caroline Pidgeon and Jenny Jones, other members were Tony Arbour, Jennette Arnold, John Biggs, Victoria Borwick, Len Duvall and Roger Evans.
The Police and Crime Committee is chaired by Steve O'Connell and the Deputy Chair is Unmesh Desai. Note that these maps only show constituency results and not list results. London Assembly London Assembly publications City Hall Labour Conservatives in the London Assembly London Assembly Liberal Democrats
2016 London mayoral election
The 2016 London mayoral election was held on 5 May 2016 to elect the Mayor of London, on the same day as the London Assembly election. It was the fifth election to the position of Mayor, created in 2000 after a referendum in London; the election used a supplementary vote system. The election was won by Labour Member of Parliament for Tooting, Sadiq Khan, who polled 56.8% of the votes in the head-to-head second round of voting over Conservative MP for Richmond Park, Zac Goldsmith. Goldsmith was more than 25% ahead of the next candidate in the first round of voting, as part of a record field of twelve candidates. Of the twelve candidates only Khan and Green Party candidate Siân Berry achieved the requisite 5% minimum first round vote share to retain their deposit; this was the first election to not feature either of the two previous holders of the office, Ken Livingstone and Boris Johnson, who had run against each other in 2008 and 2012. Johnson, as incumbent mayor, had chosen not to stand for re-election for a third term in office, having been elected as the Conservative Party MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip at the 2015 general election.
The campaign was dominated by the personal battle between Goldsmith and Khan, their contrasting class and ethnic backgrounds. Through his victory, Khan became the second Labour Party Mayor of London after Livingstone, the first Muslim mayor of a European Union capital city; the campaign of Goldsmith was marred by accusations of Islamophobia. Senior Muslim figures within the Conservative Party supported the accusations while the Muslim Council of Britain described Goldsmith's campaign as an example of Tory "dog whistle anti-Muslim racism" and called the party to investigate Goldsmith as part of an investigation into alleged Islamophobia in the Conservative party; the first announcement of the first round results indicated. However, this count was retracted, official results were delayed pending counting errors that misattributed "hundreds" of votes; when the full result, including second preference, votes was announced at about 00:30, Khan had increased his lead over Goldsmith. There were a total of 2,596,961 valid votes and 49,871 rejected votes in the first round, a turnout of 45.3%.
In the second round a further 381,862 had not declared a second preference, with a further 2,381 rejected for other reasons. The position of Mayor of London was created in 2000 after a referendum in London; the mayor has a range of responsibilities covering policing, housing, economic development, arts and the environment, controlling a budget of around £17 billion per year. Mayors are elected with no limit to the number of terms served. Prior to the 2016 election, there had been two mayors since the position's creation; the outgoing mayor, Boris Johnson of the Conservative Party was elected as Mayor in 2008, defeating incumbent Labour Party mayor Ken Livingstone. Johnson was re-elected, again ahead of Livingstone, in the 2012 election. Neither Livingstone nor Johnson stood in 2016, making it the first London mayoral election that Livingstone did not contest, and the first time a Mayor had chosen not to defend their position. Since the previous mayoral vote, Labour had taken the majority of London votes and seats at the 2015 General Election, despite the Conservative Party winning the vote nationally.
Ten further candidates contested the election. The election used a supplementary vote system, in which voters express a first and a second preference of candidates. If a candidate receives over 50% of the first preference vote the candidate wins. If no candidate receives an overall majority, i.e. over 50% of first preference votes, the top two candidates proceed to a second round and all other candidates are eliminated. The first preference votes for the remaining two candidates stand in the final count. Voters' ballots whose first and second preference candidates are eliminated are discarded. Voters whose first preference candidates have been eliminated and whose second preference candidate is in the top two have their second preference votes added to the count; this means that the winning candidate has the support of a majority of voters who expressed a preference among the top two. All registered electors living in London aged 18 or over on 5 May 2016 were entitled to vote in the mayoral election.
Those who were temporarily away from London were entitled to vote in the mayoral election. The deadline to register to vote in the election was midnight on 19 April 2016. However, the Electoral Commission warned that thousands of transient renters were not eligible to vote; the nomination period for mayoral candidates was from 21 to 31 March 2016. Confirmation of candidates occurred after nominations closed, which revealed a record number of candidates for a London Mayoral election Among other requirements, candidates had to: be over 18; the full list of candidates was released on 1 April 2016, though many parties had gone through extensive selection processes prior to this. Seven people registered to be the candidate for the Conservative Party. Of these, three were eliminated: Philippa Roe, leader of Westminster City Council.
