1998 Rutgers Scarlet Knights football team
The 1998 Rutgers Scarlet Knights football team represented Rutgers University in the 1998 NCAA Division I-A football season. In their third season under head coach Terry Shea, the Scarlet Knights compiled a 5–6 record, were outscored by opponents 376 to 206, finished in sixth place in the Big East Conference; the team's statistical leaders included Mike McMahon with 2,203 passing yards, Jacki Crooks with 821 rushing yards, Bill Powell with 730 receiving yards
Big 12 Conference football
The Big 12 Conference is a conference of 10 universities which participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I Football Bowl Subdivision football. The conference was formed in 1994 but did not begin conference play until the fall of 1996; the schools that compose the Big 12 Conference, except West Virginia, were members of either the Big Eight Conference or the Southwest Conference, have won 21 national titles including 3 titles since the inception of the Big 12 Conference. In 2010 it was announced that in 2011 both Nebraska and Colorado left the Big 12 for the Big Ten and Pac-10 respectively. In 2011 it was announced that Texas A&M and Missouri would both be leaving for the SEC; as replacements TCU and West Virginia would be joining the conference from the Mountain West and Big East respectively. From the time the league was formed until realignment, the conference was split into two, six team, divisions. Teams played a total of 11 regular season games, three non-conference match-ups and eight conference games per season.
The conference games were a combination of five divisional foes and three from the opposing division. Inter-divisional play is a "three-on, three-off" system, where teams will play three teams from the other division on a home-and-home basis for two seasons, play the other three foes from the opposite side for a two-year home-and-home. At the conclusion of the regular season, the top team from the South Division played the top team from the North Division in the Big 12 Championship Game. After the departure of Nebraska and Colorado, both the divisional format and the Championship Game were dropped. Members continue to play three non-conference opponents in addition to playing all nine other members of the conference on an annual basis. Starting again in 2017 the Championship Game was reinstated, the two teams with the highest conference winning percentage play in the game. In its 22 year history, the Big 12 championship has been won by nine different schools, three of which no longer belong to the conference.
From its formation in 1996 until 2010, the championship was determined in the Big 12 championship game. Following the departures of two schools in 2010, the conference discontinued the championship game in favor of a round-robin format to determine the champion; the current Big 12 champion is the University of Oklahoma Sooners who have won the most championships with 12. The Big 12 Championship Game was first held by the Big 12 Conference each year since 1996 until 2010 and again starting with the 2017 season; the original championship game pitted the Big 12 North Division champion against the Big 12 South Division champion in a game held after the regular season has been completed. The first championship game was held during the 1996 season in St. Louis; the 2009 and 2010 games were played at Cowboys Stadium in Texas. Following the departures of Nebraska and Colorado to the Big Ten and Pac-12 the Big 12 Championship Game was discontinued. Following a NCAA rule change in 2015 which allows conferences with fewer than 12 members to hold a championship game, the Big 12 elected to return to a postseason championship game to determine the conference champion.
Following the completion of the round-robin regular season, the conference's top two teams compete in the championship game. Oklahoma defeated TCU 41-17 on December 2, 2017, in the first Big 12 Championship Game played since 2010. †: Denotes co-champion‡: Denotes former member of the conference †:The Big 12 champion will go to the Sugar Bowl unless selected for the CFP. In the event that the conference champion is selected for the playoff, the conference runner up will go to the Sugar Bowl.‡:Conference representative will play in the bowls on a rotating basis. Totals though the end of the 2017 season. Conference rivalries predate the conference; the Kansas-Missouri rivalry was the longest running, the longest west of the Mississippi and the second longest in college football. It was played 119 times before Missouri left the Big 12; as of October 2012, the University of Kansas' athletic department had not accepted Missouri's invitations to play inter-conference rivalry games, putting the rivalry on hold.
Sports clubs sponsored by the two universities continued to play each other. Totals though the end of the 2017 season. Totals though the end of the 2011 season. Official website
1998 Tennessee Volunteers football team
The 1998 Tennessee Volunteers football team represented the University of Tennessee in the 1998 NCAA Division I-A football season. Tennessee entered the 1998 season coming off an 11–2 record in 1997; the Volunteers were given a preseason ranking of No. 10 in the AP Poll. The Vols won their second undisputed national title, sixth overall, after defeating Florida State in the Fiesta Bowl, the first BCS National Championship Game. The'98 Vols beat eight bowl teams, including six January bowl teams, four top ten teams, three BCS bowl-bound teams; the 1998 Tennessee Volunteers were ranked as the No. 3 college football team of all time by the Billingsley Report computer ratings. Tennessee was expected to have a slight fall-off after their conference championship the previous season, they had lost quarterback Peyton Manning, wide receiver Marcus Nash, linebacker Leonard Little to the NFL. Manning was the first pick overall in the 1998 NFL Draft. Tennessee was coming off a difficult 42–17 loss to Nebraska in the Orange Bowl, were in the midst of a five-game losing streak to the rival Florida Gators.
