Donghae is a city in Gangwon Province, South Korea. There are two major ports: Mukho Harbor; the city is located on the Donghae Expressway. Numerous caverns are found in the city, as in neighboring Samcheok. Hanzhong University is located here. Donghae City is located in the central region of the east coast of Korea in Gangwon-do. Jeongseon county to the west and Gangneung city to the north, it contains the southern terminus of the Donghae Expressway, the No. 7 national way passes through the city. The city is mountainous and has natural resources such as Mureung Valley and beautiful beaches. Here, the high Taebaek Mountains lie along the eastern coast, preventing rivers from meeting the coast. However, in the rainy season, spontaneous water flow is possible. Tree: Gingko Tree Flower: Red Prumusumume Bird: Seagull Donghae area and its neighborhood are a free industry zone. From this, Gangwon province and Donghae city has overtaken team for investment. A cruise ferry line connecting Russia, South Korea and Japan opened in the summer of 2008.
DBS Ferry transits between Donghae, Sakaiminato and Vladivostok. Mukho harbor Mureung Valley Cheongok caves Mangsang Beach Yakcheon village Samhwa temple Donghae City has the following sister cities: Gimje, North Jeolla – April 27, 1999 Dobong-gu, Seoul – October 7, 1999 Tsuruga, Japan – April 13, 1981 Nakhodka, Primorsky Krai, Russia – November 10, 1991 Tumen, China – April 28, 1995 Federal Way, United States – April 1, 2000 Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada – May 30, 2008 Bolu, Turkey – June 15, 2009 List of cities in South Korea Geography of South Korea Donghae travel guide from Wikivoyage Donghae city government home page Donghae city tour home page
1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident
The 1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident occurred on September 18, 1996, near the South Korean town of Gangneung. The incident was one of the more serious instances of North Korean espionage involving naval forces. In 1996 on September 15, a North Korean Sang-O-class submarine landed a three-person special operations reconnaissance team on the east coast of South Korea near Jeongdongjin, 20 kilometres south-east of Gangneung, Gangwon-do, their mission was to spy on the naval installations in the area and return. The submarine made a failed attempt to return the following day; the submarine, ran aground in the attempt, all efforts to try to make her free were in vain. The crew decided to destroy the sensitive equipment in the submarine and try to make it to the DMZ; the crew split up in several groups but one was soon spotted by a civilian who became suspicious and alerted the authorities, who mobilized. A 49-day-long manhunt ensued, from 18 September through 5 November, resulting in the capture or elimination of all the crew and members of the reconnaissance team, except one, believed to have made it back to North Korea.
Four civilians and 12 South Korean soldiers died. Of the 25 North Korean infiltrators, one was captured, 11 were killed by the other members for failure in responsibility of running aground of the submarine, 13 were killed in firefights with the South Korean army; some analysts suspected that the motivation behind the assassination of Choe Deok-geun, South Korean consul for the Russian Far East, was North Korean retaliation for the loss of their men. The infiltrators possessed among their arsenal, M16A1 rifles and mock South Korean-style military uniforms. Nestlé Crunch chocolate bars were recovered; some of the dead spies' corpses were displayed to the media. The submarine was towed to a naval base for investigation. One captured crewmember, the submarine's helmsman, Lee Kwang Soo, gave in after much interrogation and revealed much of the plans, he became an instructor in the South Korean navy. North Korea was at first reluctant to take responsibility, claiming that the submarine had suffered an engine failure and had drifted aground.
By 29 December, the North issued an official statement expressing "deep regret" over the submarine incident. In return, the South Korean government returned the cremated remains of the infiltrators to the North via Panmunjom on 30 December. September 18, 16:40 – 1 captured by local policemen September 18, 17:00 – 11 bodies of executed submarine crew members were found September 19, 10:00 – 3 killed by the South Korean army commandos September 19, 14:00 – 3 killed by the South Korean army special forces September 19, 16:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 21, 20:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 22, 06:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 28, 06:30 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 30, 16:00 – 1 killed by South Korean special forces November 5, 10:00 – 2 killed by South Korean special forces The Sang-O class submarine is on display at Tongil Park near Gangneung. 1998 Sokcho submarine incident Harry P. Dies, Jr.: North Korean Special Operations Forces: 1996 Kangnung submarine infiltration, Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, Oct-Dec 2004.
