1998 Texas gubernatorial election
The 1998 Texas gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1998 to elect the Governor of Texas. Incumbent Republican Governor George W. Bush was re-elected in a landslide over 4-term Democrat Texas Land Commissioner Garry Mauro, winning 68% of the vote to Mauro's 31%. Bush's 37% margin of victory was the largest won by any candidate since 1966 and is, to date, the largest won by a Republican candidate. Bush carried 239 counties, while Mauro carried just 15. Exit polls revealed that Bush won 27% of the African American vote, the highest percentage for any Republican statewide candidate, 49% of the Latino vote. Bush was sworn in for a second term as Governor on January 19, 1999. George W. Bush, the son of former President of the United States George H. W. Bush, was elected governor in 1994, defeating incumbent Democratic Governor Ann Richards. Upon taking office in January 1995, Bush had a low approval rating of 38%. Over the course of his first term, this increased reaching 70% in February 1997.
Going into the election, Bush had an approval rating of 76%. Throughout the entire campaign, George W. Bush led in the polls by wide margins. After Garry Mauro declared his candidacy in November 1997, a Scripps Howard Texas Poll of 793 registered voters showed George W. Bush leading by 68%-16%, with 14% undecided. George Bush spokeswoman Karen Hughes said, "The philosophical differences between Gov. Bush and Garry Mauro are clear and stark. Gov. Bush is a conservative, as most Texans are, Garry Mauro is a liberal." In mid-June 1998, a Scripps Howard Texas Poll was conducted with George W. Garry Mauro; the poll showed 70% voters support Bush, 17% favored Mauro, 11% were undecided, 2% would vote for neither. Bush's approval rating was virtually unchanged polling at 75%. In response to the poll, government professor at the University of Texas in Austin said, "Gov. Bush looks to be unbeatable, but there's enough time for anything to happen. There is a slim chance for Mauro but still a real chance for him to reach voters with ad dollars and issue choices.
It's just too early to call the November election in June."On June 22, 1998, Mauro called Bush out of touch saying, "Governor Bush is out of touch with the concerns of ordinary citizens and in bed with the giant HMO's." This was because in 1995, Bush vetoed the Patient Protection Act, which would have forced state-regulated healthcare organizations to allow their customers to choose their own doctor. The Patient Protection Act would have mandated that insurance companies to cover cancer treatment received at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Another Scripps Howard Texas Poll was conducted from August 12 to August 27, 1998, it indicated that 77% of voters support Bush, 20% favored Mauro, 1% supported Libertarian candidate Lester Turlington Jr. About 10% were undecided and 2% didn't answer. Again, Bush's approval rating fell and was 74% of Texans remarked that he was doing a good to excellent job as governor. Allan Saxe, an assistant political science professor at the University of Texas said, "Now he's ahead by an awfully huge margin.
If Garry Mauro can close that to a 10 to 15 percent difference by election day, it will be a symbolic victory. But it will be hard to do – a 50-point difference is a big one." Among Hispanics, Bush led Mauro 51 % down from 67 % -20 % in June. George W. Bush and Garry Mauro met for the sole gubernatorial election debate in El Paso on October 16, 1998. Bush seemed rather nervous and defensive. Mauro attacked Bush for his position on teachers salaries and support for a nuclear waste dump in Sierra Blanca. However, Bush was well prepared and attacked Mauro's tax and spending proposals, describing them as "overambitious"; the results of the debate would have little impact on the general election in November. Following his defeat, Garry Mauro was succeeded by David Dewhurst as the Commissioner of the General Land Office in early 1999. Mauro would serve as the Texas State Chairman for various Democratic presidential candidates, including for Al Gore in 2000, Dick Gephardt in 2004, Hillary Clinton in 2008.
However, Mauro himself never sought political office again. He opened a private law practice in his hometown of Austin. George W. Bush was inaugurated for his second term as Governor of Texas on January 19, 1999. With his brother sworn-in as Governor of Florida earlier that month and Jeb Bush became the first two brothers to serve as governors since Nelson and Winthrop Rockefeller from 1967 to 1971. Five months in June 1999, Bush announced his candidacy for President of the United States in 2000. At the 2000 Republican National Convention, Bush was nominated for President of the United States and narrowly won the election against Al Gore. On December 21, 2000, less than 2 years into his second term, George W. Bush resigned as Governor of Texas and was succeeded by Rick Perry
2000 Republican Party presidential primaries
The 2000 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 2000 U. S. presidential election. Texas Governor George W. Bush was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 2000 Republican National Convention held from July 31 to August 3, 2000, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the primary contest began with a wide field, as the Republicans lacked an incumbent President or Vice President. Texas Governor George W. Bush, son of George H. W. Bush, the most recent Republican president, took an early lead supporting much of the party establishment as well as a strong fund-raising effort. Former cabinet member George Shultz played an important early role in securing to establish Republican support for Bush. In April 1998, he invited Bush to discuss policy issues with experts including Michael Boskin, John Taylor, Condoleezza Rice; the group, "looking for a candidate for 2000 with good political instincts, someone they could work with," was impressed, Shultz encouraged Bush to enter the race.