Nonetheless, the Volunteers ended their season in Tempe, becoming only the fourth school in modern college football history to complete a 13–0 season. FB Shawn Bryson PK Jeff Hall G Mercedes Hamilton LB Al Wilson QB Tee Martin K Jeff Hall hit a 27 Yard field goal as time expired to give the Vols a key road win; this was the second game winning kick of Hall's career. In his first game as a starter QB Tee Martin went only 9-of-26 for 143 yards, but led the Vols into field goal range for the final kick. HB Jamal Lewis led the Vols with a touchdown. WR Peerless Price had two touchdown receptions. QB Donovan McNabb gave the Volunteer defense fits, putting up 300 yards with a 22-for-28 day Tennessee broke a 5-game losing streak against the Gators. Florida K Collins Cooper missed a FG in overtime and set off a wild celebration at Neyland Stadium that saw the goalposts and CBS cameras disappear; the Vols won despite racking up only 235 yards of total offense. The difference was turnovers; the Florida Gators lost 2 caused by hits by Al Wilson.
K Jeff Hall made his field goal in the first overtime, setting the stage for the Florida miss and the Vols win. The Vols held the Gators to −13 net rushing on 30 attempts. FB Shawn Bryson scored on a 57-yard run. Junior QB Tee Martin had his coming-out party against the Houston Cougars, throwing for 4 touchdowns and 234 yards en route to the Vols win. Jamal Lewis added 135 yards rushing and 1 touchdown, leading the Vols to 334 rushing yards and 589 total yards; the Vols defense recorded 3 sacks with 8 tackles for loss. The Vols jumped out to an early lead behind the running of Jamal Lewis. However, following a season ending ACL injury, Lewis left the game and the Tennessee Defense held on for the 17–9 win. In a rematch of the high scoring 1997 SEC Championship Game, the Defense needed a score by DE Shaun Ellis and a 4 play goal line stand from inside the 1-yard line to secure the win, they did so without senior captain Al Wilson. Tennessee entered their 3rd game in the 1998 SEC season as underdogs.
However, behind the running of substitute HB's Travis Henry and Travis Stephens, a strong defensive effort, the Vols dominated the Bulldogs. Georgia was limited to only 254 total yards and the Vols defense held their opponent without a touchdown for the second straight game; the Vols pushed their winning streak over Alabama to 4 games with a 35–18 victory. The win gave Tennessee a 6–0 record for the first time since 1969, extended a streak for the Vols in the Third Saturday in October rivalry game; this time, the Vols Offense relied on Travis Henry who rushed for 2 touchdowns. The play that broke the game open for the Vols was a 100-yard kickoff return by Peerless Price in the 3rd quarter that answered an Alabama touchdown and two-point conversion. Tee Martin set an NCAA record for consecutive completions with 24, leading the Vols to a 49–14 victory. Martin completed his first 23 passes, he recorded his first 300-yard passing game by going 23-for-24 for 315 yards and 4 touchdowns. The Vol Defense held.
Tennessee took care of the Blazers to win their homecoming contest and move their record to 8–0. It was their first 8–0 start since 1956; the Vols racked up 447 total yards, led by the rushing of Travis Henry and the passing of Tee Martin. WR Peerless Price added 103 yards receiving. Tennessee fell behind 21–3 in the first half, but capped off a season-saving comeback with a Travis Henry touchdown run in the final seconds. Henry had the deciding touchdown; the key play of the game and the season occurred in the 4th quarter. Arkansas was attempting to run out the clock. DT Billy Ratliff pushed Arkansas G Brandon Burlsworth into QB Clint Stoerner, causing him to stumble and fumble. Ratliff recovered the ball and allowed Tennessee the chance to drive the field and score the game-winning touchdown. Kentucky struggled after one of their players died and another was injured in an automobile accident early that week, as Tennessee picked up an easy 59–21 win; this game marked the end of the Battle of the Beer Barrel, due to the alcohol-related death that week.
Kentucky QB Tim Couch passed for 337 yards and 2 touchdowns, but Kentucky never threatened after the 1st quarter The Vols clinched their second consecutive SEC East Division title with a win in Nashville. Tennessee dominated once again, holding the Commodores scoreless and limiting them to
1999 NCAA Division I-A football season
The 1999 NCAA Division I-A football season saw Florida State named national champions, defeating Virginia Tech in the BCS Sugar Bowl. Florida State became the first team in history to start out preseason #1 and remain there through the entire season, their 12–0 season gave them 109 victories in the'90s, the most for any decade. Virginia Tech had a remarkable season behind freshman quarterback Michael Vick, being touted as college football's best player. Vick was outshined in the national championship game by Florida State Wide Receiver Peter Warrick. Warrick had early problems with the law, charged with a misdemeanor he sat out two games early in the season, but he scored three touchdowns in the title game. The BCS adopted a new rule after the previous season, nicknamed the "Kansas State Rule," which stated that any team ranked in the top four in the final BCS poll is assured of an invitation to a BCS bowl game. A lot of teams faced debacles. East Carolina faced Hurricane Floyd, in that same week, faced the #9 Miami Hurricanes.
