Cobi N'Gai Jones is an American former soccer player and analyst for the Los Angeles Galaxy on Time Warner Cable SportsNet. He can be seen on Fox Sports, BeIN Sports, the Pac-12 Network and as the host of the Totally Football Show: American Edition; as a player, he was a midfielder from 1994 until 2007, starting his career in England with Premier League club Coventry City, before playing for Brazilian side Vasco da Gama. He is one of a significant group of American national team stars who returned from overseas to aid the new Major League Soccer in 1996, beginning an 11-year spell with the Los Angeles Galaxy. Jones is the all-time leader in caps for the United States national team and a member of the National Soccer Hall of Fame. Following retirement, he served as an assistant coach with the LA Galaxy for two seasons. In 2017, Cobi joined City Of Angels FC as Director Of Football. Jones grew up in Southern California, he played soccer with AYSO starting at age 5 in California. After graduating from Westlake High School, Jones emerged as a talented player in college, making the UCLA soccer team as a non-scholarship player becoming one of its most successful soccer-playing graduates.
While attending UCLA, Jones was a member of an international fraternity. After playing in the 1994 World Cup held in the United States, Jones signed with English team Coventry City of the Premier League, where he spent one season. Jones trained with German club FC Köln of the Bundesliga before joining Brazilian club Vasco da Gama after impressive performances with the U. S. national team in the 1995 Copa America. After only a few months in Brazil, Jones signed with the new Los Angeles Galaxy franchise for Major League Soccer's inaugural season. Jones's best year with the Galaxy came in 1998, where he was second in MLS with 32 points, was named to the MLS Best XI, was named U. S. Soccer Athlete of the Year. In 2005, he became the last player in MLS to remain with his original team since 1996. Jones announced on March 2007, that he would retire following the season. Jones played his last game with the Galaxy on October 21, 2007; the club retired his number 13 making it the first number retired in MLS history.
The number was assigned to Jermaine Jones. Jones finished his Galaxy career with 70 goals. Jones is the all-time leader of the United States in appearances, with 164 caps as of the end of 2004, he played for the team in the 1994, 1998, 2002 FIFA World Cups. He was named to the best XI at the 2000 CONCACAF Gold Cup and won with the national team at the 2002 CONCACAF Gold Cup, he represented his country at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. After playing in the 1995 Copa America, he became a popular player in Latin America because the nickname used by an Argentine commentator to call him: "Escobillón", due to his bleached dreadlock hairstyle and the similar pronunciation of his name, Is Cobi Jones, the word "escobillón". On November 9, 2007, Jones was announced as an assistant coach with the Galaxy under Ruud Gullit. After Gullit's resignation on August 11, 2008, Jones served as the interim head coach until the Galaxy hired Jones's former U. S. national team head coach Bruce Arena. In January 2011, Jones left the Galaxy to serve as associate director of soccer with the New York Cosmos and was with the club through 2012.
On September 12, 2009, Jones married Kim Reese. Reese, a music consultant and former music executive at New Line Cinema, met Jones in 2003 and began dating him in 2004; the couple was married at the Four Seasons Resort Aviara in California. Cobi and Kim have two sons and Cai. On March 11, 2011, Cobi Jones was selected for induction into the National Soccer Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility. CONCACAF Gold Cup: 2002 CONCACAF Champions' Cup: 2000 MLS Cup: 2002, 2005 Supporters' Shield: 1998, 2002 U. S. Open Cup: 2001, 2005 Western Conference: 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005 Cobi Jones at Soccerbase Cobi Jones Biography at Los Angeles Galaxy official site
Stern John, CM is a Trinidadian footballer, player-coach of Central F. C. in the TT Pro League. He played for a number of American and English football clubs that included Columbus Crew, Bristol City, Nottingham Forest, Birmingham City, Southampton, Crystal Palace, Coventry City and Derby County. John was born in Tunapuna and Tobago and moved to the United States to attend Mercer County Community College in 1995, he joined the Columbus Crew of Major League Soccer from the now-defunct New Orleans Riverboat Gamblers of the A-League for the 1998 season. On the recommendation of his older cousin, Columbus Crew defender and Trinidad and Tobago international, Ansil Elcock, John received a try-out with Crew, where he became one of the most prolific scorers in league history. In 1998, John led the league with 26 goals, a record that puts him tied for fifth in MLS for goals in one season, with 57 points to be named the MLS Scoring Champion, he was named to the MLS Best XI that year as well, tied for the lead with 18 goals in 1999.
