1999 Preakness Stakes
The 1999 Preakness Stakes was the 124th running of the Preakness Stakes thoroughbred horse race. The race took place on May 15,1999, and was televised in the United States on the ABC television network, who was jockeyed by Chris Antley, won the race by one and one half lengths over runner-up Menifee. Approximate post time was 5,28 p. m. Eastern Time, the race was run over a fast track in a final time of 1,55.32. The Maryland Jockey Club reported total attendance of 116,526, this is recorded as second highest on the list of American thoroughbred racing top attended events for North America in 1999
D. Wayne Lukas
Darrell Wayne Lukas is an American horse trainer and a U. S. He holds the record for the most Triple Crown, has won twenty Breeders Cup races, received five Eclipse Awards for his accomplishments and raised on a small farm, D. Wayne Lukas grew up with an interest in horses. Lukas graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a degree in education taught high school where for nine years he was a head basketball coach. He began training Quarter Horses in California in 1968 and after ten years of achievement that saw him train 24 world champions. The first trainer to earn more than $100 million in purse money, Lukas got his big break in 1980 when he won the Preakness Stakes on Codex. In 2013, he surpassed Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons for the most Triple Crown race victories with 14 and he has won Breeders Cup races a record 20 times. Fillies Lukas has trained have won the Kentucky Oaks four times, three of his horses—Ladys Secret in 1986, Criminal Type in 1990 and Charismatic in 1999—won the Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year.
He has a total of 25 horses that have won various Eclipse Awards and he has won the Eclipse Award for Outstanding Trainer four times. In 1999, the year his horse Charismatic came within 2 lengths of the Triple Crown, he was inducted into the National Museum of Racing. He was inducted into the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame in 2007, in 2013 he was awarded the Eclipse Award of Merit for his accomplishments. In 2014, at age 78, in his speech for the 2013 Eclipse Award of Merit, he stated. Well, you young trainers get ready because Im not retiring, were coming after you, so youd better get up a little more early in the morning from now on. Were coming after you with a vengeance, Lukas has been married four times. He had one son and two grandchildren, with his first wife, in December 1993, Lukas derby contender, Tabasco Cat seriously injured Jeff Lukas, who worked for his father as an assistant trainer and was the elder Lukas hard-driving right-hand man. He suffered permanent brain damage, he had changes in personality, vision loss and he tried living and working near horse farms, but his disabilities were too severe for him to be safe around horses at all.
He ultimately moved to Atoka, Oklahoma in 2007 to work for David Burrage, by that time, Burrage was a banker and owned the First Bank in Atoka, which employed Lukas. His father bought him a home there and Jeff lived a life until his death at age 58 in March 2016
In some countries it is known as the Tote after the totalisator, which calculates and displays bets already made. The parimutuel system is used in gambling on horse racing, greyhound racing, jai alai, a modified parimutuel system is used in some lottery games. Parimutuel betting differs from fixed-odds betting in that the payout is not determined until the pool is closed – in fixed odds betting. Parimutuel gambling is frequently state-regulated, and offered in places where gambling is otherwise illegal. Parimutuel gambling is offered at off track facilities, where players may bet on the events without actually being present to observe them in person. Consider a hypothetical event which has eight possible outcomes, in a country using a decimal currency such as dollars, each outcome has a certain amount of money wagered, the total pool of money on the event is $1028.00. Following the start of the event, no more wagers are accepted, the event is decided and the winning outcome is determined to be Outcome 4 with $110.00 wagered.
First the commission or take for the company is deducted from the pool, for example with a commission rate of 14. 25% the calculation is. This leaves a remaining amount of $881.51 and this remaining amount in the pool is now distributed to those who wagered on Outcome 4, $881.51 / $110.00 =8.01 ≈ $8 per $1 wagered. This payout includes the $1 wagered plus an additional $7 profit, the odds on Outcome 4 are 7-to-1. Prior to the event, betting agencies will often provide approximates for what will be out for a given outcome should no more bets be accepted at the current time. Sometimes, the amounts paid out are rounded down to a denomination interval—in the United States and Australia, the rounding loss is sometimes known as breakage and is retained by the betting agency as part of the commission. In horse racing, an example of this circumstance might be when an overwhelming favorite wins. The parimutuel calculation results might call for a very small winning payout, in North America, this condition is usually referred to as a minus pool.