Due in part to establishment backing, Bush dominated in early fundraising figures. After stumbling in early primary debates, he won the Iowa caucuses. Considered a dark horse, U. S. Senator John McCain of Arizona won 48% of the vote to Bush's 30% in the first-in-the-nation New Hampshire primary, giving his campaign a boost of energy and donations; the main primary season came down to a race between Bush and McCain. McCain's campaign, centered on campaign finance reform, drew positive press coverage and a fair amount of public excitement, with polls giving the senator superior crossover support from independents and Democrats. Bush's campaign dealt with "compassionate conservatism," including a greater role for the federal government in education, subsidies for private charitable programs, large reductions in income and capital gains taxes; the next primary contest in South Carolina was notorious for its negative tone. Although the Bush campaign said it was not behind any attacks on McCain, locals supporting Bush handed out fliers and made telephone calls to prospective voters suggesting among other things, that McCain was a "Manchurian candidate" and that he had fathered a child out of wedlock with a black New York-based prostitute.
Bush drew fire for a speech made at Bob Jones University, a school that still banned interracial dating among its students. But the governor was seen to have the upper hand in a debate hosted by Larry King Live, he won in South Carolina by nine points. McCain won primaries in Michigan, his home state of Arizona, a handful of New England states, but faced difficulty in appealing to conservative Republican primary voters; this was true in Michigan, where despite winning the primary, McCain lost the GOP vote to Bush by a wide margin. McCain competed in the Virginia primary, counting on continued crossover support by giving a speech blasting the religious right, it backfired, Bush won the state easily. Bush's subsequent Super Tuesday victories in California, New York and the South made it nearly impossible, for McCain to catch up, he suspended his campaign the next day. Other candidates included social conservative activist Gary Bauer, businessman Steve Forbes, Utah Senator Orrin Hatch, former Ambassador Alan Keyes, former Tennessee Governor Lamar Alexander, former Red Cross director and cabinet member Elizabeth Dole, Ohio Congressman John Kasich, former Vice President Dan Quayle.
Bauer and Hatch campaigned on a traditional Republican platform of opposition to legalized abortion and reductions in taxes. Keyes had a far more conservative platform, calling for the elimination of all federal taxes except tariffs. Keyes called for returning to ban homosexuals in the military, while most GOP candidates supported the "don't ask, don't tell" policy. Keyes continued participating in the campaign for nearly all the primaries and continued to appear in the debates with frontrunners McCain and Bush; as in 1996, Forbes campaigned on making the federal income tax non-graduated, an idea he called the flat tax, although he increased his focus on social conservatives in 2000. Although Forbes came a close second to Bush in the Iowa caucuses and tied with him in the Alaska caucuses, none of these other candidates won a primary. John Ashcroft, Senator from Missouri Newt Gingrich, former Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Jack Kemp, former U. S. Representative from New York George Pataki, Governor of New York Harold E. Stassen, former Governor of Minnesota Donald Trump, businessman Fred Thompson, Senator from Tennessee Tommy Thompson, Governor of Wisconsin Christine Todd Whitman, Governor of New Jersey Win for George W. Bush Win for John S. McCain Popular vote result: George W. Bush - 12,034,676 John McCain - 6,061,332 Alan Keyes - 985,819 Steve Forbes - 171,860 Unpledged delegates - 61,246 Gary Bauer - 60,709 Orrin Hatch - 15,958 Note: Some of the endorsers switched positions.
George W. BushSenate Majority Leader Trent Lott from Mississippi Former HUD Secretary and 1996 Vice Presidential nominee Jack Kemp from New York Senator Bob Smith from New Hampshire Former Governor and White House Chief of Staff John H. Sununu of New Hampshire Governor Jane Dee Hull of Arizona Governor John Engler of Michigan Senator John Warner from Virginia Governor Jim Gilmore of Virginia Senator John Ashcroft from Missouri Governor Paul Cellucci of Massachusetts Governor Tommy Thompson of Wisconsin Representative John Thune from South DakotaJohn McC
Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U. S. Constitution; the Speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, is the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, the institution's administrative head. Speakers perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the Speaker does not preside over debates; that duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the Speaker participate in floor debates; the Constitution does not require the Speaker to be an incumbent member of the House of Representatives, although every Speaker thus far has been. The Speaker is second in the United States presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and ahead of the President pro tempore of the Senate.