After the 1999 season with Columbus, John was acquired by Nottingham Forest of the English First Division for a fee of £1.5 million. However, eventual financial difficulties at Forest following the team's failed bid at promotion forced John's sale to Birmingham City in February 2002 pushing for promotion to the Premier League, for the sum of £100,000. John scored 18 goals in 49 starts for Forest. At Birmingham, John played, although he had some memorable moments in the blue shirt of Birmingham, such as his turn and finish away at West Ham in 2002, he scored one of the penalties in the play-off final shootout to help them get promoted to the Premier League. Popular with the Birmingham fans for his crucial and sometimes brilliant goals, he nonetheless fell out of favour with management, was sold to Coventry City on 14 September 2004. In his first season with Coventry, John finished second in team scoring with 12 goals despite starting in half of Coventry's games. At the start of the 2005–06 season, following the signing of James Scowcroft, John found himself outside of manager Micky Adams's first-team plans.
As a result, he was loaned to Derby County on 16 September 2005. He rejoined Coventry three months later. On 29 January 2007, John was transferred to Sunderland for an undisclosed fee; the signing was Sunderland manager Roy Keane's sixth signing of the 2006–07 season January transfer window. He scored his first goals against Southend United in a 4–0 victory on 17 February 2007. On 29 August 2007, John moved to Southampton as part of a deal that took his international teammate Kenwyne Jones in the opposite direction, he scored his first goals with two in a 3–2 win against West Bromwich Albion on 6 October 2007. From on he scored for "The Saints", with nine goals in his first fifteen appearances, including a second half hat trick against Hull City on 8 December 2007, he finished the 2007–08 season fourth highest scorer in the Championship with 19 goals for Southampton. Before being sent off for a second bookable offence, John scored two goals, including the match winner, in Southampton's final game of the season against Sheffield United, as the Saints narrowly avoided relegation to League One.
John was loaned to Bristol City in October 2008 until the end of the 2008–09 season. John made his first Bristol City appearance, coming on as a substitute, against Barnsley in a 0–0 draw. John scored his first goal for Bristol City in a 4–1 defeat to Reading at Ashton Gate Stadium on 1 November 2008. On 29 July 2009 John signed for Crystal Palace on a year-long deal after turning down an offer to stay at Southampton, he made his debut on the opening day of the season against Plymouth Argyle, he had to come off after 35 minutes due to an injury. He joined Ipswich Town on a one-month loan at the end of November, he scored his first goal for Ipswich in a 3–2 win over Coventry City on 16 January 2010. Upon his return to Palace he scored his first goal for the club in a 3–1 win at Watford on 30 March 2010. New Palace manager George Burley had hoped to discuss the player's future at the end of the season, but no discussion occurred, John left the club. In August 2012, after two seasons out of English football, John returned, signing for Solihull Moors.
However, as of November 2012, he had yet to make an appearance in any competition for the club. John moved back to his native Trinidad and Tobago after his spell at Solihull Moors, he came out of retirement a second time in order to join WASA FC of the National Super League of Trinidad and Tobago in January 2014. He scored on his debut John came out of retirement once again in 2016 when he was appointed as player-coach of Central F. C. in the TT Pro League. John made his international debut for Trinidad and Tobago national football team on 15 February 1995 against Finland in a Friendly match at the Queen's Park Oval, scoring one goal on his debut. John has been a vital player for the Soca Warriors the team's all-time leading scorer with 70 goals in 115 caps, is the 7th highest international goalscorer according to the list of Top international association football goal scorers by country, behind Pelé, Ferenc Puskás and Ali Daei, he is the all-time top CONCACAF goal scorer. He was instrumental in helping his country qualify for the 2006 FIFA World Cup and played in all three of his country's World Cup group matches at Germany 2006.
