The center known as the five, or the big man, is one of the five positions in a regular basketball game. The center is the tallest player on the team, has a great deal of strength and body mass as well. In the NBA, the center is 6 feet 10 inches or taller and weighs 240 pounds or more, they traditionally have played close to the basket in the low post. A center with the ability to shoot outside from three-point range is known as stretch five; the center is considered a necessary component for a successful team in professional leagues such as the NBA. Great centers have been the foundation for most of the dynasties in both the NBA and NCAA; the 6'10" George Mikan pioneered the Center position, shattering the held perception that tall players could not develop the agility and coordination to play basketball well, ushering in the role of the dominant big man. He led DePaul University to the NIT title after turning professional, won seven National Basketball League, Basketball Association of America and NBA Championships in his ten-year career, nine of them with the Minneapolis Lakers.
Using his height to dominate opposing players, Mikan invented the shot block. In the 1960s, Bill Russell and Wilt Chamberlain further transformed basketball by combining height with a greater level of athleticism than previous centers. Following the retirement of George Mikan, the rivalry of the two big men came to dominate the NBA. Between the two of them and Russell won nine of the eleven MVP awards in the eleven-year period between 1958 and 1969. Many of the records set by these two players have endured today. Most notably and Russell hold the top eighteen season averages for rebounds. Bill Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA Championships, he joined the Boston Celtics and helped make them one of the greatest dynasties in NBA history, winning eleven championships over his thirteen-year career as well as five MVP awards. Russell revolutionized defensive strategy with his shot-blocking and physical man-to-man defense. While he was never the focal point of the Celtics offense, much of the team's scoring came when Russell grabbed defensive rebounds and initiated fast breaks with precision outlet passes to point guard Bob Cousy.
As the NBA's first African-American superstar, Russell struggled throughout his career with the racism he encountered from fans in Boston after the 1966–67 season, when he became the first African-American in any major sport to be named player-coach. His principal rival, Wilt Chamberlain, listed at 7'1", 275 pounds, lacked Russell's supporting cast. Chamberlain played college ball for the Kansas Jayhawks, leading them to the 1957 title game against the North Carolina Tar Heels. Although the Jayhawks lost by one point in triple overtime, Chamberlain was named the tournament's Most Outstanding Player. A member of the Harlem Globetrotters before joining the Philadelphia Warriors of the NBA in 1959, Chamberlain won two Championships, in 1967 with the Philadelphia 76ers and 1972 with the Los Angeles Lakers, although his teams were defeated by the Celtics in the Eastern Conference and NBA Finals, he won seven scoring titles, eleven rebounding titles, four regular season Most Valuable Player awards, including the distinction, in 1960, of being the first rookie to receive the award.
Stronger than any player of his era, he was capable of scoring and rebounding at will. Although he was the target of constant double- and triple-teaming, as well as fouling tactics designed to take advantage of his poor free-throw shooting, he set a number of records that have never been broken. Most notably, Chamberlain is the only player in NBA history to average more than 50 points in a season and score 100 points in a single game, he holds the NBA's all-time records for rebounding average, rebounds in a single game, career rebounds. A lesser-known center of the era was Nate Thurmond, who played the forward position opposite Wilt Chamberlain for the San Francisco Warriors but moved to center after Chamberlain was traded to the new Philadelphia franchise. Although he never won a Championship, Thurmond was known as the best screen setter in the league, his averages of 21.3 and 22.0 rebounds per game in 1966–67 and 1967–68, are exceeded only by Chamberlain and Russell. In contrast to the Celtics dynasty of the 1960s, the 1970s were a decade of parity in the NBA, with eight different champions and no back-to-back winners.
