2001 Southeast Asian Games
The 2001 Southeast Asian Games known as the 21st Southeast Asian Games, was a Southeast Asian multi-sport event held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This was the fifth time Malaysia host the games, its first time since 1989. Malaysia also hosted the 1965 games, 1971 games and the 1977 games; the games is the first Southeast Asian Games in the 3rd millennium. It was held from 8 to 17 September 2001, although several events had commenced from 1 September 2001. Around 4165 athletes participated at the event, it was opened by the King of Malaysia at the Bukit Jalil National Stadium. The final medal tally was led by host Malaysia, followed by Indonesia. Several Games and National Records were broken during the games; the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst the Southeast Asian nations. The Kuala Lumpur 21st SEA Games Organizing Committee was formed to oversee the staging of the event; the 2001 Southeast Asian Games used a mix of new and temporary venues. Most venues were pre-existing public-sporting facilities which were reverted to public use after the games.
No major retrofitting work were done in most venues as most had been used to host major multi-disciplinary events such as the 1998 Commonwealth Games. At the centrepiece of the activities was the Bukit Jalil National Sports Complex. Incorporating the new 87,411-seat national stadium, it hosted most of the events. A games village was not built. Instead, a "village in the city" concept saw athletes and officials housed in hotels across Peninsular Malaysia. Besides being physically near to the sport venues, it was hoped that it will add vibe to all the states and reduce post-games costs in converting a dedicated games village to other uses; the 21st Southeast Asian Games had 39 venues for the games. 19 in Kuala Lumpur, 10 in Selangor, 4 in Johor and 3 each in Negeri Sembilan and Penang respectively. The 21st SEA Games torch relay ran from 10 March 2001 to 8 September 2001, covering a distance of 7,884 km; the run began in Labuan followed by Sarawak. In the peninsular, it started in Langkawi and passed through 12 states before it ended in Kuala Lumpur.
The last leg of the run covered 15 km, from Merdeka Square to Bukit Jalil National Stadium. The logo of the 2001 Southeast Asian Games is an image of a flame, the symbol of the games' passion and excellence, used in most international sports; the "Flame" of the logo is stylised, with the tongues of flame being individually separated and simplified. The weaving formation of the flame represents assembly of Southeast Asia's best athletes; the weaving that forms the Roman numeral XXI represents the 21st SEA Games while the colours of the national flag of Malaysia, Jalur Gemilang represents national identity. The logo of the Southeast Asian Games Federation at the flame tip represents the participating nations of the Southeast Asian Games and the Southeast Asian Games itself; the official mascot of the 2001 Southeast Asian Games is a squirrel named Si Tumas, short form for Tupai Emas. It is said the Squirrel is a lovable creature found everywhere in the world. In folk tales of many countries, the squirrel is depicted as a friendly and fun animal known for its high energy and speed of motion.
The adoption of the squirrel as the games mascot is to borrow its pleasant, friendly fun characteristics to add life to the event. The gold colouring on the squirrel enhances the winning aspect; the word SI is phonetically similar to Sea as in SEA GAMES and a friendly form of address in Malay. TU is the first part of Tupai which means squirrel in Malay and MAS comes from the word EMAS, Malay for gold; the theme song of the games is "In Glory We Celebrate", composed by Helen Yap from Magic Nova Productions with lyrics written in English by Tom Leng and lyrics written in Malay by Loloq, was sung by Lynn Ali. A campaign song of the games was composed by Jaafar Abdul Rahman Idris with lyrics written by Dato Mokhzani Ismail and was sung by Adibah Noor. A total of 26 sponsors, comprising 4 Official Partners, 8 Main Sponsors and 14 Official Sponsors sponsored the games. More than 15,000 volunteers which include 7,000 school children involved in the opening ceremonies, to create history by organizing the first SEA Games in three cities.
