1.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times

2.
Series (mathematics)
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In mathematics, a series is, informally speaking, the sum of the terms of an infinite sequence. The sum of a sequence has defined first and last terms. To emphasize that there are a number of terms, a series is often called an infinite series. In order to make the notion of an infinite sum mathematically rigorous, given an infinite sequence, the associated series is the expression obtained by adding all those terms together, a 1 + a 2 + a 3 + ⋯. These can be written compactly as ∑ i =1 ∞ a i, by using the summation symbol ∑. The sequence can be composed of any kind of object for which addition is defined. A series is evaluated by examining the finite sums of the first n terms of a sequence, called the nth partial sum of the sequence, and taking the limit as n approaches infinity. If this limit does not exist, the infinite sum cannot be assigned a value, and, in this case, the series is said to be divergent. On the other hand, if the partial sums tend to a limit when the number of terms increases indefinitely, then the series is said to be convergent, and the limit is called the sum of the series. An example is the series from Zenos dichotomy and its mathematical representation, ∑ n =1 ∞12 n =12 +14 +18 + ⋯. The study of series is a part of mathematical analysis. Series are used in most areas of mathematics, even for studying finite structures, in addition to their ubiquity in mathematics, infinite series are also widely used in other quantitative disciplines such as physics, computer science, statistics and finance. For any sequence of numbers, real numbers, complex numbers, functions thereof. By definition the series ∑ n =0 ∞ a n converges to a limit L if and this definition is usually written as L = ∑ n =0 ∞ a n ⇔ L = lim k → ∞ s k. When the index set is the natural numbers I = N, a series indexed on the natural numbers is an ordered formal sum and so we rewrite ∑ n ∈ N as ∑ n =0 ∞ in order to emphasize the ordering induced by the natural numbers. Thus, we obtain the common notation for a series indexed by the natural numbers ∑ n =0 ∞ a n = a 0 + a 1 + a 2 + ⋯. When the semigroup G is also a space, then the series ∑ n =0 ∞ a n converges to an element L ∈ G if. This definition is usually written as L = ∑ n =0 ∞ a n ⇔ L = lim k → ∞ s k, a series ∑an is said to converge or to be convergent when the sequence SN of partial sums has a finite limit

3.
Limit of a sequence
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In mathematics, the limit of a sequence is the value that the terms of a sequence tend to. If such a limit exists, the sequence is called convergent, a sequence which does not converge is said to be divergent. The limit of a sequence is said to be the fundamental notion on which the whole of analysis ultimately rests, limits can be defined in any metric or topological space, but are usually first encountered in the real numbers. The Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea is famous for formulating paradoxes that involve limiting processes, leucippus, Democritus, Antiphon, Eudoxus and Archimedes developed the method of exhaustion, which uses an infinite sequence of approximations to determine an area or a volume. Archimedes succeeded in summing what is now called a geometric series, Newton dealt with series in his works on Analysis with infinite series, Method of fluxions and infinite series and Tractatus de Quadratura Curvarum. In the latter work, Newton considers the binomial expansion of n which he then linearizes by taking limits, at the end of the century, Lagrange in his Théorie des fonctions analytiques opined that the lack of rigour precluded further development in calculus. Gauss in his etude of hypergeometric series for the first time rigorously investigated under which conditions a series converged to a limit, the modern definition of a limit was given by Bernhard Bolzano and by Karl Weierstrass in the 1870s. In the real numbers, a number L is the limit of the if the numbers in the sequence become closer and closer to L. If x n = c for some constant c, then x n → c, if x n =1 n, then x n →0. If x n =1 / n when n is even, given any real number, one may easily construct a sequence that converges to that number by taking decimal approximations. For example, the sequence 0.3,0.33,0.333,0.3333, note that the decimal representation 0.3333. is the limit of the previous sequence, defined by 0.3333. ≜ lim n → ∞ ∑ i =1 n 310 i, finding the limit of a sequence is not always obvious. Two examples are lim n → ∞ n and the Arithmetic–geometric mean, the squeeze theorem is often useful in such cases. In other words, for measure of closeness ϵ, the sequences terms are eventually that close to the limit. The sequence is said to converge to or tend to the limit x, symbolically, this is, ∀ ϵ >0 ∃ N ∈ R ∀ n ∈ N. If a sequence converges to some limit, then it is convergent, limits of sequences behave well with respect to the usual arithmetic operations. For any continuous function f, if x n → x then f → f, in fact, any real-valued function f is continuous if and only if it preserves the limits of sequences. Some other important properties of limits of sequences include the following