The Pirates were down, 23–3, but scored 24 unanswered points to win the football game, 27–23. Kansas State finished 6th in the BCS standings but again received no BCS bowl invitation, this time being passed over in favor of Michigan. Kansas State's predicament demonstrated early on the problem of trying to balance historic bowl ties and creating a system which gives top bowl bids to the most deserving teams. In addition, for a second straight season, an undefeated team from outside the BCS Automatic Qualifying conferences went undefeated but did not receive a bid to a BCS bowl game, which illustrated the problem of BCS Non-Automatic Qualifying conference teams being shut out of the BCS bowls; the NCAA Rules Committee adopted the following changes for the 1999 season: Holding penalties committed behind the line of scrimmage will be enforced from the previous spot, modifying a 1991 rule that penalized holding committed behind the scrimmage line from the spot of the foul. The penalty for intentional grounding was changed from a five-yard penalty from the spot of the foul plus loss-of-down to a loss-of-down at the spot of the foul.
Bandannas that are visible are considered illegal equipment. Offensive teams may not break a huddle with 12 or more players. Continuing action dead-ball fouls against both teams are disregarded, however any disqualified players must leave the game. Two teams upgraded from Division I-AA, thus increasing the number of Division I-A schools from 112 to 114; the Mountain West Conference was formed prior to the season by eight former members of the Western Athletic Conference. Arkansas State joined the Big West Conference as its seventh member after three seasons as an independent. Two schools made the move up to Division I-A football this season: University at Buffalo and Middle Tennessee State University. Two programs, each playing as independents, changed their names prior to the season: After Northeast Louisiana University changed its name to the University of Louisiana at Monroe, the Northeast Louisiana Indians became the Louisiana–Monroe Indians. After the University of Southwestern Louisiana changed its name to the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, the Southwestern Louisiana Ragin' Cajuns became the Louisiana–Lafayette Ragin' Cajuns.
Rankings from final regular season AP poll Sugar Bowl: #1 Florida State 46, #2 Virginia Tech 29 Orange Bowl: #8 Michigan 35, #5 Alabama 34 Rose Bowl: #4 Wisconsin 17, #22 Stanford 9 Fiesta Bowl: #3 Nebraska 31, #6 Tennessee 21 Cotton Bowl Classic: #24 Arkansas 27, #12 Texas 6 Florida Citrus Bowl: #9 Michigan State 37, #10 Florida 34 Outback Bowl: #21 Georgia 28, #19 Purdue 25 Gator Bowl: #23 Miami 28, #17 Georgia Tech 13 Peach Bowl: #16 Mississippi State 17, Clemson 7 MicronPC Bowl: Illinois 63, Virginia 21 Sun Bowl: Oregon 24, #13 Minnesota 20 Alamo Bowl: #14 Penn State* 24, #18 Texas A&M 0 Insight.com Bowl: Colorado 62, #25 Boston College 28 Holiday Bowl: #7 Kansas State 24, Washington 20 Liberty Bowl: #15 Southern Mississippi 23, Colorado State 17 Aloha Bowl: Wake Forest 23, Arizona State 3 Oahu Bowl: Hawaii-Manoa 23, Oregon State 17 Independence Bowl: Mississippi 27, Oklahoma 25 Music City Bowl: Syracuse 20, Kentucky 13 Las Vegas Bowl: Utah 17, Fresno State 16 Motor City Bowl: #11 Marshall 21, BYU 3 Humanitarian Bowl: Boise State 34, Louisville 31 Mobile Alabama Bowl: TCU 28, #20 East Carolina 14 The Heisman Memorial Trophy Award is given to the Most Outstanding Player of the year Winner: Ron Dayne, Running Back 2.