In Germany, he scored an off
Mile High Stadium
Mile High Stadium was an outdoor multi-purpose stadium located in Denver, Colorado. The stadium was built in 1948 to accommodate the Denver Bears baseball team, a member of the Western League during its construction. Designed as a baseball venue, the stadium was expanded in years to accommodate the addition of a professional football team to the city, the Denver Broncos, as well as to improve Denver's hopes of landing a Major League Baseball team. Although the stadium was built as a baseball-specific venue, it became more popular as a pro-football stadium despite hosting both sports for a majority of its life; the Broncos called Mile High Stadium home from their beginning in the AFL in 1960 until 2000. The Bears, who changed their name to the Zephyrs in 1985, continued to play in the stadium until 1992 when the franchise was moved to New Orleans; the move was precipitated by the awarding of a Major League Baseball franchise to the city of Denver, in 1993 the Colorado Rockies season opened in Mile High.
The team played the 1993 and strike-shortened 1994 seasons in Mile High setting MLB attendance records while Coors Field was being constructed in downtown Denver. In addition to the Broncos, Bears/Zephyrs, Rockies, Mile High Stadium was home to several other professional teams during the course of its history; the Denver Gold of the United States Football League called Mile High home from 1983 to 1985, the stadium played host to the inaugural USFL championship game on July 17, 1983. Two professional soccer teams played at Mile High; the first was the Denver Dynamos of the North American Soccer League, who were founded in 1974 and played their first two seasons in Denver before moving to Bloomington and becoming the Minnesota Kicks. Denver was home to one of Major League Soccer's 10 charter franchises as the Colorado Rapids were formed and played in Mile High from 1996 until 2001, making them the last franchise to play in Mile High Stadium prior to its closure. After the Rapids' 2001 season, Mile High Stadium was closed and in 2002 the stadium was demolished.
Mile High Stadium was built as Bears Stadium for minor league baseball by Bob Howsam in 1948 at the site of a former landfill. The stadium consisted of a single 18,000-seat grandstand stretching along the north side from the left field foul pole to the right field foul pole on the west side. Luther "Bud" Phillips hit the first official home run out of Bears Stadium. In its first full season in 1949, the Bears averaged over 6,600 per game to lead the minor leagues in attendance. In the late 1950s, there was an attempt to form a third major league, the Continental League, helmed by former Dodger general manager Branch Rickey. Howsam, who had worked with Rickey years before with the St. Louis Cardinals, joined ranks with Rickey, pleading for a major league team in Denver. Advised that to get a major league franchise Denver would need a much larger ballpark, Bears Stadium would begin the first of its many expansions. Over 8,000 seats were added to the south stands, bringing stadium capacity to 23,100.
Major League Baseball's answer to the Continental League was to expand its two Leagues, which would lead to the folding of the Continental League. Although Denver was not awarded a franchise, MLB promised teams in the future for Denver and other cities. Howsam was now a stadium far too big for a minor-league team. Frantically searching for a solution, he concluded the only way out was to extend the stadium's season with football. A large bleacher section was added along the south side and temporary east stands were built in 1960, raising the capacity to 34,657. Howsam's ownership in the AFL was short-lived, as overwhelming debt forced Howsam to sell all his sports interests in 1961, his dream of major league baseball in Denver would be placed on hold for another 30 years. One condition of including Denver in the AFL–NFL merger announced in 1966 was expanding Bears Stadium to at least 50,000 seats; this required adding third decks along the west sideline. This expansion was completed in 1968, when the stadium was sold to the city of Denver, which renamed it Mile High Stadium and built the upper deck along the west side, thus raising capacity to 50,657.