2008 London mayoral election
The London mayoral election, 2008 for the office of Mayor of London, was held on 1 May 2008 and was won by Conservative Party candidate Boris Johnson. It was the third London mayoral election, the previous elections being the first election in May 2000 and the second election in June 2004. Boris Johnson became the second Mayor of London and the first Conservative to hold the office since its creation in 2000; this became the first London Mayoral election in which the incumbent mayor was defeated by a challenger. The popular vote achieved by Boris Johnson remained the largest polled by winning mayoral candidate until Labour candidate, Sadiq Khan, received 1,148,716 first-preference votes in 2016. Turnout: 2,456,990: 45.33% Increase of 8.38 percentage points. Rejected papers: 13,034 1st preference On 27 September 2007, Boris Johnson was announced as the Conservative candidate, having received 75% of the vote in an election open to the entire London electorate; the primary election was to be held in October 2006.
Candidates who applied by the 4 August deadline included Richard Barnes, London Assembly member for Ealing and Hillingdon, who withdrew in July 2007 and announced his support for Boris Johnson. Steven Norris, Conservative mayoral candidate in 2000 and 2004, ruled himself out. Broadcaster Nick Ferrari ruled himself out, having considered seeking the nomination. Come the 4 August 2006 deadline, Conservative Party Chairman Francis Maude announced the process was being delayed for six months to allow time for further candidates to submit applications. Prospective applicants who subsequently publicly declared were Lurline Champagnie, a London Borough of Harrow councillor. Read withdrew in July 2007 following a change in the voting system for Conservative candidates, giving his support to Johnson. In April 2007 the Conservative party confirmed it had approached former Director-General of the BBC Greg Dyke. Dyke stated; the Liberal Democrats stated. Around this point former Conservative Prime Minister Sir John Major was considered a possible candidate, but he turned down an offer from David Cameron.
Following media and members' criticism over the party's selection procedure, the party chairman announced a revised timetable requiring a candidate to be in place before the party conference at the end of September 2007. In June 2007, the party published a detailed timetable confirming that the result of the selection process would be announced at 10 a.m. on 27 September 2007. On 16 July, shortly before the noon deadline for nominations, Johnson confirmed he would seek the Conservative nomination. A final four of Johnson, Boff and Lightfoot were chosen on 21 July for the primary election, which Johnson won. On 3 May 2007 the Labour Party announced Ken Livingstone, the incumbent mayor, had been selected as their mayoral candidate; the announcement was made following consultations with London Labour Party members. Following a split in the RESPECT Party at the end of 2007, the George Galloway-led faction retained the rights to the use of the name in elections, as Linda Smith was registered as party leader with the Electoral Commission.
The Socialist Workers Party dominated. Galloway's faction did not put forward a candidate, but Galloway declared his support for Ken Livingstone. In July 2007, the English Democrats Party announced that talkSPORT presenter Garry Bushell had been nominated as a candidate to stand against Ken Livingstone in the 2008 election. In January 2008 Garry Bushell stepped aside in favour of Fathers-4-Justice Campaigner Matt O'Connor, who stood against Andrew Constantine, a City of London Banker, in a selection contest. O'Connor was their last London-wide list Assembly candidate. O'Connor withdrew on 25 April, after he fell out with the party over leadership, campaign funding and tactics; the Liberal Democrat candidate was former police chief Brian Paddick. The party drew up a shortlist in September 2007 with a final choice made by a one member, one vote ballot of party members. Simon Hughes, the party's 2004 mayoral candidate, did not stand. On 13 November 2007 it was announced Paddick had been selected from the shortlist, defeating Chamali Fernando and Councillor Fiyaz Mughal.
On 9 May 2007, the British National Party announced that Richard Barnbrook, leader of the opposition on Barking & Dagenham Borough Council, a member of the party's National Advisory Committee, had been selected to stand for election in 2008. At the UK Independence Party 2007 party conference, Gerard Batten, the UKIP MEP for the London region was selected to contest the London Mayoral Election. In October 2006, UKIP announced that talkSPORT presenter James Whale might stand against Ken Livingstone in the 2008 election; the government's media authority Ofcom told Whale that becoming Mayor would prevent him from continuing his radio show. Whale subsequently stated on his programme he would not be the UKIP candidate, but he did not rule out standing for election. On 12 March 2007 the party announced that it had selected Siân Berry as its mayoral candidate in a ballot of its London members, receiving 45% of the vote; the other candidates were Shahrar Ali, Shane
2012 London mayoral election
The London mayoral election of 2012 was an election held on Thursday 3 May 2012, to elect the Mayor of London. It was won by the incumbent mayor Boris Johnson of the Conservative Party; the election was held on the same day as the London Assembly election. Incumbent Conservative Boris Johnson was seeking re-election for a second term as Mayor. Ken Livingstone, Mayor between 2000 and 2008, was seeking a third, non-consecutive term as the Labour candidate; the turnout was a decrease from 45.33 % in the previous election. Shortly before midnight on 4 May, Boris Johnson was declared the re-elected Mayor of London. At the 2008 mayoral election, Boris Johnson defeated incumbent mayor Ken Livingstone. Livingstone's defeat had been attributed to a loss of support amongst swing voters and voters in London's outer suburbs; the contest was one of the 2008 local elections, which demonstrated poor results for Labour. Media reports alleged tension between Johnson and the national Conservative leadership as well as the Conservative-controlled central government.