At the college level, the UCLA Bruins, under Coach John Wooden, built the greatest dynasty in NCAA basketball history, winning seven consecutive titles between 1967 and 1973. UCLA had won two consecutive titles in 1964 and 1965 with teams that pressed and emphasized guard play. After not winning in 1966, Wooden's teams changed their style, he led UCLA to three championships-in 1967, 68' and 69'-while winning the first Naismith College Player of the Year Award. During his college career, the NCAA enacted a ban on dunking because of Alcindor's dominant use of the shot, his entrance into the NBA with the Milwaukee Bucks in 1969 was timely, as Bill Russell had just retired and Wilt Chamberlain was 33 years old and plagued by injuries. After leading the Bucks to the 1971 NBA championship, te
John Starks (basketball)
John Levell Starks is an American retired professional basketball shooting guard. Starks was listed at 6'2" and 190 pounds during his NBA playing career. Although he was not drafted in the 1988 NBA draft after attending four colleges in his native Oklahoma, including Oklahoma State University, he gained fame while playing for the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association in the 1990s. Starks was born in Oklahoma where he attended Tulsa Central High School. At Tulsa Central, Starks played only one year on the basketball team. After high school, he enrolled at Rogers State College in 1984. While at Rogers State, Starks was on the "taxi squad" of the basketball team for backups to replace injured or suspended players. However, Starks was expelled from Rogers State for stealing another student's stereo equipment in retaliation for the student breaking into Starks' dorm room and the college holding him and his roommates financially responsible for the damage. Starks transferred to Northern Oklahoma College in spring 1985, made the basketball team there, was sentenced to five days in jail for the robbery.
He served the sentence during spring break. In the fall of 1985, Starks averaged 11 points per game with Northern Oklahoma but left the college after being caught in his dorm smoking cannabis. Having worked at a Safeway supermarket, Starks enrolled at Tulsa Junior College in the summer of 1986 to pursue a business degree. While playing intramural basketball, he came to the attention of Ken Trickey, the former coach of Oral Roberts University, starting a basketball program for Oklahoma Junior College. Starks played there for a season earned a scholarship at Oklahoma State University in 1988, where he finished his collegiate career. Although he was passed over in the 1988 NBA draft, Starks signed with the Golden State Warriors in September 1988 as a free agent. However, as the Warriors had drafted fellow shooting guard Mitch Richmond with the fifth overall pick that year, Starks played limited minutes in only 36 games while Richmond won Rookie of the Year. Starks was cut following the end of the season.
Starks played stints in World Basketball League. Starks was able to work his way back into the NBA. In 1990, he tried out for the New York Knicks. In one practice, he tried to dunk on Knicks center Patrick Ewing. Ewing Starks twisted his knee; the team was not allowed to release him. When it did not heal by that time, the Knicks could not release him; as a result, Starks has referred to Ewing as his saving grace. He became the starting shooting guard, becoming a key player on the team and playing 8 seasons in New York from 1990–98. Starks was a posterchild for their physical play during that era, along with teammates Anthony Mason and Charles Oakley, he was a participant in the 1992 NBA Slam Dunk Contest. Starks executed one of the most famous plays in Knicks history, a play that became known as "The Dunk". In Game 2 of the 1993 Eastern Conference Finals against the Chicago Bulls, Starks was in the court's right corner, guarded by B. J. Armstrong. Ewing came to set a screen for Starks, who faked to the left, as if to exploit the screen, but drove along the baseline and, with his left hand, dunked over Horace Grant in front of Michael Jordan.
One of the low points of Starks' career came in the 1994 NBA Finals against the Houston Rockets. In the closing seconds of Game 3 and the Knicks trailing by 3, Starks was fouled by Rockets center Hakeem Olajuwon while attempting a 3. At the time, the NBA allowed only 2 free throws during a foul on a 3-pointer. Starks made both, but Houston won 93–89. Starks and the Knicks watched their home court host the New York Rangers' first Stanley Cup celebration in 54 years, with their 3–2 win over the Vancouver Canucks in Game 7 of the 1994 Stanley Cup Finals, it served as an inspiration for the Knicks to recover to take a 3–2 series lead going into Game 6. However, in the final seconds of Game 6, Olajuwon blocked Starks' last-second 3-point attempt to give Houston an 86–84 victory. In Game 7, Starks had one of the worst games of his career, shooting 2-for-18 from the field, including 0-for-10 in the fourth quarter; the Rockets went on to win the championship. In 1995, Pat Riley left the Knicks to go to the Miami Heat after a dispute with General Manager Dave Checketts.