Early'70s expansion The Broncos sold out every game in their inaugural NFL season. Every Broncos game—preseason, regular season and playoffs—has been sold out since, a streak that continued after the Broncos left Mile High; as ticket sales increased, the stadium expanded to 51,706 seats. With a $25 million bond issue in 1974 another stadium renovation added more seats. By 1976, seating was up to 63,532 as the upper decks construction was completed along the north end zone; the east stands An ingenious expansion that took place from 1975–1977 raised the capacity to 75,103 by extending the upper deck, along the north side and building movable, triple-decked stands along the east side. When retracted toward the field, the stands would form a horseshoe for football, appropriate considering the team was the Denver Broncos, yet when extended by 145 feet, the stadium could still fit a normal-sized baseball field with outfield distances of 335 feet down the left-field line, 375 feet to left-center and 423 to center field.
The movable structure was 450 feet long, 200 feet wide, weighed nearly 9 million pounds. When a game or event required moving the stands the 145 feet in or out, engineers pumped water into 163 water bearings spaced out beneath the stands, lifting the structure off its foundation. A sheet of water ⅓-inch thick formed under the structure. Hydraulic
Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium
Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Washington, D. C, it is located about two miles due east of the US Capitol building, near the west bank of the Anacostia River and near the D. C. Armory, it opened in 1961. RFK Stadium has been home to a National Football League team, two Major League Baseball teams, five professional soccer teams, two college football teams, a bowl game, a USFL team, it has hosted five NFC Championship games, two MLB All-Star Games, men's and women's World Cup matches, nine men's and women's first-round soccer games of the 1996 Olympics, three MLS Cup matches, two MLS All-Star games, numerous American friendlies and World Cup qualifying matches. It has hosted college football, college soccer, baseball exhibitions, boxing matches, a cycling race, a Le Mans auto race and dozens of major concerts and other events. RFK was one of the first major stadiums designed to host both football. Although other stadiums served this purpose, such as Cleveland Stadium and Baltimore's Memorial Stadium, RFK was one of the first to employ what became known as the circular "cookie-cutter" design.
It is owned and operated by Events DC, a quasi-public organization affiliated with the city government, under a lease that runs until 2038 from the National Park Service, which owns the land. The idea of a stadium at this location originated in 1932 when the Roosevelt Memorial Association proposed a National Stadium for the site and Allied Architects, a group of local architects organized in 1925 to secure large-scale projects from the government, made designs for it. A "National Stadium" in Washington was an idea, pursued since 1916, when Congressman George Hulbert of New York proposed the construction of a 50,000-seat stadium at East Potomac Park for the purpose of attracting the 1920 Olympics, it was thought that such a stadium could attract Davis Cup tennis matches, polo tournaments and the annual Army-Navy football game. A effort by DC Director of Public Buildings and Parks Ulysses S. Grant III and Congressman Hamilton Fish of New York sought to turn the National Stadium into a 100,000-seat memorial to Theodore Roosevelt, suitable for hosting inaugurations on the National Mall or Theodore Roosevelt Island.
This attracted the attention of the RMA. This would allow the Lincoln Memorial under construction west of the Capitol, the Roosevelt memorial to become bookend monuments to the two great Republican presidents; the effort lost steam when Congress chose not to fund the stadium in time to move the 1932 Olympics from Los Angeles. The idea of a stadium gained support in 1938, when Senator Robert Reynolds of North Carolina pushed for the creation of a municipal outdoor stadium within the District, citing the "fact that America is the only major country not possessing a stadium with facilities to accommodate the Olympic Games"; the following year a model of the proposed stadium, to be located near the current site of RFK Stadium, was presented to the public. By 1941, the National Capital Planning Commission had begun buying property for a stadium, purchasing the land between East Capitol, C, 19th and 21st NE. A few years on December 20, 1944, Congress created a nine-man National Memorial Stadium Commission to study the idea.
They intended the stadium to be a memorial to the veterans of the World Wars. The commission wrote a report recommending that a 100,000-seat stadium be built near the site of RFK in time for the 1948 Olympics, but it failed to get funding. Ignored in the early 1950s, a new stadium again drew interest in 1954. Congressman Charles R. Howell of New Jersey proposed legislation to build a stadium, again with hopes of attracting the Olympics, he pushed for a report, completed in 1956 by the National Capital Planning Commission entitled "Preliminary Report on Sites for National Memorial Stadium", which identified the "East Capitol Site" to be used for the stadium. In September 1957, "The District of Columbia Stadium Act" was introduced and authorized a 50,000-seat stadium to be used by the Senators and Redskins at the Armory site, it was signed into law by President Eisenhower on July 29, 1958, with an estimated cost of $7.5 to $8.6 million. The lease for the stadium was signed by the D. C. Armory Board and the Department of the Interior on December 12, 1958.