Pictures and information regarding the display
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n
USS Belknap (CG-26)
USS Belknap, named for Rear Admirals George E. Belknap and Reginald Rowan Belknap, was the lead ship of her class of guided missile cruisers in the United States Navy, she was launched in 1963 as DLG-26, a guided missile frigate under the then-current designation system, reclassified as CG-26 on 30 June 1975. On 22 November 1975, Belknap and the aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy collided, killing seven sailors on the cruiser and one on the aircraft carrier. Belknap, the first of a new class of guided missile frigates, was laid down by the Bath Iron Works Corporation at Bath in Maine on 5 February 1962, she was christened by Mrs. Leonard B. Cresswell, the granddaughter and daughter of the RADMs Belknap and was launched by the Bath Iron Works, Maine on 20 July 1963 and commissioned on 7 November 1964. Belknap was damaged in a collision with the aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy on 22 November 1975 off the coast of Sicily. A fire broke out on Belknap following the collision, during the fire her aluminum superstructure was melted and gutted to the deck level.
Seven sailors were killed on one on John F. Kennedy. Shortly after the fire began, boats from other vessels operating with John F. Kennedy and Belknap began to pull alongside the burning ship with complete disregard for their own safety; the guided missile destroyer Claude V. Ricketts and destroyer Bordelon moved in on both sides of Belknap, their men directing fire hoses into the amidships area that the stricken ship’s crew could not reach. Bordelon was badly damaged in a collision with Kennedy the following year which forced her removal from service. Claude V. Ricketts moved in and secured alongside Belknap’s port side, evacuated the injured while fragments from exploding ammunition showered down upon her weather decks; the frigate Pharris closed in the carrier’s starboard side to provide fire-fighting assistance. Ammunition from Belknap’s three-inch ready storage locker, located amidships, cooked off, hurling fiery fragments into the air and splashing around the rescue boats. Undaunted, the rescuers pulled out the wounded and delivered fire-fighting supplies to the sailors who refused to surrender their ship to the conflagration.
The ammunition ship Mount Baker was involved in the rescue and salvage of Belknap, escorting her to an ammunition depot and providing electric and water services as Mount Baker's Explosive Ordnance Disposal team retrieved all of the remaining ammunition from Belknap. Mount Baker took aboard most of Belknap's crew until they could be transferred to a way station for re-assignment; the fire and the resultant damage and deaths, which would have been less had Belknap's superstructure been made of steel, helped persuade the US Navy to pursue all-steel construction in future classes of surface combatants. However, in 1987 the New York Times cited cracking in aluminum superstructures such as what occurred in the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates, rather than fire, as the reason the Navy returned to steel on some ships; the first USN combatant ships to revert to all steel superstructure were the Arleigh Burke class, which were commissioned beginning in the 1990s. Belknap was reconstructed by the Philadelphia Navy Yard from 30 January 1976 to 10 May 1980.
Since the hull was still in good condition the Navy decided to use this as a test platform for the Aegis class cruiser electronics and updated weapons systems. Until the Aegis class cruisers came along Belknap was one of the most powerful warships in the world and saw service in Beirut as part of the multinational peacekeeping force, becoming the first ship to fire on an enemy since the Vietnam War, it was the ship's Naval Tactical Data Systems' reliability during this time in Beirut, named as the defining reason that the Belknap was chosen as the Sixth Fleet flagship. Belknap was converted to a flagship by Norfolk Naval Shipyard from May 1985 to February 1986; this conversion work entailed building out the superstructure forward to just aft of the missile launcher and three decks up to add flag spaces, additional communications gear. In addition, the helicopter hangar aft was turned into accommodation spaces for flag staff and a small detachment of Marines. After this conversion she became Sixth Fleet flagship, relieving Coronado.
