1998 NFL season

The 1998 NFL season was the 79th regular season of the National Football League. The season culminated with Super Bowl XXXIII, with the Denver Broncos defeating the Atlanta Falcons 34–19 at Pro Player Stadium; the Broncos had won their first thirteen games, the best start since the undefeated 1972 Dolphins, were tipped by some to have a realistic chance at winning all nineteen games. The Minnesota Vikings became the first team since the 1968 Baltimore Colts to win all but one of their regular season games and not win the Super Bowl. After no team had won 14 regular season games since the 1992 49ers, three teams went 14–2 or better for the only time in a 16-game season. Football Outsiders noted: The officiating position titles of back judge and field judge were swapped to become more consistent with college and high school football; the field judge is now 20 yards deep, positioned on the same sideline as the line judge, while the back judge is 25 yards from the line of scrimmage near the center of the field.

Tinted visors on players' facemasks are banned except for medical need. A defensive player can no longer flinch before the snap in an attempt to draw movement from an offensive lineman. A team will be penalized for having 12 players in a huddle if the 12th player goes straight to the sideline as the huddle breaks. During the season, the rules regarding the coin toss were changed to where the visiting team must make the call before the coin is tossed instead of while it was in the air. On Thanksgiving, the game between the Pittsburgh Steelers and Detroit Lions went to overtime. During the coin toss, Steelers running back Jerome Bettis was heard calling "tails" but referee Phil Luckett claimed he said "heads"; the coin landed on tails, the Lions won the toss and the game on a Jason Hanson field goal. It was revealed that Bettis had changed his mind during the call and was going to call "heads" but stopped. Thus, the rule change was adopted to prevent any further confusion. Dale Hamer and Gary Lane returned to side judge, respectively.

Tony Corrente and Ron Winter were promoted to referee. Tennessee Oilers – Moved from Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium in Memphis to Vanderbilt Stadium in Nashville while awaiting construction of the new in Nashville. Baltimore Ravens – Departed from Memorial Stadium to PSINet Stadium. Tampa Bay Buccaneers – Departed from Houlihan's Stadium to Raymond James Stadium. Baltimore Ravens – Removed black pants from road uniforms. New York Jets – Re-adopted their 1960s logo and uniform design. Jacksonville Jaguars – Removed black side panels on uniforms. San Diego Chargers – Returned navy pants on road uniforms. San Francisco 49ers – New gold pants. Detroit Lions – New Honolulu blue numbers on road uniforms and Honolulu blue road pants with gray socks. Oakland RaidersJon Gruden. Indianapolis ColtsJim Mora. Dallas CowboysChan Gailey. Buffalo BillsWade Phillips; this was the first season that CBS held the rights to televise American Football Conference games, taking over the package from NBC. Meanwhile, this was the first time that ESPN broadcast all of the Sunday night games throughout the season.

This was the first season where the late games kicked off at 4:05pm ET & 4:15pm ET, to give more time to finish the early games before the start of the late games. The 4:15 start time would last until 2011. Miami finished ahead of Buffalo in the AFC East based on better net division points. Oakland finished ahead of Seattle in the AFC West based on head-to-head sweep. Carolina finished ahead of St. Louis in the NFC West based on head-to-head sweep. * Indicates overtime victory The 1998 NFL Draft was held from April 17 to 18, 1998 at New York City's Theater at Madison Square Garden. With the first pick, the Indianapolis Colts selected quarterback Peyton Manning from the University of Tennessee. Football Outsiders 1998 DVOA Ratings and Commentary Pro Football – 1998 NFL Record and Fact Book NFL History 1991–2000 Total Football: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League Steelers Fever – History of NFL Rules