The Knicks hired Don Nelson. Nelson started Hubert Davis over Starks. Nelson was fired mid-season, the Knicks replaced him with Jeff Van Gundy. In 1996 Allan Houston took Starks' starting spot. Starks was a steady contributor off the bench and won the NBA Sixth Man of the Year award in 1997. On February 18, 1997, Starks hit a buzzer-beating three-pointer to defeat the Phoenix Suns at home 95–94. On the play, he rebounded an Allan Houston missed three while getting to the three-point line and head-faked the Suns Wesley Person before releasing the shot just as the horn sounded. Replays were inconclusive as to whether the shot was released in time; this may have been the most dramatic regular season moment of Starks' career, as it was his only buzzer beater to win an NBA game. In January 1999, Starks was traded back to the Golden State Warriors. Starks was traded along with Chris Mills and Terry Cummings in exchange for Latrell Sprewell. Starks remained with the Warriors until February 2000, when he was traded to the Chicago Bulls as part of a thr
Timothy Fitzpatrick Floyd is a former American college basketball coach, most the head coach at the University of Texas at El Paso. He was the head coach of several teams in the NCAA and the NBA at the University of Southern California. Floyd is known as the coach of the Chicago Bulls for four seasons, he announced his retirement from coaching after the UTEP game on November 27, 2017. Born in Hattiesburg, Floyd is a 1977 graduate of Louisiana Tech University where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in health and physical education, he was a walk-on player at the University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg, but he transferred to Louisiana Tech in Ruston and was a scholarship player there. His father, a coach, died when Floyd was 18. Floyd and wife Beverly have Shannon. In November 2009, a video surfaced on YouTube depicting Floyd breaking up a fight in the food court of a casino in Palm Desert, California. Floyd confirmed the video's accuracy, telling ESPN.com that "I was leaving and this thing happened in the food court", referring to the fight.
Floyd's first coaching job was as an assistant at UTEP under Hall of Famer Don Haskins from 1977 to 1986. While Floyd was at UTEP, the Miners went to three straight NCAA Tournaments, they went to the NIT three times and won four Western Athletic Conference championships in those years. Floyd's first assignment as a head coach came at the University of Idaho in Moscow. Floyd coached the Vandals for two years; the next season, they were the regular season runner-up, their best result since 1982. At the University of New Orleans, Floyd tallied a 127–58 mark in six seasons as head coach. During his tenure, the Privateers advanced to postseason play five times, including two NCAA Tournament appearances in 1991 and 1993 and the NIT three times. At UNO, Floyd averaged 21 wins a season. In his final season at New Orleans in 1994, the team finished 20–10. Floyd reached the 20-win plateau for the sixth time in eight seasons, UNO made its seventh postseason appearance in eight years. Floyd was hired at Iowa State University in May 1994 as the 15th basketball coach in ISU history.
In his four years at ISU, Floyd posted an 81–49 record. He is one of two coaches in Iowa State history to post three consecutive 20-win seasons along with his former player and former ISU basketball coach Fred Hoiberg, he led the team to three straight appearances in the NCAA Tournament and three straight first-round victories. In his first season with the Cyclones, Floyd guided the team to a then-school-record 23 victories and the second round of the NCAA Tournament. During that season, the Cyclones were ranked in the AP Top 25 poll for 11 consecutive weeks, peaking at number eleven. Four of the eleven ISU losses were to 1995 NCAA Final Four teams; the Cyclones returned to the Big Eight Conference Tournament championship for the first time since 1986. In addition, during the 1995 season, Fred Hoiberg became the first Cyclone to earn All-American honors since Jeff Grayer in 1988. Picked in preseason polls to finish last in the Big Eight, the 1995–96 Cyclones finished second in the league with a 9–5 mark and won the Big Eight Conference Tournament with a win over the Kansas Jayhawks ranked the number five team in the nation.
The Cyclones received the highest NCAA Tournament seed in school history up to that time. As the number five seed, the Cyclones defeated the California Bears but lost to the Utah Utes coached by Rick Majerus. Iowa State's 24 victories that season was a school record. For his coaching efforts, Floyd was named Big Eight Coach of the Year and runner-up to Gene Keady of Purdue University for AP National Coach of the Year. In the 1996–1997 season, with high expectations and a national ranking as high as number four and the Cyclones posted a 22–9 mark and advanced to their first NCAA Sweet Sixteen appearance in 11 years. In the NCAA Tournament, the sixth-seeded Cyclones defeated the Illinois State Redbirds in the first round and the Cincinnati Bearcats before losing to the UCLA Bruins in overtime in a game they led by double digits most of the game. Floyd was responsible for landing would-be recruits, including Nick Collison and Kirk Hinrich, who would withdraw their verbal commitments upon Floyd's departure from Iowa State.