On 27 May 1989, she participated in a naval parade with ships from 10 countries at Barcelona. Belknap played a role in the Malta Summit between US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev on 2 December and 3 December 1989; the US President, along with his advisers, James Baker, John Sununu and Brent Scowcroft, had their sleeping quarters aboard Belknap, whereas the Soviet delegation used the missile cruiser Slava. The ships were anchored in a roadstead off the coast of Marsaxlokk. Stormy weather and choppy seas resulted in some meetings being cancelled or rescheduled, gave rise to the moniker the "Seasick Summit" among international media. In the end, the meetings took place aboard Maxsim Gorkiy, a Soviet cruise ship anchored in the harbor at La Valletta. Engineers from the Navy Ship Systems Engineering Station devised a mooring arrangement for this event, despite the worst-case 100-year storm event, Belknap held its ground using emergency operating procedures as outlined by the engineers.
Belknap was decommissioned and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 15 February 1995 and sunk as a target on 24 September 1998. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U. S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here. Dicti
ROKS Cheonan sinking
The ROKS Cheonan sinking occurred on 26 March 2010, when Cheonan, a Pohang-class corvette of the Republic of Korea Navy, carrying 104 personnel, sank off the country's west coast near Baengnyeong Island in the Yellow Sea, killing 46 seamen. The cause of the sinking remains in dispute. A South Korean-led official investigation carried out by a team of international experts from South Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Sweden presented a summary of its investigation on 20 May 2010, concluding that the warship had been sunk by a North Korean torpedo fired by a midget submarine; the conclusions of the report resulted in significant controversy within South Korea. Following the sinking, South Korea imposed sanctions against North Korea, known as the May 24 measures. North Korea denied. North Korea's further offer to aid an open investigation was disregarded. China dismissed the official scenario presented by South Korea and the United States as not credible. An investigation by the Russian Navy did not concur with the report.
The United Nations Security Council made a Presidential Statement condemning the attack but without identifying the attacker. Baengnyeong Island is a South Korean island in the Yellow Sea, off the Ongjin peninsula in North Korea, it lies less than 10 miles from the North Korean coast, is over 100 miles from the South Korean mainland. The island is to the south and west of the Northern Limit Line, the de facto maritime boundary dividing South Korea from North Korea; the area is the site of considerable tension between the two states. The situation is further complicated by the presence of a rich fishing ground used by DPRK and Chinese fishing vessels, there have been numerous clashes over the years between naval vessels from both sides attempting to police what both sides regard as their territorial waters; these have been referred to as "crab wars". In late May 2010, Bruce Cumings, a University of Chicago expert on Korean affairs, commented that the sinking should be regarded as part of long-running tensions in a naval no-man's land.
He noted a confrontation in November 2009 in which several North Korean sailors died, an incident in 1999 when 30 North Koreans were killed and 70 wounded when their ship sank. In both incidents, the North Koreans were the first to open fire. In the 1999 incident the South Koreans escalated matters by initiating a campaign of boat'bumping' in order to stop what the South saw as a violation of its maritime borders. Considering these previous incidents, Cumings said that the Cheonan sinking was "ripped out of context, the context of a continuing war that has never ended." General Walter Sharp, Commander of the South Korea-U. S. Combined Forces Command at the time had, on 24 March, testified before the US House Appropriations Committee, in part, on the need to strengthen the ROK-U. S. Alliance, the need for on-site advanced training of the Air Force, the need to improve the quality of life and provide tour normalization for troops serving one-year tours, planned relocation of bases, the scheduled 2012 transition of Operational Control to ROK hands.
He warned of the possibility that North Korea could "even launch an attack on the ROK." On the night of the sinking, the U. S. and South Korean navies were engaged in joint anti-submarine warfare exercises 75 miles away. This was part of the annual Key Resolve/Foal Eagle war exercise, described as "one of the world's largest simulated exercises", involving many U. S. and South Korean warships. On Friday, 26 March 2010, an explosion was reported to have occurred near Cheonan, a Pohang-class corvette, near the stern of the ship at 9:22 pm local time; this caused the ship to break in half five minutes afterward, sinking at 9:30 pm about 1 nautical mile off the south-west coast of Baengnyeong Island. Some initial reports suggested that the ship was hit by a North Korean torpedo, that the South Korean vessel had returned fire. However, the South Korean Ministry of Defense stressed in the first press briefings after the sinking that there was "no indication of North Korean involvement". Cheonan was operating its active sonar at the time.