This might have led Johnson to seek a parliamentary seat to challenge these two entities rather than seek a second term as mayor. However, on 10 September 2010, he announced his intention to stand for a second term. At a re-selection meeting on 14 October 2010, he faced a period of questioning, before being unanimously adopted as the Conservatives' candidate; the Labour Party candidate for Mayor was elected by an electoral college composed half-and-half of the votes of Labour members in London and the votes of affiliated organisations. The ballot papers were issued around early September 2010, the winner was announced on 24 September. Four people sought the nomination: Ken Livingstone, Oona King, Seton During and Emmanuel Okoro. Several Labour politicians such as Sadiq Khan, James Purnell, Lord Sugar, Alan Johnson, Tony McNulty and David Lammy were all touted as potential candidates, but none of these decided to run. Ken Livingstone had announced his intention to regain the mayoralty in March 2009 and said at the time that he would run as an independent if he failed to gain Labour's nomination, as he had done in 2000.
Former MP and Channel 4 Diversity Officer Oona King announced her bid for the candidacy in May 2010. Prior to the vote, Livingstone gained the support of the GMB and Unite trade unions, as well as the backing of the majority of Labour members in the London Assembly; the Economist wrote that he was "by some distance the favourite to win the candidacy". On 24 September 2010, the Labour Party announced that Livingstone had defeated King for the nomination by a wide margin, the former mayor gaining 68.8% of the total votes. Around the beginning of September 2010, the Liberal Democrats started accepting applications for their nominee. Lembit Öpik, Member of Parliament for Montgomeryshire from 1997 until his defeated re-election bid in 2010, said in June 2010 that he would like to be their candidate. Liberal Democrat councillor Duwayne Brooks, a friend of murdered black teenager Stephen Lawrence, with him when he died put himself forward. Caroline Pidgeon, Floella Benjamin, Joanna Lumley, Brian Paddick and Susan Kramer were seen as possible candidates.
Jeremy Ambache, a former parliamentary candidate for Putney put his name down for selection for his party however he did not continue his campaign since he defected to Labour. On 15 October 2010, plans for selecting a candidate were deferred for twelve months. On 12 July 2011, the new shortlist of four candidates was announced; as a result of the announcement of the shortlist a High Court complaint was lodged by Patrick Streeter, unsuccessful in being shortlisted. Subsequently, the High Court ruled the Liberal Democrats selection process lawful; the result was declared after a ballot of party members on 2 September. The four candidates were Öpik, Brian Haley and Mike Tuffrey. Haley is a councillor in Haringey and was a member of the Labour Party until defecting in January 2010. Paddick was the party's candidate in 2008 and Deputy Assistant Commissioner of London's Metropolitan Police. Tuffrey led the Liberal Democrat group on the London Assembly between 2006 and 2010; the Green Party announced its shortlist on 2 February 2011.
London members chose Assembly member Jenny Jones, who won 67% of votes cast, over lecturer Shahrar Ali and writer Farid Bakht. Jenny Jones served as Deputy Mayor 2003–2004 during the first term of Ken Livingstone, when he was an Independent Mayor. On 7 September 2011 the British National Party announced London member Carlos Cortiglia as its candidate, a press officer for the party. Cortiglia was born in Uruguay of Spanish and Italian ancestry and came to the United Kingdom in 1989, he has taken part in a televised abortion debate on RT in his capacity as press officer and was a list candidate for the party in the assembly elections in 2004. He has worked for the BBC World Service and has been involved in several areas of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, including television and Internet via London Radio Service, British Satellite News, APTN and other media. On 2 June 2011, an email was sent to all UKIP members from the Executive Chairman setting out a timetable for selection and requesting applications from possible candidates.