4.
Real number
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In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a line. The adjective real in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes, the real numbers include all the rational numbers, such as the integer −5 and the fraction 4/3, and all the irrational numbers, such as √2. Included within the irrationals are the numbers, such as π. Real numbers can be thought of as points on a long line called the number line or real line. Any real number can be determined by a possibly infinite decimal representation, such as that of 8.632, the real line can be thought of as a part of the complex plane, and complex numbers include real numbers. These descriptions of the numbers are not sufficiently rigorous by the modern standards of pure mathematics. All these definitions satisfy the definition and are thus equivalent. The statement that there is no subset of the reals with cardinality greater than ℵ0. Simple fractions were used by the Egyptians around 1000 BC, the Vedic Sulba Sutras in, c.600 BC, around 500 BC, the Greek mathematicians led by Pythagoras realized the need for irrational numbers, in particular the irrationality of the square root of 2. Arabic mathematicians merged the concepts of number and magnitude into a general idea of real numbers. In the 16th century, Simon Stevin created the basis for modern decimal notation, in the 17th century, Descartes introduced the term real to describe roots of a polynomial, distinguishing them from imaginary ones. In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was work on irrational and transcendental numbers. Johann Heinrich Lambert gave the first flawed proof that π cannot be rational, Adrien-Marie Legendre completed the proof, Évariste Galois developed techniques for determining whether a given equation could be solved by radicals, which gave rise to the field of Galois theory. Charles Hermite first proved that e is transcendental, and Ferdinand von Lindemann, lindemanns proof was much simplified by Weierstrass, still further by David Hilbert, and has finally been made elementary by Adolf Hurwitz and Paul Gordan. The development of calculus in the 18th century used the set of real numbers without having defined them cleanly. The first rigorous definition was given by Georg Cantor in 1871, in 1874, he showed that the set of all real numbers is uncountably infinite but the set of all algebraic numbers is countably infinite. Contrary to widely held beliefs, his first method was not his famous diagonal argument, the real number system can be defined axiomatically up to an isomorphism, which is described hereafter. Another possibility is to start from some rigorous axiomatization of Euclidean geometry, from the structuralist point of view all these constructions are on equal footing

5.
Geometric series
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In mathematics, a geometric series is a series with a constant ratio between successive terms. For example, the series 12 +14 +18 +116 + ⋯ is geometric, Geometric series are among the simplest examples of infinite series with finite sums, although not all of them have this property. Historically, geometric series played an important role in the development of calculus. Geometric series are used throughout mathematics, and they have important applications in physics, engineering, biology, economics, computer science, queueing theory, the terms of a geometric series form a geometric progression, meaning that the ratio of successive terms in the series is constant. This relationship allows for the representation of a series using only two terms, r and a. The term r is the ratio, and a is the first term of the series. In the case above, where r is one half, the series has the sum one, if r is greater than one or less than minus one the terms of the series become larger and larger in magnitude. The sum of the terms also gets larger and larger, if r is equal to one, all of the terms of the series are the same. If r is one the terms take two values alternately. The sum of the oscillates between two values. This is a different type of divergence and again the series has no sum, see for example Grandis series,1 −1 +1 −1 + ···. The sum can be computed using the self-similarity of the series, consider the sum of the following geometric series, s =1 +23 +49 +827 + ⋯. This series has common ratio 2/3, if we multiply through by this common ratio, then the initial 1 becomes a 2/3, the 2/3 becomes a 4/9, and so on,23 s =23 +49 +827 +1681 + ⋯. This new series is the same as the original, except that the first term is missing, subtracting the new series s from the original series s cancels every term in the original but the first, s −23 s =1, so s =3. A similar technique can be used to evaluate any self-similar expression, as n goes to infinity, the absolute value of r must be less than one for the series to converge. When a =1, this can be simplified to 1 + r + r 2 + r 3 + ⋯ =11 − r, the formula also holds for complex r, with the corresponding restriction, the modulus of r is strictly less than one. Since = 1−rn+1 and rn+1 →0 for | r | <1, convergence of geometric series can also be demonstrated by rewriting the series as an equivalent telescoping series. Consider the function, g = r K1 − r