In an event with a set of n possible outcomes, with wagers W1, W2, …, after the wagering company deducts a commission rate of r from the pool, the amount remaining to be distributed between the successful bettors is WR = WT. Those who bet on the successful outcome m will receive a payout of WR / Wm for every dollar they bet on it, the parimutuel system was invented by Catalan impresario Joseph Oller in 1867. The first was installed at Ellerslie Racecourse, New Zealand in 1913, the U. S. introduction was in 1927, which led to the opening of the suburban Arlington Racetrack in Arlington Park, near Chicago and Sportsmans Park in Cicero, Illinois, in 1932. Unlike many forms of gambling, in parimutuel betting the gambler bets against other gamblers
Alex O. Solis is a jockey based in the United States. He currently lives in Glendora and rides predominantly in Southern California and he got his big break and his first gained national prominence when he won the 1986 Preakness Stakes with Snow Chief. In 2014, he was elected to the horse racing hall of fame and he grew up poor on a farm in San Carlos, where he spent a lot of time around horses. He visited a race track for the first time when he was 13, after two years in jockey school and after becoming the leading apprentice jockey in Panama, he came to the United States in 1982 with only $700 and did not speak English. He began his American career at Calder Race Course in Florida and he told interviewers that he worked to improve his English by watching television and listening to music. Solis first rode in the Kentucky Derby in 1983 on a longshot named Current Hope and he rode the Derby again in 1986 on Snow Chief, who had won the Santa Anita Derby and was the morning line favorite, but again finished well back.
The horse and rider went on to with the Preakness Stakes that year and he was third in the 1991 Derby on Mane Minister, and third in the Belmont Stakes on the same horse. His first Breeders Cup win was the 2000 Breeders Cup Sprint on Kona Gold and he won two Breeders Cup races in 2003 with Johar in the Breeders Cup Turf, and the Breeders Cup Classic on Pleasantly Perfect, both trained by Richard Mandella. He ended 2003 ranked fourth nationally in purse earnings with a career-best $16,304,252 and he won the 2004 Dubai World Cup on Pleasantly Perfect, and the 2006 Santa Anita Derby aboard Brother Derek. In 2010, Solis rode Mandurah to a new record for a mile on the turf at Monmouth Park,1,31.23. His son, Alex Solis II, born in 1984, became an agent when he was 20 years old. The win marked his first ever victory in a Canadian Triple Crown race, Solis most serious riding injury was a broken back in 2004, when he was out eight months following surgery that included two titanium rods and eight screws.
He has had broken knees, does, ribs and he was one of the jockeys featured in Animal Planets 2009 reality documentary, something he enjoyed doing, but felt that the end product did not accurately portray the life of a jockey. He commented, They put more drama–or a different type of horse racing. The sport is already full of drama with all the hardships that jockeys have to go through, so they didnt need to add more drama. In 2002, Solis was inducted in the Calder Race Course Hall of Fame and his 5, 000th win came on a horse named Lutine Belle, owned partly by trainer Jerry Hollendorfer and part-owned by Solis son Alex II. On April 30,2015, Solis was appointed by Governor Jerry Brown to the California Horse Racing Board to fill the vacated by Bo Derek. His appointment must be confirmed by the State Senate and he plans to continue riding horses while serving on the board
Mike E. Smith
Michael Earl Mike Smith is an American jockey who has been one of the leading riders in U. S. Thoroughbred racing since the early 1990s, inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 2003, the son of a jockey, Smith began riding races in his native New Mexico at age 11, and took out a jockeys license at age 16 in 1982. He left New Mexico the following year, riding mostly in the Midwest where he earned his apprenticeship at Canterbury Downs Minnesota before moving to New York in 1989, in 2000, he established his home base in Southern California. In 1991, he one of the few American jockeys to win a European classic by claiming victory in the Irish 2,000 Guineas aboard Fourstars Allstar. Also that year he got his big break by leading jockey in New York from 1991 to 1993, with 330,297 and 313 wins, the following year, he rode his first Breeders Cup winner, Lure, in the Breeders Cup Mile. The year after that,1993, he arrived as a top jockey. That year, he won his first Eclipse Award for Outstanding Jockey, in 1994, he broke his own record for stakes wins with 68,20 of them Grade I races.