The stadium, the first major multisport facility built for both football and baseball, was designed by George Dahl, Ewin Engineering Associates and Osborn Engineering. Groundbreaking for the $24 million venue was in 1960 on July 8, construction proceeded over the following 14 months; the existing venue for baseball in Washington was Griffith Stadium, about four miles northwest. While Redskins’ owner George Preston Marshall was pleased with the stadium, Senators' owner Calvin Griffith was not, it wasn't where he wanted it to be and he'd have to pay rent and let others run the parking and concessions. The Senators' attendance figures had suffered after the arrival of the Baltimore Orioles in 1954 and Griffith preferred the demographics and profit potential of the Minnesota market. In 1960, when Major League Baseball granted the city of Minneapolis an expansion team, Griffith proposed that he be allowed to move his team to Minneapolis-Saint Paul and give the expansion team to Washington. Upon league approval, the team moved to Minnesota after the 1960 season and Washington fielded a "new Senators" team, entering the junior circuit in 1961 with the Los Angeles Angels.
The stadium opened in autumn 1961 as District of Columbia Stadium.
Jeff Cunningham is an American soccer player. He is Major League Soccer's third-all-time leader in regular-season goals scored with 134. Cunningham moved to Crystal River, Florida at the age of fourteen, he played college soccer at the University of South Florida from 1994 to 1997. As a sophomore and a junior, Cunningham was named first-team All-Conference USA, as a senior he was named Conference USA Player of the Year, he finished his career at USF with thirty-six assists. Upon graduating, Cunningham was selected ninth overall in the 1998 MLS College Draft by the Columbus Crew; as a rookie, he played in twenty-five games as a substitute, tied the rookie record for goals with eight. Cunningham held that role for several years. In 182 games for Columbus, he notched forty-three assists, he was adding five assists. After a disappointing 2004 season Cunningham was traded to Colorado Rapids for a first-round 2006 MLS SuperDraft pick, he left. Cunningham finished the 2005 season with twelve league goals for Colorado.
He scored twice against Fulham F. C. of the Premier League in the 2005 MLS All-Star Game. His showing in an all-star game against Real Madrid earned good reviews, despite MLS's 5–0 loss. However, after the year Colorado shipped him to Real Salt Lake for Clint Mathis. Cunningham was seventh on the all-time MLS goalscoring list entering the 2006 season. During the 2006 season Cunningham led the league in scoring with sixteen goals, winning the MLS Golden Boot, he tied for the second-most assists in the league with eleven. Both totals set single-season records for the RSL franchise. On May 22, 2007, Cunningham was dealt to Toronto FC in exchange for Alecko Eskandarian and a first-round draft pick in the 2008 MLS SuperDraft. In Toronto, he wore the number 96 to represent the 96 MLS goals he had scored after the conclusion of his first season with Toronto FC. Cunningham fell out of favor in his second season with Toronto FC, missing scoring a goal line ball that would have taken Toronto to the CONCACAF Champions League.
After the match, TFC coach John Carver said "I am thinking, ‘How did he score 99 goals?’ That’s what I thought.’"On August 8, 2008, Cunningham was traded to FC Dallas in exchange for a third-round pick in the 2009 MLS SuperDraft. He scored in his first match with FC Dallas on August 2008 in a 2 -- 1 loss to the Columbus Crew, it was Cunningham's 100th goal in MLS. Jeff played in 11 games with FC Dallas during the 2008 season scoring 5 goals. Cunningham scored 17 goals in 2009, including four goals on August 1 against the Kansas City Wizards. After Kenny Cooper left the club for 1860 Munich, Cunningham emerged as the team's go-to goal scorer, he netted seven goals in five games in September, winning MLS Player of the Month and went on to win the 2009 MLS Golden Boot. Cunningham ended the 2010 season as the #2 career regular season MLS goalscorer with 132 goals. After the 2010 MLS season FC Dallas declined Cunningham's contract option and Cunningham elected to participate in the 2010 MLS Re-Entry Draft.