Parallel ceremonies at the Larkin Stadium in Johor Baru and the Penang International Sports Arena made the first SEA Games of the new millennium a most memorable event. As the fireworks lit the sky at the Bukit Jalil National Stadium, more than 50,000 people cheered and rejoiced in celebration of the day’s golden achievements and to usher in the two-week friendly Games among the 10 competing nations; the enthusiastic crowd and over 5,000 athletes broke into a deafening roar the moment the Yang di Pertuan Agong King Salahuddin proclaimed: "Let the Games begin", giving the cue for a 10-gun salute. There was an endless round of cheers and applause at the National Stadium throughout the four-hour Games opening extravaganza. Excitement took all forms, such as paratroopers sailing in from the clear sky, carrying the national flags of the 10 countries of the SEA Games fraternity. Malaysia's fourth Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad and his wife Dr. Siti Hasmah, riding in an open top army 4WD, waving to the crowd and were given a rousing and enthusiastic reception by the spectators.
The choir, which rendered the patriotic songs, kicked off a chain of performances including formations and dances. The highlight of the event was the marching-in of the national contingents comprising some 5,000 sportsmen and sportswomen from all over Southeast Asia, they w
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t
Negaraku is the national anthem of Malaysia. It was selected as a national anthem at the time of the Federation of Malaya's independence from Britain in 1957; the tune was used as the state anthem of Perak, adopted from a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie" composed by the lyricist Pierre-Jean de Béranger. Some of the musical renditions were modified several times in 1992, 2003 and 2006. At the time of independence, each of the eleven states that made up the Federation of Malaya had their own anthem, but there was no anthem for the Federation as a whole. Tunku Abdul Rahman, at the time the Chief Minister and Minister for Home Affairs and presided over a committee for the purpose of choosing a suitable national anthem. On his suggestion, a worldwide competition was launched. 514 entries were received from all over the world. None were deemed suitable. Next the committee decided to invite selected composers of international repute to submit compositions for consideration; the composers chosen were Benjamin Britten, Sir William Walton who had composed the march for Queen Elizabeth II's coronation, the American opera composer Gian Carlo Menotti and Zubir Said, who composed Majulah Singapura, the anthem of Singapore.
They were all turned down too. The Committee turned to the Perak State Anthem. On 5 August 1957, it was selected on account of the "traditional flavour" of its melody. New lyrics for the national anthem were written jointly by the Panel of Judges— with the Tunku himself playing the leading role. At the time this melody was, while still the State Anthem of Perak, Allah Lanjutkan Usia Sultan; the song had been popular on the island of Mahé in the Seychelles, where the Sultan of Perak had been living in exile. Some rumours claimed that he heard it at a public band concert on the island, a song to a popular French melody claimed to have been composed by the lyricist Pierre-Jean de Béranger, born and died in Paris, but there is no evidence for this since he was a lyricist who use tunes by other for his song and the title is not listed in the four published volumes of his songs or the volume of tune he used for his songs. It is claimed that when Sultan Idris Murshidul’adzam Shah, the Ruler of the State of Perak from 1887 to 1916, represented the Malay Rulers of the Federated Malay States at the Coronation of King Edward VII in 1901, his protocol officer was asked what his state anthem was.
Realising that his state did not in fact possess an anthem, he, in order not to appear backward in front of his hosts, proceeded to hum the aforementioned tune. The song was introduced into an Indonesian Bangsawan, performing in Singapore around 1940. In no time at all, the melody became popular and was given the name "Terang Bulan". Aside from its dignity and prestige as the Perak State Anthem, the song became a Malayan "evergreen", playing at parties, in cabarets and sung by everybody in the 1920s and 1930s; the anthem was given a new quick march beat in 1992. Some Malaysians have gone as far as to say that the altered tempo resembled circus music, was the subject of much derision. In July 2003, it was reported in the Malaysian press that the anthem would be rearranged for the second time after that and the title and lyric would be changed from Negaraku to Malaysiaku. There was a public outcry of dismay and the change of name was scrapped, but the anthem was re-arranged and returned to the pre-1992 pace by composer Wah Idris.
Three gramophone record versions have been released in the following titles bearing the similar tune of the Malaysian anthem: 1930s "Mamula Moon" was pressed on Parlophone Records in the 1930s, performed by British Band Legend and His Orchestra, with vocals by Danny Vaughn. This love song was performed using jazz instruments on a foxtrot dance beat.1940s "I Shall Return" was recorded by Anne Shelton in the late 1940s, by Pickwick Music Ltd, published on Decca 78rpm record.1950s The song was recorded by the Sydney Latin band leader Paul Lombard, as "Malayan Moon" in 1952 with lyrics sung by Joan Wilton and Geoff Brooke, released by Columbia Records in Sydney as D0-3460. The significance of this piece of recording, only playable on gramophones running at 78 rpm speed, is that the background music is conducted so to the Malayan style of music background, setting the originality and authentic Malayan atmosphere to the tune; the song was performed by non-natives singing in both Malay. The lyrics present a love story setting between the two lovers.