The current House Speaker, Democrat Nancy Pelosi of California, was elected to the office on January 3, 2019. Pelosi served as speaker from January 4, 2007 to January 3, 2011, she has the distinction of being the first woman to serve as Speaker, is the first former Speaker to be returned to office since Sam Rayburn in 1955. The House elects its speaker at the beginning of a new Congress or when a speaker dies, resigns or is removed from the position intra-term. Since 1839, the House has elected speakers by roll call vote. Traditionally, each party's caucus or conference selects a candidate for the speakership from among its senior leaders prior to the roll call. Representatives are not restricted to voting for the candidate nominated by their party, but do, as the outcome of the election determines which party has the majority and will organize the House. Moreover, as the Constitution does not explicitly state that the speaker must be an incumbent member of the House, it is permissible for representatives to vote for someone, not a member of the House at the time, non-members have received a few votes in various speaker elections over the past several years.
Every person elected speaker has been a member. Representatives that choose to vote for someone other than their party's nominated candidate vote for someone else in their party or vote "present". Anyone who votes for the other party's candidate would face serious consequences, as was the case when Democrat Jim Traficant voted for Republican Dennis Hastert in 2001. In response, the Democrats stripped him of his seniority and he lost all of his committee posts. To be elected speaker a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes cast, as opposed to an absolute majority of the full membership of the House – presently 218 votes, in a House of 435. There have only been a few instances during the past century where a person received a majority of the votes cast, thus won the election, while failing to obtain a majority of the full membership, it happened most in 2015, when John Boehner was elected with 216 votes. Such a variation in the number of votes necessary to win a given election might arise due to vacancies, absentees, or members being present but not voting.
If no candidate wins a majority of the "votes cast for a person by name" the roll call is repeated until a speaker is elected. Multiple roll calls have been necessary only 14 times since 1789. Upon winning election the new Speaker is sworn in by the Dean of the United States House of Representatives, the chamber's longest-serving member; the first Speaker of the House, Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania, was elected to office on April 1, 1789, the day the House organized itself at the start of the 1st Congress. He served two non-consecutive terms in the Speaker's chair, 1789–1791 and 1793–1795; as the Constitution does not state the duties of the Speaker, the speaker’s role has been shaped by traditions and customs that evolved over time. A partisan position from early in its existence, the speakership began to gain power in legislative development under Henry Clay. In contrast to many of his predecessors, Clay participated in several debates, used his influence to procure the passage of measures he supported—for instance, the declaration of the War of 1812, various laws relating to Clay's "American System" economic plan.
Furthermore, when no candidate received an Electoral College majority in the 1824 presidential election causing the President to be elected by the House, Speaker Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams instead of Andrew Jackson, thereby ensuring Adams' victory. Following Clay's retirement in 1825, the power of the speakership once again began to decline, despite speakership elections becoming bitter; as the Civil War approached, several sectional factions nominated their own candidates making it difficult for any candidate to attain a majority. In 1855 and again in 1859, for example, the contest for Speaker lasted for two months before the House achieved a result. During this time, Speakers tended to have short tenures. For example, from 1839 to 1863 there were eleven Speakers, only one of whom served for more than one term. To date, James K. Polk is the only Speaker of the House elected President of the United States. Towards the end of the 19th century, the office of Speaker began to develop into a po
1998 United States Senate election in Nevada
The 1998 United States Senate election in Nevada was held on November 3, 1998. Incumbent Democratic U. S. Senator Harry Reid won re-election to a third term. John Ensign, U. S. Representative Ralph W. Stephens Michael Cloud John Ensign, U. S. Representative Harry Reid, incumbent U. S. Senator Michael Williams Early in the campaign, Reid held a double-digit lead over Ensign in most polls. After a fierce battle of attack ads on television by both candidates, Ensign pulled into a dead heat with Reid; this reversal of fortune was attributed to several factors. More than 125,000 new residents had arrived in Nevada since 1992, many of them settling in Ensign's suburban Clark County congressional district; as such, many of them were more familiar with Ensign than with Reid, whose previous Republican opponents had hailed from other regions of the state. Republican consultant John Maddox observed that Ensign's greater familiarity to the Las Vegas metropolitan region gave him an advantage, adding that "he has won votes from Democrats who have never voted for Reid."