On December 15, 2010 Cunningham was selected by Columbus Crew in Stage 2 of the Re-Entry draft. Prior to Columbus resigning him on January 28, 2011, Cunningham trained with Norwegian Premier League club IK Start and was rumored to be in talks for a permanent move, however no trade came to pass, his return to Columbus Crew was on February 22, 2011 in the second half of the Crew's CONCACAF Champions League quarter final game against Real Salt Lake. On July 7, 2011, Cunningham scored his 133rd career MLS Goal to tie the MLS All-Time Scoring Record; the goal came in the 90th minute on a header to win a game against the Vancouver Whitecaps FC by a score of 1–0. On August 27, 2011, Cunningham scored his 134th career goal, making him the all-time leader in MLS soccer in a 6–2 loss to the Seattle Sounders. At season's end, Columbus declined his 2012 contract option and he entered the 2011 MLS Re-Entry Draft. Cunningham became a free agent. In January 2012, Cunningham signed on with first division side and current runner up CSD Comunicaciones of Guatemala for the 2012 Torneo Clausura.
After his release by Comunicaciones, Cunningham signed with NASL club San Antonio Scorpions FC on July 23, 2012. As of November 29, 2013, Cunningham is on trial with Vicem Hai Phong F. C. of Vietnam's V. League 1. In 1999, he played for Jamaica in a friendly international against Ghana. Cunningham became a U. S. citizen in November 2001, received his first cap for the United States national team less than a month on December 9, in a friendly against South Korea. He made his first start in a World Cup qualifier on September 2005, against Guatemala. After a 4-year-long absence from the national team, Cunningham was called up by Bob Bradley for friendlies against Slovakia and Denmark in November 2009. In a friendly against Denmark on November 18, 2009, he scored his first career international goal. Jeff and his wife, Jocelyn have one child, born on September 15, 2008. Cunningham became a naturalized U. S. citizen on November 13, 2001. Updated September 25, 2012 Statistics accurate as of February 16, 2012 Columbus CrewLamar Hunt U.
S. Open Cup: 2002 MLS Supporters' Shield: 2004FC DallasMajor League Soccer Western Conference Championship: 2010 MLS Golden Boot Winner: 2006, 2009 MLS Best XI: 2002, 2006, 2009 Jeff Cunningham at Major League Soccer Jeff Cunningham at National-Football-Teams.com Jeff Cunningham at ESPN FC
Tampa is a major city in, the county seat of, Hillsborough County, United States. It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, is the largest city in the Tampa Bay Area; the bay's port is the largest in near downtown's Channel District. Bayshore Boulevard runs along the bay, is east of the historic Hyde Park neighborhood. Today, Tampa is part of the metropolitan area most referred to as the "Tampa Bay Area". For U. S. Census purposes, Tampa is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area; the four-county area is composed of 3.1 million residents, making it the second largest metropolitan statistical area in the state, the fourth largest in the Southeastern United States, behind Washington, D. C. Miami, Atlanta; the Greater Tampa Bay area has over 4 million residents and includes the Tampa and Sarasota metro areas. The city had a population of 335,709 at the 2010 census, an estimated population of 385,430 in 2017; the Tampa Bay Partnership and U.
S. Census data showed an average annual growth of 2.47 percent, or a gain of 97,000 residents per year. Between 2000 and 2006, the Greater Tampa Bay Market experienced a combined growth rate of 14.8 percent, growing from 3.4 million to 3.9 million and hitting the 4 million population mark on April 1, 2007. A 2012 estimate shows the Tampa Bay area population to have 4,310,524 people and a 2017 projection of 4,536,854 people. Public Transportation in the area includes. There is the TECO Line Streetcar System; when the pioneer community living near the US Army outpost of Fort Brooke was incorporated in 1849, it was called "Tampa Town", the name was shortened to "Tampa" in 1855. The earliest instance of the name "Tampa", in the form "Tanpa", appears in the memoirs of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who spent 17 years as a captive of the Calusa and traveled through much of peninsular Florida, he described Tanpa as an important Calusa town to the north of the Calusa domain under another chief. Archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the town of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor.