6.
Rational number
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In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, a numerator p and a non-zero denominator q. Since q may be equal to 1, every integer is a rational number, the decimal expansion of a rational number always either terminates after a finite number of digits or begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over. Moreover, any repeating or terminating decimal represents a rational number and these statements hold true not just for base 10, but also for any other integer base. A real number that is not rational is called irrational, irrational numbers include √2, π, e, and φ. The decimal expansion of an irrational number continues without repeating, since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is uncountable, almost all real numbers are irrational. Rational numbers can be defined as equivalence classes of pairs of integers such that q ≠0, for the equivalence relation defined by ~ if. The rational numbers together with addition and multiplication form field which contains the integers and is contained in any field containing the integers, finite extensions of Q are called algebraic number fields, and the algebraic closure of Q is the field of algebraic numbers. In mathematical analysis, the numbers form a dense subset of the real numbers. The real numbers can be constructed from the numbers by completion, using Cauchy sequences, Dedekind cuts. The term rational in reference to the set Q refers to the fact that a number represents a ratio of two integers. In mathematics, rational is often used as a noun abbreviating rational number, the adjective rational sometimes means that the coefficients are rational numbers. However, a curve is not a curve defined over the rationals. Any integer n can be expressed as the rational number n/1, a b = c d if and only if a d = b c. Where both denominators are positive, a b < c d if and only if a d < b c. If either denominator is negative, the fractions must first be converted into equivalent forms with positive denominators, through the equations, − a − b = a b, two fractions are added as follows, a b + c d = a d + b c b d. A b − c d = a d − b c b d, the rule for multiplication is, a b ⋅ c d = a c b d. Where c ≠0, a b ÷ c d = a d b c, note that division is equivalent to multiplying by the reciprocal of the divisor fraction, a d b c = a b × d c. Additive and multiplicative inverses exist in the numbers, − = − a b = a − b and −1 = b a if a ≠0

7.
P-adic number
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The extension is achieved by an alternative interpretation of the concept of closeness or absolute value. In particular, p-adic numbers have the property that they are said to be close when their difference is divisible by a high power of p, the higher the power. P-adic numbers were first described by Kurt Hensel in 1897, though, with hindsight, the p-adic numbers were motivated primarily by an attempt to bring the ideas and techniques of power series methods into number theory. Their influence now extends far beyond this, for example, the field of p-adic analysis essentially provides an alternative form of calculus. More formally, for a prime p, the field Qp of p-adic numbers is a completion of the rational numbers. The field Qp is also given a topology derived from a metric, which is derived from the p-adic order. This metric space is complete in the sense that every Cauchy sequence converges to a point in Qp and this is what allows the development of calculus on Qp, and it is the interaction of this analytic and algebraic structure that gives the p-adic number systems their power and utility. The p in p-adic is a variable and may be replaced with a prime or another placeholder variable, the adic of p-adic comes from the ending found in words such as dyadic or triadic. This section is an introduction to p-adic numbers, using examples from the ring of 10-adic numbers. Although for p-adic numbers p should be a prime, base 10 was chosen to highlight the analogy with decimals, the decadic numbers are generally not used in mathematics, since 10 is not prime, the decadics are not a field. More formal constructions and properties are given below, in the standard decimal representation, almost all real numbers do not have a terminating decimal representation. For example, 1/3 is represented as a non-terminating decimal as follows 13 =0.333333 …, informally, non-terminating decimals are easily understood, because it is clear that a real number can be approximated to any required degree of precision by a terminating decimal. If two decimal expansions differ only after the 10th decimal place, they are close to one another. 10-adic numbers use a similar non-terminating expansion, but with a different concept of closeness, whereas two decimal expansions are close to one another if their difference is a large negative power of 10, two 10-adic expansions are close if their difference is a large positive power of 10. Thus 4739 and 5739, which differ by 103, are close in the 10-adic world, more precisely, a positive rational number r can be expressed as r =, p/q·10e, where p and q are positive integers and q is relatively prime to p and to 10. For each r ≠0 there exists the maximal e such that this representation is possible, let the 10-adic «absolute value» of r be | r |10, =110 e. Certainly, we have to define |0|10, =0, now, taking p/q =1 and e =0,1,2. We have |100|10 =100, |101|10 = 10−1, |102|10 = 10−2, with the consequence that we have lim + ∞ ← e 10 e =0