The other side of the record is the song "Planting Rice" performed by Paul Lombard accompanied by a vocal chorus by Joan Wilton. This piece of music was copyrighted by Southern Music Co. of Sydney."Negaraku" as a song derived from Hawaiian origins, used as the Perak anthem, but not yet as anthem for the whole of Malaya during that time. Whenever the National Anthem is played or sung or whenever the abridged or short version is played, all persons present shall stand to attention as a mark of respect except where it is played or sung as part of a radio or television broadcast or newsreels. All headgear must be removed and all those in attendance must face the Jalur Gemilang, if it is present. Servicemen in uniform must give a salute. Failure to com
Royal Brunei Airlines
Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd is the national flag carrier airline of Brunei Darussalam, headquartered in the RB Plaza in Bandar Seri Begawan. It is wholly owned by the government of Brunei, its hub is Brunei International Airport in Berakas, just to the north of Bandar Seri Begawan, the capital of Brunei. Formed in 1974 with an initial fleet of two Boeing 737-200 aircraft, serving Singapore, Hong Kong, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching, Royal Brunei Airlines now operates to 16 destinations in Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Australia, its fleet and type numbers increased in the 1990s. Royal Brunei Airlines was established on 18 November 1974 with two new Boeing 737-200s; the airline's maiden voyage was on 14 May 1975 from the newly built Brunei International Airport to Singapore. Flights to the British colony of Hong Kong and the city of Kota Kinabalu and Kuching in East Malaysia started the same day. Early route expansion included services to Manila in 1976, Bangkok in 1977. Three years Royal Brunei acquired a Boeing 737-200QC – its third Boeing 737 – enabling it to reach Kuala Lumpur in 1981 and Darwin in 1983.
After the independence of Brunei from the United Kingdom on 1 January in 1984, services commenced to Jakarta on 3 January, thus linking all five ASEAN capital cities at the time – Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore – from Brunei. Three Boeing 757-200s were purchased in the mid-1980s to enable the airline to expand to Taipei in 1986 and Dubai in 1988, they were used on existing high-capacity routes to Singapore, Hong Kong, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur. In 1990, Royal Brunei began its first flight to Europe when services started to Frankfurt am Main via Bangkok and Dubai. Services to London Gatwick Airport commenced in 1990 via Singapore and Dubai, changed to London Heathrow Airport in 1991, by which time services were inaugurated to Perth and to Jeddah via Dubai. With the airline's rapid expansion the 737s were sold, replaced by the Boeing 767. Before that, 757-200s served the airline between the Middle East and Gatwick; the delivery of the first Boeing 767 broke a world record when it flew 17 hours and 22 minutes non-stop from Boeing's factory in Seattle to Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi on its way to Brunei.
Seven more 767s were delivered. In March 1993, Abu Dhabi was added to the route network, through which flights to Frankfurt and Jeddah were re-routed instead of Dubai. Bali was the second Indonesian city to be added to the network in May during the year. Flights to the third European destination, Zürich, commenced in August 1993 via Kuala Lumpur and another new destination, Bahrain. Before the end of the year, the airline were inaugurated services to Beijing and Cairo, via Kuala Lumpur and Bahrain, respectively. RBA sold its last Boeing 737 to Aloha Airlines; the growth of the network continued in 1994. The delivery of two Fokker 50s were used to start services to Miri and Labuan in East Malaysia of the same year. Flights to Brisbane and Osaka were commenced in June and December, respectively; the desire to link all the major oil and gas cities on Borneo saw the addition of Balikpapan to the route network in December. In 1994, services began to Kolkata via Singapore and on towards Dubai. Two Dornier Do 228s were purchased in the same year and leased to the Malaysian regional carrier, Hornbill Skyways, to connect Brunei by air to Mulu Airport.