In contrast, Reid was believed to hold an advantage with longtime Nevada residents those in slower-growing regions of the state. In addition, the number of registered Republicans in Nevada had increased as well. John Ralston, a political analyst in Las Vegas, claimed that Reid was hurt by declining voter enthusiasm in the wake of the Monica Lewinsky scandal. Reid had been one of the first senators to express dissatisfaction with President Clinton over the scandal, describing the president's behavior as "immoral."During the campaign, Reid cited his efforts to block the storage of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain repository, while using the issue to attack Ensign. In one campaign speech, Reid claimed, "You send Ensign to the Senate, you send nuclear waste to Nevada." Ensign responded to the attacks by pointing out his own position against the depository and indicated he would work with Richard Bryan, the state's other senator, to stop it. "Bryan's a Democrat who works with Republicans," he said, "and I'm a Republican who works with Democrats."
The Reid campaign attacked Ensign as an "extremist" who would weaken Social Security and referred to environmentalists as "socialists." Ensign, meanwhile accused Reid of supporting tax increases in Washington as he claimed to support lower taxes at home. On November 3, 1998, Reid won by 428 votes in an exceptionally close election -- closer than South Dakota in 2002, when incumbent Senator Tim Johnson defeated Congressman John Thune by 524 votes. Ensign did not contest the results, was elected to Nevada's other U. S. Senate seat in 2000 upon the retirement of Richard Bryan. United States Senate elections, 1998
The six-year itch, according to political scientists, is the pattern which takes place during a US president's sixth year in office. This year is characterized by the nation's disgruntled attitude towards the president and his political party. During this time, there is a midterm election and the party in power loses a significant number of seats in Congress. Prior to Reconstruction, the six-year itch saw the President's party gain seats in one house, while losing seats in the other house. Presidents before Reconstruction whose party had this occur: 1814 – Democratic-Republican James Madison: Gained 5 seats in the House, but lost 2 seats in the Senate. 1822 – Democratic-Republican James Monroe: Gained 34 seats in the House, while the Senate was unchanged. 1834 -- Democrat Andrew Jackson: gained 1 seat in the Senate. Thomas Jefferson was the only two-term President before Reconstruction not to have this occur. In 1806, his party gained 1 seat in the Senate; the Republican Party saw strong gains in the midterms of 1866, although Andrew Johnson, a former Democrat, elected as Abraham Lincoln's vice president on the National Union ticket, was president at the time.
The Republicans gained 40 seats in the House, gained 18 seats in the Senate. After Reconstruction, the six-year itch saw the President's party lose seats in both houses. Presidents since Reconstruction whose party had this occur: 1874 – Republican Ulysses S. Grant: Lost 93 seats in the House*, lost 10 seats in the Senate. 1894 – Democrat Grover Cleveland: Lost 127 seats in the House*, lost 4 seats in the Senate*. 1918 – Democrat Woodrow Wilson: Lost 22 seats in the House*, lost 5 seats in the Senate*. 1938 – Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt: Lost 72 seats in the House, lost 7 seats in the Senate. 1950 – Democrat Harry S. Truman: Lost 28 seats in the House, lost 5 seats in the Senate. 1958 – Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower: Lost 48 seats in the House^, lost 13 seats in the Senate^. 1974 – Republican Richard Nixon: Lost 48 seats in the House^, lost 4 seats in the Senate^. 1986 – Republican Ronald Reagan: Lost 5 seats in the House^, lost 8 seats in the Senate*. 2006 – Republican George W. Bush: Lost 30 seats in the House*, lost 6 seats in the Senate*.
2014 – Democrat Barack Obama: Lost 13 seats in the House^, lost 9 seats in the Senate*.*: The losses by the President's party resulted in the other party gaining control of this chamber.^: Although the President's party lost seats, this chamber was under the control of the opposition party. Democrat Bill Clinton is the only two-term President since Reconstruction not to have this occur. In 1998, his party gained 5 seats in the House of Representatives and the Senate was unchanged. On only three occasions has the six-year itch caused the President's party to lose control of Congress: Grover Cleveland in 1894, Woodrow Wilson in 1918, George W. Bush in 2006. Conversely, only two presidents saw their parties maintain control of Congress after the six-year itch: Democrats Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1938 and Harry S. Truman in 1950. Only two presidents had a Congress, dominated by the opposition party by the time of the six-year itch: Republicans Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1958 and Richard Nixon in 1974.
In addition, only one president has lost control of one house while keeping the other: Republican Ulysses S. Grant in 1874, who lost the House but kept the Senate. Lastly, only two presidents have lost one house of Congress due to the six-year itch after losing the other one: Republican Ronald Reagan in 1986 and Democrat Barack Obama in 2014 Overall, the six-year itch phenomena may be viewed as an extension of the effect where a president's party always loses seats in midterm elections, only to a greater extent than in first-term midterms or single-term midterms. Since Reconstruction, only three presidents have seen their party gain seats in a midterm election: Democrats Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1934 and Bill Clinton in 1998, Republican George W. Bush in 2002. Wave election " The Curse of the Six-Year Itch". Volume 257, Number 3
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a