8.
Monotonic function
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In mathematics, a monotonic function is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order. This concept first arose in calculus, and was generalized to the more abstract setting of order theory. In calculus, a function f defined on a subset of the numbers with real values is called monotonic if. That is, as per Fig.1, a function that increases monotonically does not exclusively have to increase, a function is called monotonically increasing, if for all x and y such that x ≤ y one has f ≤ f, so f preserves the order. Likewise, a function is called monotonically decreasing if, whenever x ≤ y, then f ≥ f, if the order ≤ in the definition of monotonicity is replaced by the strict order <, then one obtains a stronger requirement. A function with this property is called strictly increasing, again, by inverting the order symbol, one finds a corresponding concept called strictly decreasing. The terms non-decreasing and non-increasing should not be confused with the negative qualifications not decreasing, for example, the function of figure 3 first falls, then rises, then falls again. It is therefore not decreasing and not increasing, but it is neither non-decreasing nor non-increasing, the term monotonic transformation can also possibly cause some confusion because it refers to a transformation by a strictly increasing function. Notably, this is the case in economics with respect to the properties of a utility function being preserved across a monotonic transform. A function f is said to be absolutely monotonic over an interval if the derivatives of all orders of f are nonnegative or all nonpositive at all points on the interval, F can only have jump discontinuities, f can only have countably many discontinuities in its domain. The discontinuities, however, do not necessarily consist of isolated points and these properties are the reason why monotonic functions are useful in technical work in analysis. In addition, this result cannot be improved to countable, see Cantor function, if f is a monotonic function defined on an interval, then f is Riemann integrable. An important application of functions is in probability theory. If X is a variable, its cumulative distribution function F X = Prob is a monotonically increasing function. A function is unimodal if it is monotonically increasing up to some point, when f is a strictly monotonic function, then f is injective on its domain, and if T is the range of f, then there is an inverse function on T for f. A map f, X → Y is said to be if each of its fibers is connected i. e. for each element y in Y the set f−1 is connected. A subset G of X × X∗ is said to be a set if for every pair. G is said to be monotone if it is maximal among all monotone sets in the sense of set inclusion

9.
Theoretical physics
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Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena. The advancement of science depends in general on the interplay between experimental studies and theory, in some cases, theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigor while giving little weight to experiments and observations. Conversely, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for explaining the photoelectric effect, a physical theory is a model of physical events. It is judged by the extent to which its predictions agree with empirical observations, the quality of a physical theory is also judged on its ability to make new predictions which can be verified by new observations. A physical theory similarly differs from a theory, in the sense that the word theory has a different meaning in mathematical terms. A physical theory involves one or more relationships between various measurable quantities, archimedes realized that a ship floats by displacing its mass of water, Pythagoras understood the relation between the length of a vibrating string and the musical tone it produces. Other examples include entropy as a measure of the uncertainty regarding the positions and motions of unseen particles, Theoretical physics consists of several different approaches. In this regard, theoretical particle physics forms a good example, for instance, phenomenologists might employ empirical formulas to agree with experimental results, often without deep physical understanding. Modelers often appear much like phenomenologists, but try to model speculative theories that have certain desirable features, some attempt to create approximate theories, called effective theories, because fully developed theories may be regarded as unsolvable or too complicated. Other theorists may try to unify, formalise, reinterpret or generalise extant theories, or create completely new ones altogether. Sometimes the vision provided by pure mathematical systems can provide clues to how a system might be modeled, e. g. the notion, due to Riemann and others. Theoretical problems that need computational investigation are often the concern of computational physics, Theoretical advances may consist in setting aside old, incorrect paradigms or may be an alternative model that provides answers that are more accurate or that can be more widely applied. In the latter case, a correspondence principle will be required to recover the previously known result, sometimes though, advances may proceed along different paths. However, an exception to all the above is the wave–particle duality, Physical theories become accepted if they are able to make correct predictions and no incorrect ones. They are also likely to be accepted if they connect a wide range of phenomena. Testing the consequences of a theory is part of the scientific method, Physical theories can be grouped into three categories, mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. Theoretical physics began at least 2,300 years ago, under the Pre-socratic philosophy, during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the concept of experimental science, the counterpoint to theory, began with scholars such as Ibn al-Haytham and Francis Bacon