While at Iowa State, Floyd coached future pros Dedric Willoughby, Fred Hoiberg, Kelvin Cato, Marcus Fizer and Paul Shirley. In 1998, Floyd was hired as the head coach of the NBA Chicago Bulls on July 23, replacing Phil Jackson; that offseason, the players of the Bulls championship teams retired or left, leaving the equivalent of an expansion team. During the lockout season of 1998–1999, the Bulls went 13–37, were 17–65 the next season; the team continued posting a 15 -- 67 record in the 2000 -- 01 season. His fourth year as coach was marred by fights with players and management. In his four seasons with the Bulls, Floyd posted a record of 49–190; the team did not make the NBA playoffs in any of those seasons. Known
Forward–center or Bigman is a basketball position for players who play or have played both forward and center on a consistent basis. This means power forward and center, since these are the two biggest player positions on any basketball team, therefore more overlap each other. Forward–center came into the basketball jargon as the game evolved and became more specialized in the 1960s; the five positions on court were known only as guards and the center, but it is now accepted that the five primary positions are point guard, shooting guard, small forward, power forward, center. A forward–center is a talented forward who came to play minutes at center on teams that need help at that position; the player could be a somewhat floor-bound center, under seven feet tall at the NBA level, whose skills suit him to a power forward position if that team has a better center. One such player is Marcus Camby of the New York Knicks. At 6'11", he plays as a center, but when he played for the New York Knicks earlier in his career, he played power forward because his team had one of the best pure centers in the league in 7'0" Patrick Ewing.
Ewing himself was used as a forward–center early in his career to complement the then-incumbent Knicks center, 7'1" Bill Cartwright. Ralph Sampson, at 7'4", was another notable forward–center who played center his rookie year in 1983. In 1984, he moved to power forward. Most forward-centers range from 6' 9" to 7' 0" in height. Other notable forward-centers include: Kevin Garnett, Tim Duncan, Pau Gasol, Chris Bosh, LaMarcus Aldridge, Anthony Davis, Al Horford, Draymond Green. Tweener
New Mexico State University
New Mexico State University is a public research university in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Founded in 1888, it is the oldest public institution of higher education in the state of New Mexico, is one of two flagship universities in New Mexico. Total enrollment across all campuses as of 2017 was 24580, with branch campuses in Alamogordo, Carlsbad, Doña Ana County and Grants, with extension and research centers across New Mexico, it was founded in 1888 as the Las Cruces College, the following year became New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts and designated as a Land Grant college. It received its present name in 1960. NMSU has 24,580 students enrolled as of Fall 2017, has a faculty-to-student ratio of about 1 to 16. NMSU offers a wide range of programs and awards associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees through its main campus and four community colleges. NMSU offers 28 doctoral degree programs, 58 master's degree programs, 96 baccalaureate majors. NMSU is the only research-extensive, land-grant, U.
S.-Mexico border institution classified by the federal government as serving Hispanics. New Mexico State's athletic teams compete at the NCAA Division I level, competing in the Western Athletic Conference, except for football. In 1888, Hiram Hadley, an Earlham College-educated teacher from Indiana, started Las Cruces College. One decade the Territorial Assembly of New Mexico provided for the establishment of an agricultural college and agricultural experiment station with Bill No. 28, the Rodey Act of 1889. It stated: " Said institution is hereby located at or near the town of Las Cruces in the County of Doña Ana, upon a tract of land of not less than one hundred acres, This land could be contiguous to the main Las Cruces irrigating ditch, south of said town." Designated as the land-grant college for New Mexico under the Morrill Act, it was named the New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. Las Cruces College merged with the New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, opened on January 21, 1890.