Several of those came while riding that years Eclipse Award for Horse of the Year winner. He rode two winners in that years Breeders Cup, and again won the Eclipse Award as leading jockey, Smith went on to ride two Breeders Cup winners in both 1995 and 1997. In 1994, he was voted the Mike Venezia Memorial Award for extraordinary sportsmanship and citizenship, the dangers of Smiths profession became evident in 1998, when he suffered major injuries in two separate spills. A broken shoulder in March took him out of action for two months, then, in August, while leading the Saratoga meeting, he broke two vertebrae in his back, requiring him to wear a body cast for several months. He came back six months after the fall, in 2000, he moved his home base from New York to Southern California. That year he won the George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award that honors a rider whose career, in 2002, he served as the regular rider for his second Horse of the Year, Azeri. He rode Azeri to a win in the Breeders Cup Distaff, in 2005, he rode 50–1 longshot Giacomo to victory in the Kentucky Derby.
The win, Smiths first in the Derby, was something of a vindication for him and he was aboard Giacomos sire Holy Bull, the 2–1 favorite in the 1994 Derby, but could finish only 12th after Holy Bull was bumped coming out of the starting gate. In 2008, he added two more Breeders Cup victories first in the Breeders Cup Juvenile Fillies with Stardom Bound, a year later, Smith returned to the Breeders Cup with Zenyatta, this time to capture the Breeders Cup Classic. After capturing the Breeders Cup Ladies Classic on Royal Delta, Smith became the leader for most Breeders Cup wins. Smith was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 2003, Smith is one of the jockeys featured in Animal Planets 2009 reality documentary, Jockeys
A jockey is someone who rides horses in horse racing or steeplechase racing, primarily as a profession. The word applies to camel riders in camel racing, the word is by origin a diminutive of jock, the Northern English or Scots colloquial equivalent of the first name John, which is used generically for boy, or fellow, at least since 1529. A familiar instance of the use of the word as a name is in Jockey of Norfolk in Shakespeares Richard III. v.3,304, the current usage which means a person who rides a horse in races was first seen in 1670. Another possible origin is the Gaelic word eachaidhe, a horseman, the Irish name Eochaid is related to each, and is usually translated as horse rider. This is phonetically similar to jockey Jockeys must be light to ride at the weights which are assigned to their mounts. There are horse carrying weight limits, that are set by racing authorities, the Kentucky Derby, for example, has a weight limit of 126 lb including the jockeys equipment. The weight of a jockey usually ranges from 108 to 118 lb, despite their light weight, they must be able to control a horse that is moving at 40 mph and weighs 1,200 lb.
Though there is no limit for jockeys, they are usually fairly short due to the weight limits. Jockeys typically stand around 4 ft 10 in to 5 ft 6 in, Jockeys are normally self employed, nominated by horse trainers to ride their horses in races, for a fee and a percentage of the purse winnings. In Australia, employment of apprentice jockeys is in terms of indenture to a master, Jockeys often cease their riding careers to take up other employment in racing, usually as trainers. In this way the system serves to induct young people into racing employment. Jockeys usually start out when they are young, riding work in the morning for trainers and it is normally necessary for an apprentice jockey to ride a minimum of about 20 barrier trials successfully before being permitted to ride in races. An apprentice jockey is known as a bug boy because the asterisk that follows the name in the program looks like a bug, all jockeys must be licensed and usually are not permitted to bet on a race. An apprentice jockey has a master, who is a horse trainer and this allowance is adjusted according to the number of winners that the apprentice has ridden.
After a four-year indentured apprenticeship, the apprentice becomes a jockey and usually develops relationships with trainers. Sometimes senior jockeys are paid a retainer by an owner gives the owner the right to insist the jockey ride their horses in races. Racing modeled on the English Jockey Club spread throughout the world with colonial expansion, the colors worn by jockeys in races are the registered colors of the owner or trainer who employs them. The practice of riders wearing colors probably stems from medieval times when jousts were held between knights, the origins of racing colors of various patterns may have been influenced by racing held in Italian city communities since medieval times
Churchill Downs, located on Central Avenue in south Louisville, United States, is a Thoroughbred racetrack most famous for hosting the Kentucky Derby annually. It officially opened in 1875, and held the first Kentucky Derby, Churchill Downs has hosted the renowned Breeders Cup on eight occasions, most recently in 2011. It is next scheduled to host the Breeders Cup in 2018, Churchill Downs Incorporated owns and operates the racetrack. With the infield open for the Kentucky Derby, the capacity of Churchill Downs is roughly 170,000, in 2009, the Horseplayers Association of North America introduced a rating system for 65 Thoroughbred racetracks in North America. Churchill Downs was ranked number 5 on this list, in 2014, prior to the start of their spring meet, Churchill Downs announced an increase in parimutuel takeout rates. As a result of the increase, Churchill Downs was ranked number 22 in the 2014 Horseplayers Association of North America Track Ratings. His father-in-law, Richard Ten Broeck, was a horse breeder and trainer.