10.
Riemann zeta function
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More general representations of ζ for all s are given below. The Riemann zeta function plays a role in analytic number theory and has applications in physics, probability theory. As a function of a variable, Leonhard Euler first introduced and studied it in the first half of the eighteenth century without using complex analysis. The values of the Riemann zeta function at even positive integers were computed by Euler, the first of them, ζ, provides a solution to the Basel problem. In 1979 Apéry proved the irrationality of ζ, the values at negative integer points, also found by Euler, are rational numbers and play an important role in the theory of modular forms. Many generalizations of the Riemann zeta function, such as Dirichlet series, the Riemann zeta function ζ is a function of a complex variable s = σ + it. It can also be defined by the integral ζ =1 Γ ∫0 ∞ x s −1 e x −1 d x where Γ is the gamma function. The Riemann zeta function is defined as the continuation of the function defined for σ >1 by the sum of the preceding series. Leonhard Euler considered the series in 1740 for positive integer values of s. The above series is a prototypical Dirichlet series that converges absolutely to a function for s such that σ >1. Riemann showed that the function defined by the series on the half-plane of convergence can be continued analytically to all complex values s ≠1, for s =1 the series is the harmonic series which diverges to +∞, and lim s →1 ζ =1. Thus the Riemann zeta function is a function on the whole complex s-plane. For any positive even integer 2n, ζ = n +1 B2 n 2 n 2, where B2n is the 2nth Bernoulli number. For odd positive integers, no simple expression is known, although these values are thought to be related to the algebraic K-theory of the integers. For nonpositive integers, one has ζ = B n +1 n +1 for n ≥0 In particular, ζ = −12, Similarly to the above, this assigns a finite result to the series 1 +1 +1 +1 + ⋯. ζ ≈ −1.4603545 This is employed in calculating of kinetic boundary layer problems of linear kinetic equations, ζ =1 +12 +13 + ⋯ = ∞, if we approach from numbers larger than 1. Then this is the harmonic series, but its Cauchy principal value lim ε →0 ζ + ζ2 exists which is the Euler–Mascheroni constant γ =0. 5772…. ζ ≈2.612, This is employed in calculating the critical temperature for a Bose–Einstein condensate in a box with periodic boundary conditions, and for spin wave physics in magnetic systems

11.
Analytic continuation
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In complex analysis, a branch of mathematics, analytic continuation is a technique to extend the domain of a given analytic function. The step-wise continuation technique may, however, come up against difficulties and these may have an essentially topological nature, leading to inconsistencies. They may alternatively have to do with the presence of mathematical singularities, the case of several complex variables is rather different, since singularities then need not be isolated points, and its investigation was a major reason for the development of sheaf cohomology. Suppose f is a function defined on a non-empty open subset U of the complex plane C. If V is an open subset of C, containing U. In other words, the restriction of F to U is the function f we started with and this is because F1 − F2 is an analytic function which vanishes on the open, connected domain U of f and hence must vanish on its entire domain. This follows directly from the identity theorem for holomorphic functions, a common way to define functions in complex analysis proceeds by first specifying the function on a small domain only, and then extending it by analytic continuation. In practice, this continuation is often done by first establishing some functional equation on the small domain, examples are the Riemann zeta function and the gamma function. The concept of a cover was first developed to define a natural domain for the analytic continuation of an analytic function. The idea of finding the maximal analytic continuation of a function in turn led to the development of the idea of Riemann surfaces, the power series defined below is generalized by the idea of a germ. The general theory of analytic continuation and its generalizations are known as sheaf theory, let f = ∑ k =0 ∞ α k k be a power series converging in the disk Dr, r >0, defined by D r =. Note that without loss of generality, here and below, we always assume that a maximal such r was chosen, even if that r is ∞. Also note that it would be equivalent to begin with a function defined on some small open set. We say that the vector g = is a germ of f, the base g0 of g is z0, the stem of g is and the top g1 of g is α0. The top of g is the value of f at z0, any vector g = is a germ if it represents a power series of an analytic function around z0 with some radius of convergence r >0. Therefore, we can speak of the set of germs G. This compatibility condition is neither transitive, symmetric nor antisymmetric, if we extend the relation by transitivity, we obtain a symmetric relation, which is therefore also an equivalence relation on germs. This extension by transitivity is one definition of analytic continuation, the equivalence relation will be denoted ≅