It began with 6 faculty members. The college was supposed to graduate its first student in 1893, but the only senior, named Sam Steel, was murdered before he was able to receive his diploma. Classes met in the two-room adobe building of Las Cruces College until new buildings were erected on the 220-acre campus three miles south of Las Cruces. In February 1891, McFie Hall, popularly known as Old Main, opened its doors. McFie Hall burned down in 1910, but its remains can be seen in the center of Pride Field on the University Horseshoe. In 1960, in move to better represent its operations, New Mexico A&M was renamed New Mexico State University by a state constitutional amendment. New Mexico State University now has a 6,000-acre campus and enrolls more than 21,000 students from the United States and 71 foreign countries. Full-time faculty members number 694, with a staff of 3,113. Regulated by NM Const. Art XII, Sec. 13. XV, Sec. 1, the NMSU Board of Regents constitutes a corporate body that implements legislation over the control and management of NMSU.
The board is made of up 4 persons appointed by the governor of New Mexico to 1-year terms, 1 elected representative by the Associated Students of NMSU. The NMSU faculty senate consists of 60 elected faculty, has legal authority over all academic policies across the NMSU system; the main campus of New Mexico State University occupies a core of 900 acres in the city of Las Cruces, New Mexico. It is located adjacent to Interstate 25, surrounded by desert landscape and greenhouses; the main campus is bordered by Interstate 10, the main east-west interstate highway across the southern part of the United States. To the east of Interstate 25, the campus facilities consist of the President's residence, NMSU Golf Course, the "A" Mountain west slope, the New Mexico Farm and Ranch Heritage Museum. South of University Avenue are Pan American Plaza, 48 acres of horse farm, the Fabian Garcia Science center, which houses the Chile Pepper Institute's research and demonstration garden, algal biofuels research equipment, grape vineyards and gazebos, fields and greenhouses for plant research projects.
About six miles south of campus, on 203 acres of land, is the Leyendecker Plant Science Research Center. The Las Cruces campus is home to a nesting population of Swainson's hawks, a raptor species protected by federal law. In defense of their nest, the hawks are mistaken for attacking pedestrians. Pedestrians are advised to be careful when walking on Stewart Street, as signs have been posted all across. Umbrellas are being provided to students for their convenience, as well as protection from the aggressive nesting hawks; the first master plan of the university was to create a "Horseshoe", a U-shaped drive, in an open large lawn. At the center was Old Main, the original campus building known as McFie Hall, destroyed by fire in 1910; the cornerstone and remains of Mcfie Hall stand near the flagpole in the middle of the Horseshoe. Today, the Horseshoe is the center of campus and is the location of the main administration building, Hadley Hall, which sits at the top of the Horseshoe, other classroom buildings.
NMSU is a land-grant institution with a presence in all 33 counties of New Mexico, a satellite learning center in Albuquerque, 13 research and science centers, distance education opportunities, five campuses in Alamogordo, Grants, Doña Ana County, Las Cruces. The Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine at New Mexico State University, a private medical school, is located on NMSU's mai
Duke Blue Devils men's basketball
The Duke Blue Devils men's basketball team represents Duke University in NCAA Division I college basketball and competes in the Atlantic Coast Conference. The team is fourth all-time in wins of any NCAA men's basketball program, is coached by Mike Krzyzewski. Duke has won 5 NCAA Championships and appeared in 11 Championship Games and 16 Final Fours, has an NCAA-best.755 NCAA tournament winning percentage. Eleven Duke players have been named the National Player of the Year, 71 players have been selected in the NBA Draft. Additionally, Duke has 36 players named 14 Academic All-Americans. Duke has been the Atlantic Coast Conference Champions a record 21 times, lays claim to 19 ACC regular season titles. Prior to joining the ACC, Duke won the Southern Conference championships five times. Duke has finished the season ranked No. 1 in the AP poll seven times and is the all time leader in total weeks ranked as the number one team in the nation by the AP with 135 weeks. Additionally, the Blue Devils have the second longest streak in the AP Top 25 in history with 200 consecutive appearances from 1996 to 2007, trailing only UCLA's 221 consecutive polls from 1966 to 1980.