Xiphactinus is an extinct genus of large predatory marine bony fish that lived during the Late Cretaceous. When alive, the fish would have resembled a fanged tarpon; the species Portheus molossus described by Cope is a junior synonym of X. audax. Skeletal remains of Xiphactinus have come from the Carlile Shale and Greenhorn Limestone of Kansas, Cretaceous formations all over the East Coast in the United States, as well as Europe, the Kanguk and Ashville Formations of Canada, La Luna Formation of Venezuela. Species of Xiphactinus were voracious predatory fish. At least a dozen specimens of X. audax have been collected with the remains of large, undigested or digested prey in their stomachs. In particular, one 13 feet fossil specimen was collected by George F. Sternberg with another, nearly preserved 6 feet long ichthyodectid Gillicus arcuatus inside of it; the larger fish died soon after eating its prey, most owing to the smaller prey's struggling and rupturing an organ as it was being swallowed.

This fossil can be seen at the Sternberg Museum of Natural History in Kansas. Like many other species in the Late Cretaceous oceans, a dead or injured individual was to be scavenged by sharks; the remains of a Xiphactinus were found within a large specimen of Cretoxyrhina collected by Charles H. Sternberg; the specimen is on display at the University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. Nothing is known about the larval or juvenile stages; the smallest fossil specimen of X. audax consists of a tooth bearing premaxilla and lower jaws of an individual estimated to be about 12 inches long. The species and all other ichthyodectids became extinct near the end of the Late Cretaceous – see Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. An incomplete skull of what may be a new species of Xiphactinus was found in 2002 in the Czech Republic, in a small town called Šachov next to Borohrádek city, by 16-year-old student Michal Matějka. In July 2010 the bones of a Xiphactinus were discovered near Morden, Canada; the specimen was found with the flipper of a mosasaur between its jaws.

In 1982, a former Baptist minister, Carl Baugh, began excavations on the limestone beds of the Paluxy River, near Glen Rose, famous for its dinosaur tracks. Some of the tracks resembled human footprints and had been proclaimed since 1900 as evidence that dinosaurs and modern humans had once lived alongside one another. Scientists' investigations found the supposed human footprints to be "forms of elongate dinosaur tracks, while others were selectively highlighted erosional markings, still others probable carvings." While excavating, he found a solitary "Y-shaped" fossil that he informally called "Unicerosaurus". In a 1987 popular article, John Armstrong described the fossil as a "Y-shaped petrified bone that appears to be the neural spine from a huge fish like the Portheus of Niobrara Chalk" that Baugh's museum "declared to be the forehead horn of a newly discovered dinosaur genus"; the museum's exhibit told visitors that the "horn" belonged to "the unicorn of Job 38, one of three dinosaurs mentioned in Scripture.

Although some Young Earth Creationists shared Baugh's interpretations of the biblical Behemoth and Leviathan, Baugh's claims were not taken either by Christian organizations or the scientific community. In October 2010, Kansas House Rep. Tom Sloan announced that he would introduce legislation to make Xiphactinus audax, a.k.a. the "X-fish", the state fossil of Kansas. Carnegie Museum Oceans of Kansas a painting and information BBC Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre

2018 Samford Bulldogs football team

The 2018 Samford Bulldogs football team represented Samford University in the 2018 NCAA Division I FCS football season. They were led by fourth-year head coach Chris Hatcher and played their home games at Seibert Stadium, they were a member of the Southern Conference. They finished the season 5 -- 3 in SoCon play to finish in fourth place; the Bulldogs finished the 2017 season 6 -- 2 in SoCon play to finish in a tie for second place. They received an at-large bid to the FCS Playoffs, where they lost to Kennesaw State in the first round.. The SoCon released their preseason media poll on July 25, 2018, with the Bulldogs predicted to finish as SoCon champions; the same day the coaches released their preseason poll with the Bulldogs predicted to finish as SoCon champions. The Bulldogs placed seven players on the all-SoCon teams. Quarterback Devlin Hodges was selected as preseason offensive player of the year and Defensive lineman Ahmad Gooden was selected as preseason defensive player of the year. Source: Schedule