Joe Hamilton, Ga. Tech 3. Michael Vick, Va. Tech 4. Drew Brees, Purdue 5. Chad Pennington, Marshall Maxwell Award – Ron Dayne, Wisconsin Walter Camp Award – Ron Dayne, Wisconsin Davey O'Brien Award – Joe Hamilton, Georgia Tech Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award – Chris Redman, Louisville Doak Walker Award – Ron Dayne, Wisconsin Fred Biletnikoff Award – Troy Walters, Stanford Bronko Nagurski Trophy – Corey Moore, Virginia Tech, DE Chuck Bednarik Award – LaVar Arrington, Penn State Dick Butkus Award – LaVar Arrington, Penn State Lombardi Award – Corey Moore, Virginia Tech, DE Outland Trophy – Chris Samuels, Alabama, OT Jim Thorpe Award – Tyrone Carter, Minnesota Lou Groza Award – Sebastian Janikowski, Florida St. Paul "Bear" Bryant Award – Frank Beamer, Virgin
In North America, a bowl game is one of a number of post-season college football games that are played by teams belonging to the NCAA's Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. For most of its history, the Division I Bowl Subdivision had avoided using a playoff tournament to determine an annual national champion, instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players. In place of such a playoff, various cities across the United States developed their own regional festivals featuring post-season college football games. Prior to 2002, bowl game statistics were not included in players' career totals and the games were considered to be exhibition games involving a payout to participating teams. Despite attempts to establish a permanent system to determine the FBS national champion on the field, various bowl games continue to be held because of the vested economic interests entrenched in them. Bowl games featured the best teams in college football, with strict bowl eligibility requirements for teams to receive an invitation to a bowl game in a particular year.
The number of bowl games has grown, reaching 20 games by the 1997 season rapidly expanding beyond 30 games by the 2006 season and 40 team-competitive games by the 2015 season. The increase in bowl games has necessitated a significant easing of the NCAA bowl eligibility rules, since reduced to allow teams with non-winning 6–6 records and losing 5–6 and 5–7 seasons to fill some of the many available bowl slots; the term "bowl" originated from the Rose Bowl stadium, site of the first post-season college football games. The Rose Bowl Stadium, in turn, takes its name and bowl-shaped design from the Yale Bowl, the prototype of many football stadiums in the United States; the term has since become synonymous with any major American football event collegiate football with some significant exceptions. Two examples are the Egg Bowl, the name of the annual matchup between the Mississippi State Bulldogs and the Ole Miss Rebels, the Iron Bowl, a nickname given to the annual game between the Alabama Crimson Tide and the Auburn Tigers.
In professional football, the names of the National Football League's "Super Bowl" and "Pro Bowl" are references to college football bowl games. The use of the term has crossed over into collegiate Canadian football. A notable example is the annual Banjo Bowl between the Winnipeg Blue Bombers and Saskatchewan Roughriders of the Canadian Football League. U Sports plays two semi-final "bowl games" before the Vanier Cup national championship game, the Uteck Bowl and the Mitchell Bowl; the matchups are determined on a conference rotation basis, with the Uteck Bowl being played at the easternmost host team, while the Mitchell is at the westernmost host team. The history of the bowl game began with the 1902 Tournament East-West football game, sponsored by the Tournament of Roses Association between Michigan and Stanford, a game which Michigan won 49-0; the Tournament of Roses sponsored an annual contest starting with the 1916 Tournament East-West Football Game. With the 1923 Rose Bowl it began to be played at the newly completed Rose Bowl stadium, thus the contest itself became known as the Rose Bowl game.
The name "bowl" to describe the games thus comes from the Rose Bowl stadium. Other cities saw the promotional value for tourism that the Tournament of Roses parade and Rose Bowl carried and began to develop their own regional festivals which included college football games; the label "bowl" was attached to the festival name though the games were not always played in bowl-shaped stadiums. The historic timing of bowl games, around the new year, is the result of two factors—warm climate and ease of travel; the original bowls began in warm climates such as Southern California, Louisiana and Texas as a way to promote the area for tourism and business. Since commercial air travel was either non-existent or limited, the games were scheduled well after the end of the regular season to allow fans to travel to the game site. While modern travel is more convenient, all but 5 of 41 bowl games are still located in cities below 36° N. Currently, college football bowl games are played from mid-December to early January.
As the number of bowl games has increased, the number of games a team would need to win to be invited to a bowl game has decreased. With a 12-game schedule, a number of teams with only 5 wins have been invited to a bowl game; as of the completion of the 2016 season, the University of Alabama has played in more bowl games than any other school, with 64 appearances. Alabama holds the record for most bowl victories with 37; as of the 2016 season, Florida State has the record of consecutive bowl births at 36 bowl appearances, however, it is not recognized by the NCAA due to the NCAA vacated FSU's 2006 Emerald Bowl victory over UCLA due to an academic issue. Virginia Tech Hokies have the longest active streak of consecutive bowl appearances with 25 recognized by the NCAA; the Rose Bowl was the only major college bowl game in 1930. By 1940, there were five major college bowl games: the Rose Bowl, the Sugar Bowl, the Cotton Bowl Classic, the Orange Bowl, the Sun Bowl. By 1950, the number had increased to eight games.
This figure of eight bowl games persisted t