Adapted from Duke University ArchivesIn 1906, Wilbur Wade Card, Trinity College's Athletic Director and a member of the Class of 1900, introduced the game of basketball to Trinity. The January 30 issue of The Trinity Chronicle headlined the new sport on its front page. Trinity's first game ended in a loss to Wake Forest, 24–10; the game was played in the Angier B. Duke Gymnasium known as The Ark; the Trinity team won its first title in 1920, the state championship, by beating the North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering 25 to 24. Earlier in the season they had beaten the University of North Carolina 19–18 in the first match-up between the two schools. Trinity college became Duke University. Billy Werber, Class of 1930, became Duke's first All-American in basketball; the Gothic-style West Campus opened that year, with a new gym to be named for Coach Card. The Indoor Stadium opened in 1940, it was referred to as an "Addition" to the gymnasium. Part of its cost was paid for with the proceeds from the Duke football team's appearance in the 1938 Rose Bowl.
In 1972 it would be named for Eddie Cameron, head coach from 1929 to 1942. In 1952, Dick Groat became the first Duke player to be named National Player of the Year. Duke left the Southern Conference to become a charter member of the Atlantic Coast Conference in 1953; the Duke team under Vic Bubas made its first appearance in the Final Four in 1963, losing 94–75 to Loyola in the semifinal. The next year, Bubas' team reached the national title game, losing to the Bruins of UCLA, who claimed 10 titles in the next 12 years. Bob Verga was Duke's star player in 1967; the basketball program won its 1000th game in 1974, making Duke only the eighth school in NCAA history to reach that figure. In a turnaround, Coach Bill Foster's 1978 Blue Devils, who had gone 2–10 in the ACC the previous year, won the conference tournament and went on to the NCAA championship game, where they fell to Kentucky. Gene Banks, Mike Gminski and Jim Spanarkel ran the floor. Mike Krzyzewski has been at Duke since 1980, his many accomplishments include: 5 National Championships – 2nd most all time 12 Final Fours as well as five in a row from 1988 to 1992.
Now tied for most all time with John Wooden at 12. 15 Elite Eights 23 Sweet Sixteens and nine straight from 1998–2006 33 NCAA tournament berths 91 NCAA tournament wins 13 No. 1 seeds 25 conference titles, 10 of the 14 ACC Tournament Titles from 1998–99 through 2016–17 14 30-win seasons 32 20-win seasons Number 1 AP ranking in 17 of the past 28 seasons 7 Naismith College Player of the Year Awards 9 National Defensive Players of the Year Awards 26 AP All-Americans 14 consensus first team All-Americans 11 NBA top-10 picks: T-1st 23 NBA Draft first round picks 1071 Career winsKrzyzewski's teams made the Final Four in 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2010 and 2015. Duke upset the favored UNLV Runnin' Rebels 79–77 in the Final Four in 1991, a rematch of the 1990 final in which Duke lost by 30 points; the team, led by Christian Laettner, Bobby Hurley, Grant Hill, Thomas Hill, went on to defeat Kansas 72–65 to win the university's first NCAA Championship. Ranked #1 all season and favored to repeat as national champions in 1992, Duke took part in a game "acclaimed by many the greatest college basketball game played," according to ESPN.
In the Elite Eight, Duke met the Rick Pitino-led Kentucky Wildcats. It appeared Kentucky had sealed the win in overtime when guard Sean Woods hit a running shot off the glass in the lane to put Kentucky up by one with 2.1 seconds left on the clock. After a timeout, Duke's Grant Hill threw a full-court pass to Christian Laettner. Laettner took one dribble and nailed a turn-around jumper at the buzzer to send Duke into the Final Four with a 104–103 victory. Duke went on to defeat the Sixth-seeded Michigan 71 -- 51, they would meet Kentucky for another classic regional final game, but blow a 17-point second half lead in losing to the Wildcats. The Blue Devils would lose the 1994 title game to Arkansas and their "Forty Minutes of Hell" defense; the next two seasons would see them fall to just 31–31, though they made the 1996 tournament with an 18–12 record, 8–8 in conference play. They would fall in the 1999 title game, this time to Jim Calhoun and the UCONN Huskies
Oregon State University
Oregon State University is a public research university in Corvallis, Oregon. The university offers more than 200 undergraduate degree programs along with a variety of graduate and doctoral degrees, it is the largest university in the state, with a total enrollment exceeding 28,000. More than 230,000 students have graduated from OSU since its founding; the Carnegie Foundation designates Oregon State University as a "Community Engagement" university and classifies it as a doctoral university with a status of "Highest research activity". OSU is one of 73 land-grant universities in the United States; the school is a sea-grant, space-grant, sun-grant institution, making it one of only three U. S. institutions to obtain all one of two public universities to do so. OSU received $441 million in research funding for the 2017 fiscal year; the university's roots date back to 1856, when it was established as the area's first community school for primary and preparatory education. Throughout the university's history, the name changed eleven times.