Several theories have subsequently been put forth by various agencies as to the cause of the sinking. Early reports suggested that South Korean navy units had shot at an unidentified ship heading towards North Korea, but a defense official said that this target may have been a flock of birds misidentified on radar; the ship had a crew of 104 men at the time of sinking, 58 crewmembers were rescued by 11:13 pm local time. The remaining 46 crew died; the stern of Cheonan settled on its left side in 130-metre deep water close to the site of the sinking, but the bow section took longer to sink and settled overturned in 20 metres of water 6.4 kilometres away with a small part of the hull visible above the water. Six South Korean navy and two South Korean coast guard ships assisted in the rescue as well as aircraft from the Republic of Korea Air Force, it was reported on March 27. Survival time in the water was estimated at about two hours and large waves were hampering rescue attempts. After the sinking, President Lee said.
Air was pumped into the ship to keep any survivors alive. Over 24 military vessels were involved o
Chilean destroyer Ministro Portales (DD-17)
Ministro Portales was a Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer purchased by Chile in 1974 from the United States, upgraded to FRAM II. Built and commissioned as USS Douglas H. Fox in 1944, the ship saw service during World War II and the Korean War. Between 1975 and 1976, the vessel was refitted with an extension on the flight deck for Alouette-III Helicopters. Ministro Portales participated in the counteractive measures to the Operation Soberanía during the Beagle conflict in 1978. In this period, all the Chilean navy ships were camouflaged; the vessel served the navy of Chile until it was taken off active duty and towed from Talcahuano to Puerto Williams, arriving at the wharf on 18 September 1991. There, it was a static support vessel for the local torpedo boat fleet until their replacement by missile boats. On 11 November 1998, Ministro Portales was sunk during a practice exercise. Navsource.org: USS Douglas H. Fox armada.cl: Destructor Ministro Portales
USS Kentucky (SSBN-737)
USS Kentucky, is a United States Navy Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine, in commission since 1991. She is the third U. S. Navy ship to be named for the 15th state; the contract to build Kentucky was awarded to the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation in Groton, Connecticut, on 13 August 1985 and her keel was laid down there on 18 December 1987. She was launched on 11 August 1990, sponsored by Carolyn Pennebaker Hopkins, who used a custom blend of Kentucky bourbon whiskey, mixed for the occasion, rather than the traditional bottle of champagne to christen Kentucky, she was commissioned on 13 July 1991, with Captain Michael G. Riegel commanding the Blue Crew and Captain Joseph Henry commanding the Gold Crew. On 19 March 1998 south of Long Island, New York, Kentucky collided with the attack submarine USS San Juan while the two submarines were conducting a joint training drill prior to deployment. One of Kentucky's stern planes was damaged. No personnel suffered any injuries.
Kentucky returned to patrol the next day. In both 2001 and 2002, Kentucky's Gold Crew won first place in the United States Atlantic Fleet in the Captain Edward F. Ney Memorial Award Submarine Afloat Galley competition for outstanding food service. In 2005, both the Blue and Gold Crews of Kentucky were appointed Kentucky Colonels by Kentucky Governor Ernie Fletcher. Kentucky was awarded the Battle Efficiency Award for Submarine Squadron 17 for 2006 and 2009. Kentucky's Gold Crew was awarded a Captain Edward F. Ney Memorial Award Honorable Mention for food service in 2007. Kentucky's Blue and Gold Crews were awarded the Omaha Trophy for service as the best ballistic missile submarine in 2009. On 12 October 2011, Kentucky had only her periscope above water, when she turned onto a new course, blocked by the Totem Ocean ship Midnight Sun; the submarine came into close contact of about 800 meters with the freighter near British Columbia at the Juan de Fuca Strait. The ship has been featured in both the History Channel's Modern Marvels "Mega Meals" episode in 2010 and in the Smithsonian Channel's Mighty Ships in 2011.
In January 2012 USS Kentucky entered her Engineering Refueling Overhaul at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. On 7 November 2015, an unarmed missile launched from Kentucky during a test caused buzz on social media as it was mistaken for a UFO or meteor; the launch was widely reported by the Southern California broadcast media. On 13 March 2016, following completion of her ERO, Kentucky deployed for the boat's first strategic deterrent mission since 2011; this article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U. S. government publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Kentucky at NavSource Naval History "Welcome Aboard" pamphlet provided to USS Kentucky tour visitors. Media related to USS Kentucky at Wikimedia Commons