Churchill Downs filled a void in Louisville left by the closing of Oakland and Woodlawn, the then-rural location was along Louisville and Nashville Railroad tracks, allowing for easy transport of horses. Clark, who preferred longer races to the short ones that had become popular by the 1890s, was running short of funds. Among the new people Applegate brought on board to help him run the rack was Col. Matt Winn of Louisville, Churchill Downs prospered and the Kentucky Derby became the preeminent stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses in North America. During that early period, a new clubhouse was built in order to promote interaction, and new events such as steeplechases, automobile races. The State Fair was held on the grounds, featuring the odd spectacle of two locomotives being intentionally crashed head-on in the infield. On June 5,1907, African American jockey James Lee set a record that has never beaten when he won the entire six-race card at Churchill Downs. In 1908, parimutuel betting machines were introduced as gambling began to be less controversial again, Churchill Downs was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986.
On Friday, June 19,2009, Churchill Downs hosted its first-ever night race with an attendance of over 27,000, Churchill Downs ventured into the music business, organizing the inaugural HullabaLOU Music Festival, held on the weekend of July 23–25,2010. The track had planned to make this an event to compete with other summer music festivals. HullabaLOU attracted 78,000 people but that short of the more than 100,000 expected by the company. The company attributed this to the heat, but others cited high ticket prices in a poor economy
Gary Stevens (jockey)
Gary Lynn Stevens is an American Thoroughbred horse racing jockey and sports analyst. He became a jockey in 1979 and rode his first of three Kentucky Derby winners in 1988. As of 2014, he has won the Preakness Stakes. He entered the United States Racing Hall of Fame in 1997, combining his U. S. and international wins, Stevens had over 5,000 race wins by 2005, and reached his 5,000 North American win on February 15,2015. His career successes were intertwined with significant injuries and periods of retirement due to knee problems from 1999 until 2000. He had a role in the 2003 film Seabiscuit. In 2014, he rode in the first half of the year, but his problems became too severe to continue riding. He returned to riding by mid-October 2014, accepted mounts for the 2014 Breeders Cup, following the 2016 Breeders Cup, he again took time off, this time for a hip replacement, returning to racing in March 2017. Due to his multiple joint replacements, The Bionic Man became one of his nicknames, Stevens was born in Caldwell, the youngest of three sons born to Ron and Barbara Stevens.
Ron was a horse trainer who worked with both Thoroughbreds and American Quarter Horses. Stevens grew up around horses and first rode when he was three years old, assisted by his mother, who had been a rodeo queen. As a seven-year-old child, Stevens had to wear a brace for 19 months due to a disease of the hip. He began helping his father as a groom at the age of eight. In high school, Stevens was a wrestler with potential to obtain college athletic scholarships, however, he dropped out of school in 1979 to pursue a career as a jockey. Stevens has been married three times and has five children, four from his first marriage and one from his third and he became a grandfather in 2012. One of his brothers, became a professional jockey. By the time he was 14, he was riding American Quarter Horses at small bush tracks. At age 16 he switched to Thoroughbreds, and at 17 won his first race at Les Bois Park, in Boise, Idaho on Little Star, a horse trained by his father
Corey S. Nakatani is an American Thoroughbred horse racing jockey. He got his big break in 1990 when he rode Itsallgreektome to win big stakes races, Nakatani has long resided on the Southern California circuit of Santa Anita Park, Hollywood Park, and Del Mar racetrack. On October 8,2011, he won six races in one day including two grade one victories and he has never won the Kentucky Derby in 17 tries, his closest finish being second on Nehro in 2011. In 2006, he ranked sixth among United States jockeys with 145 wins on 738 mounts, with earnings of $14,001,900. Nakatani is married to his wife and has two daughters and Brittany, and two sons, who currently plays football for the University of Louisville, and Austin. Brittany and Austin are from a marriage to Michele Dollase. His late father Roy Nakatani, a Japanese American, was born in a World War II internment camp, coreys mother is Marie Nakatani and he is one of ten children. Corey was a high school wrestler who became intrigued by racing after visiting Santa Anita with his father after a wrestling tournament at the age of sixteen.