Like other early established land-grant colleges and universities, the majority of name changes occurred through the 1920s. Name changes were made to better align a school with the largest available federal grants in agriculture research. Corvallis area Freemasons played a leading role in developing the early school. Several of the university's largest buildings are named after these early founders; the school offered its first college-level curriculum in 1865, under the administration of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. On August 22, 1868, official articles of incorporation were filed for Corvallis College. October 27, 1868, is known as OSU Charter Day; the Oregon Legislative Assembly designated Corvallis College as the "agricultural college of the state of Oregon" and the recipient of the Land Grant. Acceptance of this grant required the college to comply with the requirements set forth in the First Morrill Act and the name of the school was changed to Corvallis State Agricultural College.
The school was authorized to grant the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science and Master of Arts degrees. The first graduating class was in 1870; the school's name changed several times in the early years as its mission broadened. The Oregon Unification Bill was passed in 1929 by the Legislative Assembly, which placed the school under the oversight of the newly formed Oregon State Board of Higher Education. A doctoral in education was first offered in the early 1930s, with the conferral of four Doctor of Philosophy degrees in 1935; this year saw the creation of the first summer session. The growing diversity in degree programs led to another name change in 1937, when the college became Oregon State College; the university's current title, Oregon State University, was adopted on March 6, 1961, by a legislative act signed into law by Governor Mark Hatfield. In 2007, Scott Reed was named the Vice Provost for Outreach and Engagement as OSU Extension Service and OSU Ecampus were aligned under this new division.
Ecampus at a distance to students worldwide. Admission to Oregon State is rated "selective" by U. S. News & World Report. For Fall 2015, OSU received 14,058 freshmen applications; the average high school grade point average of the enrolled freshmen was 3.58, while the middle 50% range of SAT scores were 480-610 for critical reading, 490-630 for math, 470-590 for writing. The middle 50% range of the ACT Composite score was 21-28. Research has played a central role in the university's overall operations for much of its history. Most of OSU's research continues at the Corvallis campus, but an increasing number of endeavors are underway at various locations throughout the state and abroad. Current research facilities, beyond the campus, include the John L. Fryer Aquatic Animal Health Laboratory in Corvallis; the Seafood Laboratory in Astoria and the Food Innovation Laboratory in Portland. The university's College of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences operates several state-of-the-art laboratories, including the Hatfield Marine Science Center and three oceanographic research vessels based in Newport.
CEOAS is now co-leading the largest ocean science project in U. S. history, the Ocean Observatories Initiative. The OOI features a fleet of undersea gliders at six sites in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans with multiple observation platforms. CEOAS is leading the design and construction of the next class of ocean-going research vessels for the National Science Foundation, which will be the largest grant or contract received by any university in Oregon. OSU manages nearly 11,250 acres of forest land, which includes the McDonald-Dunn Research Forest; the 2005 Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education recognized Oregon State as a "comprehensive doctoral with medical/veterinary" university. This is one of only three such universities in the Pacific Northwest to be classified in this category. In 2006, Carnegie recognized the university as having "very high research activity," which makes OSU the only university in Oregon to attain these combined classifications; the National Sea Grant College Program was founded in the 1960s.
OSU is one of the original four Sea Grant Colleges selected in 1971. In 1967 the Radiation Center was constructed at the edge of campus, housing a 1.1 MW TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor. The reactor is equipped to utilize Highly Enriched Uranium for fuel. Rankings published by U. S. News & World Report in 2008 placed Oregon State eighth in