The party held the results of which influenced the final vote. The six candidates were David Coburn, Michael Corby, Michael McGough, Paul Oakley, Winston McKenzie and Lawrence Webb. On 5 September 2011, Webb was selected by London members as the UKIP candidate. However, he stood under the description "Fresh Choice for London" rather than under the party label. This, the New Statesman revealed, was because of an error by the party, which forgot to put its name on th
Green Party of England and Wales
The Green Party of England and Wales is a green, left-wing political party in England and Wales. Headquartered in London, since September 2018, its co-leaders are Jonathan Bartley; the Green Party has one representative in the House of Commons, one in the House of Lords, three in the European Parliament. In addition, it has various councillors in UK local government and two members of the London Assembly; the party's ideology combines environmentalism with left-wing economic policies, including well-funded, locally controlled public services within the confines of a steady state economy, it supports proportional representation. It takes a progressive approach to social policies such as civil liberties, animal rights, LGBT rights and drug policy reform; the party believes in nonviolence, basic income, a living wage, democratic participation. The party comprises various regional divisions, including the semi-autonomous Wales Green Party. Internationally, the party is affiliated to the European Green Party.
The Green Party of England and Wales was established in 1990 alongside the Scottish Green Party and the Green Party in Northern Ireland through the division of the pre-existing Green Party, a group, established as the PEOPLE Party in 1973. Experiencing centralising reforms spearheaded by the Green 2000 group in the early 1990s, the party sought to emphasise growth in local governance, doing so throughout the 1990s. In 2010, the party gained its first MP in former leader Caroline Lucas, who represents the constituency of Brighton Pavilion; the Green Party of England and Wales has its origins in the PEOPLE Party, founded in Coventry, Warwickshire, in February 1972. PEOPLE was renamed The Ecology Party in 1975, in 1985 changed again to the Green Party. In 1989 the party's Scottish branch split to establish the independent Scottish Green Party, with an independent Green Party in Northern Ireland developing shortly after, leaving those branches in England and Wales to form their own party; the Green Party of England and Wales is registered with the Electoral Commission as the Green Party.
In the 1989 European Parliament elections, the Green Party of England and Wales polled 15% of the vote with 2.3 million votes, the best performance of a Green party in a nationwide election. This gave it the third largest share of the vote after the Conservative and Labour parties, although because of the first-past-the-post voting system it failed to gain a Member of the European Parliament; this success has been attributed to both the increased respectability of environmentalism and the effects of the development boom in southern England in the late 1980s. Seeking to capitalise on the Greens' success in the EP elections, a group named Green 2000 was established in July 1990, arguing for an internal reorganisation of the party in order to develop it into an effective electoral force capable of securing seats in the House of Commons, its proposed reforms included a more centralised structure, the replacement of the existing party council with a smaller party executive, the establishment of delegate voting at party conferences.
Many party members opposed the reforms, believing that they would undermine the internal party democracy, amid the arguments various key members resigned or were dismissed from the Greens. Although Green 2000 proposals were defeated at the party's 1990 conference, they were overwhelmingly carried at their 1991 conference, resulting in an internal restructuring of the party. Between the end of 1990 and mid-1992, the party lost over half its members, with those polled indicating that frustration over a lack of clear and effective party leadership was a major reason in their decision; the party fielded more candidates than it had done before in the 1992 general election but was deemed to have performed poorly. In 1993, the party adopted its "Basis for Renewal" program in an attempt to bring together conflicting factions and thus save the party from bankruptcy and potential demise; the party sought to escape their reputation as an environmentalist single-issue party by placing greater emphasis on social policies.
Recognising their poor performance in the 1992 national elections, the party decided to focus on gaining support in local elections, targeting wards where there was a pre-existing support base of Green activists. In 1993, future party leader and MP Lucas gained a seat on Oxfordshire County Council, with other gains following in the 1995 and 1996 local elections; the Greens sought to build alliances with other parties in the hope of gaining representation at the parliamentary level. In Wales, the Greens endorsed Plaid Cymru candidate Cynog Dafis in the 1992 general election, having worked with him on a number of environmental initiatives. For the 1997 general election, the Ceredigion branch of the Greens endorsed Dafis as a joint Plaid Cymru/Green candidate, but this generated controversy with the party, with critics believing it improper to build an alliance with a party that did not share all of the Greens' views. In April 1995 the Green National Executive ruled that the party should withdraw from this alliance due to ideological differences.
As the Labour Party shifted to the political centre under the leadership of Tony Blair and his New Labour project, the Greens sought to gain the support of the party's dissafected leftists. During the 1999 European Parliament elections, the first to be held in the UK using proportional representation, the Greens gained their first Members of the European Parliament and Jean Lambert. At the inaugural London Assembly Elections in 2000, the party gained 11% of the vote and returned three Assembly Members, althoug