Services to Cairo and Kolkata were suspended mid-1995 due to low passenger numbers. The F-50s were replaced by the larger and more comfortable Fokker 100 in 1996, which fuelled expansion to Bintulu; the route to Zürich was suspended in September 1996 to enable Royal Brunei to commence daily services to London Heathrow. Some London flights were routed through Abu Dhabi, instead of via Singapore and Dubai. On 6 September 1997, Royal Brunei Airlines Flight 238, a Dornier 228 owned by Royal Brunei Airlines but operated and maintained by Malaysian regional carrier Hornbill Airways, carrying 10 passengers to Miri, crashed into high ground near Miri airport. All 8 passengers and 2 crew died; the Dornier 228s were sold in 1997 and short haul services connecting Brunei to Miri, Labuan and Bintulu were terminated. That year, Surabaya was the fourth Indonesian destination to be added. Unprofitable routes to Beijing and Osaka were suspended in 1998 and the F-100s were sold to Alpi Eagles Airlines in 1998.
Kuwait was added to the network in 2000 and was served via Singapore and Dubai. It was suspended a year later. Services began to Shanghai Pudong International Airport in 2001. Royal Brunei started online booking facilities the same year. In September 2002 Peter Foster was appointed as CEO, he began major restructuring after years of unprofitable operation. The plan was for Royal Brunei’s fleet to grow from 9 to 24 aircraft in a ten-year period, from 2003 to 2013; the fleet of 6 Boeing 767s would be changed to 8 wide-body aircraft. The plan included new services to Auckland, Ho Chi Minh City, Sydney and Tokyo, as well as raising frequencies on other flights; the deliveries of the new Airbus A319 and A320 in 2002 and 2003 marked the start of the
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy and speed in shooting, using various types of ranged weapons referring to man-portable guns and bows/crossbows. Different disciplines of shooting sports can be categorized by equipment, shooting distances, time limits and degrees of athleticism involved. Shooting sports may involve both team and individual competition, team performance is assessed by summing the scores of the individual team members. Due to the noise of shooting and the high impact energy of the projectiles, shooting sports are conducted at either designated permanent shooting ranges or temporary shooting fields in the area away from settlements; the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom was founded in 1860 to raise the funds for an annual national rifle meeting "for the encouragement of Volunteer Rifle Corps and the promotion of Rifle-shooting throughout Great Britain". For similar reasons, concerned over poor marksmanship during the American Civil War, veteran Union officers Col. William C.
Church and Gen. George Wingate formed the National Rifle Association of America in 1871 for the purpose of promoting and encouraging rifle shooting on a "scientific" basis. In 1872, with financial help from New York state, a site on Long Island, the Creed Farm, was purchased for the purpose of building a rifle range. Named Creedmoor, the range opened in 1872, became the site of the first National Matches until New York politics forced the NRA to move the matches to Sea Girt, New Jersey; the popularity of the National Matches soon forced the event to be moved to its present, much larger location: Camp Perry. In 1903, the U. S. Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice, an advisory board to the Secretary of the Army, with a nearly identical charter to the NRA; the NBPRP participates in the National Matches at Camp Perry. In 1903, the NRA began to establish rifle clubs at all major colleges and military academies. By 1906, youth programs were in full swing with more than 200 boys competing in the National Matches.
Today, more than one million youth participate in shooting sports events and affiliated programs through groups such as 4-H, the Boy Scouts of America, the American Legion, U. S. Jaycees, NCAA, The USA High School Clay Target League, the Scholastic Clay Target Program, National Guard Bureau, ROTC, JROTC. French pistol champion and founder of the modern Olympics, Pierre de Coubertin, participated in many of these early competitions; this fact contributed to the inclusion of five shooting events in the 1896 Olympics. Over the years, the events have been changed a number of times in order to keep up with technology and social standards; the targets that resembled humans or animals in their shape and size have are now a circular shape in order to avoid associating the sport with any form of violence. At the same time, some events have been dropped and new ones have been added; the 2004 Olympics featured three shooting disciplines where athletes competed for 51 medals in 10 men's and 7 women's events—slightly fewer than the previous Olympic schedule.