The entrances to Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor are obscured by barrier islands, their locations, the names applied to them, were a source of confusion to explorers and map-makers from the 16th century though the 18th century. Bahía Tampa and Bahía de Espíritu Santo were each used, at one time or another, for the modern Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Tampa Bay was labeled Bahía de Espíritu Santo in the earliest Spanish maps of Florida, but became known as Bahía Tampa as early as 1695. "B. Tampa", corresponding to Tampa Bay, appeared on a British map of 1705, with "Carlos Bay" for Charlotte Harbor to the south, while a 1748 British map had "B. del Spirito Santo" for Tampa Bay, again, "Carlos Bay" to the south. A Spanish map of 1757 renamed Tampa Bay as "San Fernando"; as late as 1774, Bernard Romans called Tampa Bay "Bay of Espiritu Santo", with "Tampa Bay" restricted to the Northwest arm, the northeast arm named "Hillsborough Bay". The name may have come from the Calusa language, or the Timucua language.
Some scholars have compared "Tampa" to "itimpi", which means "close to or nearby" in the Creek language, but its meaning is not known. People from Tampa are known as "Tampans" or "Tampanians". Local authorities consulted by Michael Kruse of the Tampa Bay Times suggest that "Tampan" was more common, while "Tampanian" became popular when the former term came to be seen as a potential insult. A mix of Cuban and Spanish immigrants began arriving in the late 1800s to found and work in the new communities of Ybor City and West Tampa. By about 1900, these newcomers came to be known as "Tampeños", a term, still sometimes used to refer to their descendants living in the area, to all residents of Tampa inconsiderate of their ethnic background; the shores of Tampa Bay have been inhabited for thousands of years. A variant of the Weeden Island culture developed in the area by about 2000 years ago, with archeological evidence suggesting that these residents relied on the sea for most of their resources, as a vast majority of inhabited sites have been found on or near the shoreline and there is little evidence of farming.
At the time of European contact in the early 16th century, the Safety Harbor culture dominated the area, with indigenous peoples organized into three or four chiefdoms around the shores of the bay. Early Spanish explorers to visit the area interacted extensively with the Tocobaga, whose principal town was located at the northern end of Old Tampa Bay near today's Safety Harbor in Pinellas County. While there is a substantial historical record of the Tocobaga, there is less surviving documentation describing the Pohoy chiefdom, which controlled the area near the mouth of the Hillsborough River near today's downtown Tampa. However, brief mentions by explorers along with surviving artifacts suggest that the Pohoy and other groups that once lived on Tampa Bay had similar cultures and lifestyles as the better-documented Tocobaga. Expeditions led by Pánfilo de Narváez and Hernando de Soto landed near Tampa, but neither conquistador stayed long. There is no natural gold or silver in Florida, the native inhabitants repulsed Spanish attempts to establish a permanent settlement or convert them to Catholicism.
The fighting resulted in a few deaths, but the many more deaths were caused by infectious diseases brought from Europe, which devastated the population of Native Americans across Florida and the entir
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Fort Lauderdale is a city in the U. S. state of Florida, 28 miles north of Miami. It is the county seat of Broward County; as of the 2017 census, the city has an estimated population of 180,072. Fort Lauderdale is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017; the city is a popular tourist destination, with an average year-round temperature of 75.5 °F and 3,000 hours of sunshine per year. Greater Fort Lauderdale, encompassing all of Broward County, hosted 12 million visitors in 2012, including 2.8 million international visitors. In 2012, the county collected $43.9 million from the 5% hotel tax it charges, after hotels in the area recorded an occupancy rate for the year of 72.7 percent and an average daily rate of $114.48. The district has 561 motels comprising nearly 35,000 rooms. Forty-six cruise ships sailed from Port Everglades in 2012. Greater Fort Lauderdale has over 4,000 restaurants, 63 golf courses, 12 shopping malls, 16 museums, 132 nightclubs, 278 parkland campsites, 100 marinas housing 45,000 resident yachts.