Nakatani eventually approached horse trainer Roger Stein for work, after three days of mucking out stalls and walking horses, he decided he wanted to ride even though he had never been on a horse before. Stein suggested that he get some experience on a working farm and he went on and broke and galloped horses for Johnny Longden and Longdens son, Eric Longden before starting his career as a jockey. He graduated from school in Castaic and won his first race. He moved to Southern California in April 1989, and became the apprentice jockey that same year. His current residence is Southern California, Nakatani won his 3, 500th race at Aqueduct Racetrack on November 17,2011 aboard Grand Strategy in the eighth race of the day. In the 2015 Kentucky Derby, won by American Pharoah, Nakatani was the jockey of Frammento, weeks earlier, the jockey had broken his collarbone in a March 17 spill at Santa Anita. In the 2014 Kentucky Derby, he finished sixth on Dance With Fate and he is a golfer who carries a three handicap.
His role models are Tiger Woods and Fred Couples and his favorite horse of all-time is Lava Man. Nakatanis current agent is Tony Matos
The Kentucky Derby /ˈdɜːrbi/ is a horse race held annually in Louisville, United States, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. The race is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds at a distance of one and geldings carry 126 pounds and fillies 121 pounds. It is the first leg of the American Triple Crown and is followed by the Preakness Stakes, unlike the Preakness and Belmont Stakes, which took hiatuses in 1891–1893 and 1911–1912, the Kentucky Derby has been run every consecutive year since 1875. A horse must win all three races to win the Triple Crown, the attendance at the Kentucky Derby ranks first in North America and usually surpasses the attendance of all other stakes races including the Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes, and the Breeders Cup. The 2017 Kentucky Derby will be the 143rd running, and is set for Saturday, May 6,2017 with a $2 million guaranteed purse. In 1872, Col. Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition, traveled to England, visiting the Derby, a famous race that had been running annually since 1780.
Returning home to Kentucky, Clark organized the Louisville Jockey Club for the purpose of raising money to build quality racing facilities just outside the city, the track would soon become known as Churchill Downs, named for John and Henry Churchill, who provided the land for the racetrack. Officially, the racetrack was incorporated as Churchill Downs in 1937, the Kentucky Derby was first run at 1 1⁄2 miles, the same distance as the Epsom Derby. The distance was changed in 1896 to its current 1 1⁄4 miles, on May 17,1875, in front of an estimated crowd of 10,000 people, a field of 15 three-year-old horses contested the first Derby. Under jockey Oliver Lewis, a colt named Aristides, who was trained by future Hall of Famer Ansel Williamson, won the inaugural Derby, that year, Lewis rode Aristides to a second-place finish in the Belmont Stakes. Despite this, the business foundered until 1902 when Col. Matt Winn of Louisville put together a syndicate of businessmen to acquire the facility, under Winn, Churchill Downs prospered and the Kentucky Derby became the preeminent stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses in North America.
Derby participants are limited to three-year-old horses, no horse since Apollo in 1882 has won the Derby without having raced at age two. The three races offered the largest purse and in 1919 Sir Barton became the first horse to win all three races, the term Triple Crown didnt come into use for another eleven years. In 1930, when Gallant Fox became the horse to win all three races, sportswriter Charles Hatton brought the phrase into American usage. Fueled by the media, public interest in the possibility of a superhorse that could win the Triple Crown began in the leading up to the derby. Two years after the term was coined, the race, which had run in mid-May since inception, was changed to the first Saturday in May to allow for a specific schedule for the Triple Crown races. Since 1931, the order of Triple Crown races has been the Kentucky Derby first, followed by the Preakness Stakes, prior to 1931, eleven times the Preakness was run before the Derby. On May 12,1917 and again on May 13,1922, the Preakness, on eleven occasions the Belmont Stakes was run before the Preakness Stakes
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common