In the Olympic Games, the shooting sport has always enjoyed the distinction of awarding the first medals of the Games. Internationally, the International Shooting Sport Federation has oversight of all Olympic shooting events worldwide, while National Governing Bodies administer the sport within each country. Having established shooting as an organized sport in the US, the NRA was the obvious choice to administer the United States participation in the Olympic games; the NRA dutifully managed and financially supported international and conventional shooting sports for over 100 years until the formation of USA Shooting. Gun shooting sports are shot with either firearms or air guns, which can be either handguns, rifles and/or shotguns. Handguns are handheld small arms designed to be shot off-hand without needing a shoulder stock; the two main subtypes of handguns are revolvers. They are much more convenient to carry in general, but have a shorter effective range and less accuracy compared to long guns such as rifles.
In shooting sports and semi-automatic pistols are the most used. A rifle is a long gun with a rifled barrel, requires the use of both hands to hold and brace against the shoulder via a stock in order to shoot steadily, they have a longer range and greater accuracy than handguns, are popular for hunting. In shooting sports, bolt action or semi-automatic rifles are the most used. A shotgun is similar to a rifle but smoothbore and larger in caliber, fires either a shell containing many smaller scattering sub-projectiles called shots, or a single large projectile called a slug. In shooting sports, shotguns are more over/under-type break action or semi-automatic shotguns, the majority of shotgun events are included in clay pigeon shooting. Bullseye shooting is a category of pistol and rifle shooting disciplines where the objective is to achieve as many points as possible by hitting a round shooting target as close to the middle as possible with slow precision fire; these disciplines place a large emphasis on precision and accuracy through sight picture and trigger control.
Fixed and long time limits give the competitors time to concentrate for a perfect shot. An example of bullseye shooting is the ISSF pistol and rifle disciplines, but there are many other national and interna
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles" and "doubles". Badminton is played as a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing side's half of the court; each side may only strike the shuttlecock. Play ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor or if a fault has been called by the umpire, service judge, or the opposing side; the shuttlecock is a feathered or plastic projectile which flies differently from the balls used in many other sports. In particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly. Shuttlecocks have a high top speed compared to the balls in other racquet sports; the flight of the shuttlecock gives the sport its distinctive nature. The game developed in British India from the earlier game of shuttlecock.
European play came to be dominated by Denmark but the game has become popular in Asia, with recent competitions dominated by China. Since 1992, badminton has been a Summer Olympic sport with four events: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles, women's doubles, with mixed doubles added four years later. At high levels of play, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require aerobic stamina, strength and precision, it is a technical sport, requiring good motor coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements. Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock, its exact origin remains obscure. The name derives from the Duke of Beaufort's Badminton House in Gloucestershire, but why or when remains unclear; as early as 1860, a London toy dealer named Isaac Spratt published a booklet entitled Badminton Battledore – A New Game, but no copy is known to have survived.
An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as "battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspended some five feet from the ground". The game may have developed among expatriate officers in British India, where it was popular by the 1870s. Ball badminton, a form of the game played with a wool ball instead of a shuttlecock, was being played in Thanjavur as early as the 1850s and was at first played interchangeably with badminton by the British, the woollen ball being preferred in windy or wet weather. Early on, the game was known as Poona or Poonah after the garrison town of Pune, where it was popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873. By 1875, officers returning home had started a badminton club in Folkestone; the sport was played with sides ranging from 1 to 4 players, but it was established that games between two or four competitors worked the best. The shuttlecocks were coated with India rubber and, in outdoor play, sometimes weighted with lead.
Although the depth of the net was of no consequence, it was preferred that it should reach the ground. The sport was played under the Pune rules until 1887, when J. H. E. Hart of the Bath Badminton Club drew up revised regulations. In 1890, Hart and Bagnel Wild again revised the rules; the Badminton Association of England published these rules in 1893 and launched the sport at a house called "Dunbar" in Portsmouth on 13 September. The BAE started the first badminton competition, the All England Open Badminton Championships for gentlemen's doubles, ladies' doubles, mixed doubles, in 1899. Singles competitions were added in 1900 and an England–Ireland championship match appeared in 1904. England, Wales, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand were the founding members of the International Badminton Federation in 1934, now known as the Badminton World Federation. India joined as an affiliate in 1936; the BWF now governs international badminton. Although initiated in England, competitive men's badminton has traditionally been dominated in Europe by Denmark.