Fort Lauderdale is named after a series of forts built by the United States during the Second Seminole War. The forts took their name from Major William Lauderdale, younger brother of Lieutenant Colonel James Lauderdale. William Lauderdale was the commander of the detachment of soldiers. However, development of the city did not begin until 50 years after the forts were abandoned at the end of the conflict. Three forts named "Fort Lauderdale" were constructed: the first was at the fork of the New River, the second was at Tarpon Bend on the New River between the present-day Colee Hammock and Rio Vista neighborhoods, the third was near the site of the Bahia Mar Marina; the area in which the city of Fort Lauderdale would be founded was inhabited for more than two thousand years by the Tequesta Indians. Contact with Spanish explorers in the 16th century proved disastrous for the Tequesta, as the Europeans unwittingly brought with them diseases, such as smallpox, to which the native populations possessed no resistance.
For the Tequesta, coupled with continuing conflict with their Calusa neighbors, contributed to their decline over the next two centuries. By 1763, there were only a few Tequesta left in Florida, most of them were evacuated to Cuba when the Spanish ceded Florida to the British in 1763, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. Although control of the area changed between Spain, United Kingdom, the United States, the Confederate States of America, it remained undeveloped until the 20th century; the Fort Lauderdale area was known as the "New River Settlement" before the 20th century. In the 1830s there were 70 settlers living along the New River. William Cooley, the local Justice of the Peace, was a farmer and wrecker, who traded with the Seminole Indians. On January 6, 1836, while Cooley was leading an attempt to salvage a wrecked ship, a band of Seminoles attacked his farm, killing his wife and children, the children's tutor; the other farms in the settlement were not attacked, but all the white residents in the area abandoned the settlement, fleeing first to the Cape Florida Lighthouse on Key Biscayne, to Key West.
The first United States stockade named Fort Lauderdale was built in 1838, subsequently was a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. The fort was abandoned in 1842, after the end of the war, the area remained unpopulated until the 1890s, it was not until Frank Stranahan arrived in the area in 1893 to operate a ferry across the New River, the Florida East Coast Railroad's completion of a route through the area in 1896, that any organized development began. The city was incorporated in 1911, in 1915 was designated the county seat of newly formed Broward County. Fort Lauderdale's first major development began during the Florida land boom; the 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression of the 1930s caused a great deal of economic dislocation. In July 1935, an African-American man named Rubin Stacy was accused of robbing a white woman at knife point, he was being transported to a Miami jail when police were run off the road by a mob. A group of 100 white men proceeded to hang Stacy from a tree near the scene of his alleged robbery.
His body was riddled with some twenty bullets. The murder was subsequently used by the press in Nazi Germany to discredit US critiques of its own persecution of Jews and Catholics; when World War II began, Fort Lauderdale became a major US base, with a Naval Air Station to train pilots, radar operators, fire control operators. A Coast Guard base at Port Everglades was established. On July 4, 1961 African Americans started a series of protests, wade-ins, at beaches that were off-limits to them, to protest "the failure of the county to build a road to the Negro beach". On July 11, 1962 a verdict by Ted Cabot went against the city's policy of racial segregation of public beaches. Today, Fort Lauderdale is a major yachting center, one of the nation's largest tourist destinations, the center of a metropolitan division with 1.8 million people. After the war ended, service members returned to the area, spurring an enormous population explosion which dwarfed the 1920s boom; the 1960 Census counted 83,648 people in about 230 % of the 1950 figure.
A 1967 report estimated that the city was 85% developed, the 1970 population figure was 139,590. After 1970, as Fort Lauderdale became built out, growth in the area shifted to suburbs to the west; as cities such as Coral Springs and Pembroke Pines experienced explosive growth, Fort Lauderdale's population stagnated, the ci