Worldwide, Asian nations have become dominant in international competition. China, India, Indonesia and South Korea are the nations which have produced world-class players in the past few decades, with China being the greatest force in men's and women's competition recently; the game has become a popular backyard sport in the United States. The following information is a simplified summary of badminton rules based on the BWF Statutes publication, Laws of Badminton; the court is divided into halves by a net. Courts are marked for both singles and doubles play, although badminton rules permit a court to be marked for singles only; the doubles court is wider than the singles court. The exception, which causes confusion to newer players, is that the doubles court has a shorter serve-length dimension; the full width of the court is 6.1 metres, in singles this width is reduced to 5.18 metres. The full length of the court is 13.4 metres. The service courts are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a distance of 1.98 metres from the net, by the outer side and back boundaries.
In doubles, the service court is marked by a long service line, 0.76 metres from the back boundary. T
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into the opposing team's goal; the team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. Each team is made up of one goalkeeper. Except for the goalkeeper, players participate in both defensive roles. Water polo is played in an all-deep pool meaning that players cannot touch the bottom. A game of water polo consists of the players swimming to move about the pool, treading water, passing the ball and shooting at goal. Teamwork, tactical thinking and game awareness are highly important aspects in a game of water polo. Water polo is a physical and demanding sport and has been cited as one of the toughest sports to play. Special equipment for water polo includes a ball which floats on the water; the game is thought to have originated in Scotland in the late 19th century as a sort of "water rugby". William Wilson is thought to have developed the game during a similar period.
The game thus developed with the formation of the London Water Polo League and has since expanded, becoming popular in various parts of Europe, the United States, China and Australia. The history of water polo as a team sport began as a demonstration of strength and swimming skill in late 19th century England and Scotland, where water sports and racing exhibitions were a feature of county fairs and festivals. Men's water polo was among the first team sports introduced at the modern Olympic games in 1900. Water polo is now popular in many countries around the world, notably Europe, the United States and Australia; the present-day game involves teams of seven players, with a water polo ball similar in size to a soccer ball but constructed of air-tight nylon. One of the earliest recorded viewings of water polo was conducted at the 4th Open Air Fete of the London Swimming Club, held at the Crystal Palace, London on 15 September 1873. Another antecedent of the modern game of Water Polo was a game of water ‘handball’ played at Bournemouth on 13 July 1876.
This was a game between 12 members of the Premier Rowing Club, with goals being marked by four flags placed in the water near to the midpoint of Bournemouth Pier. The game lasted for 15 minutes watched by a large crowd; the rules of water polo were developed in the late nineteenth century in Great Britain by William Wilson. Wilson is believed to have been the First Baths Master of the Arlington Baths Club in Glasgow; the first games of'aquatic football' were played at the Arlington in the late 1800s, with a ball constructed of India rubber. This "water rugby" came to be called "water polo" based on the English pronunciation of the Balti word for ball, pulu. Early play allowed brute strength and holding opposing players underwater to recover the ball. Players held underwater for lengthy periods surrendered possession; the goalie stood outside the playing area and defended the goal by jumping in on any opponent attempting to score by placing the ball on the deck. The rules of water polo cover the play, procedures and officiating of water polo.
These rules are similar throughout the world, although slight variations to the rules do occur regionally and depending on the governing body. Governing bodies of water polo include FINA, the international governing organization for the rules. There are seven players in the water from each team at one time. There are one goalkeeper. Unlike most common team sports, there is little positional play; these positions consist of a center forward, a center back, the two wing players and the two drivers. Players who are skilled in all positions of offense or defense are called utility players. Utility players tend to come off of the bench. Certain body types are more suited for particular positions, left-handed players are coveted on the right-hand side of the field, allowing teams to launch two-sided attacks; the offensive positions include: one center forward, two wings, two drivers, one "point", positioned farthest from the goal. The wings and point are called the perimeter players. There is a typical numbering system for these positions in U.
S. NCAA men's division one polo. Beginning with the offensive wing to the opposing goalie's right side is called one; the flat in a counter clockwise from one is called two. Moving along in the same direction the point player is three, the next flat is four, the final wing is five, the hole set is called six