12.
Terence Tao
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Terence Terry Chi-Shen Tao FAA FRS, is an Australian-American mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics. He currently focuses on analysis, partial differential equations, algebraic combinatorics, arithmetic combinatorics, geometric combinatorics, compressed sensing. As of 2015, he holds the James and Carol Collins chair in mathematics at the University of California, Tao was a co-recipient of the 2006 Fields Medal and the 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics. Taos father, Dr. Billy Tao, was a pediatrician who was born in Shanghai, Taos mother, Grace, is from Hong Kong, she received a first-class honours degree in physics and mathematics at the University of Hong Kong. She was a school teacher of mathematics and physics in Hong Kong. Billy and Grace met as students at the University of Hong Kong and they then emigrated from Hong Kong to Australia. Tao has two living in Australia, both of whom represented Australia at the International Mathematical Olympiad. Nigel Tao was part of the team at Google Australia that created Google Wave and he now works on the Go programming language. Trevor Tao is an International Master in Chess and he has a double degree in mathematics and music and is an autistic savant. Taos wife, Laura, is an engineer at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory and they live with their son and daughter in Los Angeles, California. Tao exhibited extraordinary mathematical abilities from an age, attending university level mathematics courses at the age of 9. In 1986,1987, and 1988, Tao was the youngest participant to date in the International Mathematical Olympiad, first competing at the age of ten, winning a bronze, silver, and gold medal. He remains the youngest winner of each of the three medals in the Olympiads history, winning the gold medal shortly after his thirteenth birthday, at age 14, Tao attended the Research Science Institute. When he was 15 he published his first assistant paper and he received his bachelors and masters degrees at the age of 16 from Flinders University under Garth Gaudry. In 1992 he won a Fulbright Scholarship to undertake study in the United States. From 1992 to 1996, Tao was a student at Princeton University under the direction of Elias Stein. He joined the faculty of the University of California, Los Angeles in 1996, when he was 24, he was promoted to full professor at UCLA and remains the youngest person ever appointed to that rank by the institution. Within the field of mathematics, Tao is known for his collaboration with Ben J. Green of Oxford University, known for his collaborative mindset, by 2006 Tao had worked with over 30 others in his discoveries, reaching 68 co-authors by October 2015

13.
ArXiv
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In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14,1991, arXiv. org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3,2008, by 2014 the submission rate had grown to more than 8,000 per month. The arXiv was made possible by the low-bandwidth TeX file format, around 1990, Joanne Cohn began emailing physics preprints to colleagues as TeX files, but the number of papers being sent soon filled mailboxes to capacity. Additional modes of access were added, FTP in 1991, Gopher in 1992. The term e-print was quickly adopted to describe the articles and its original domain name was xxx. lanl. gov. Due to LANLs lack of interest in the rapidly expanding technology, in 1999 Ginsparg changed institutions to Cornell University and it is now hosted principally by Cornell, with 8 mirrors around the world. Its existence was one of the factors that led to the current movement in scientific publishing known as open access. Mathematicians and scientists regularly upload their papers to arXiv. org for worldwide access, Ginsparg was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2002 for his establishment of arXiv. The annual budget for arXiv is approximately $826,000 for 2013 to 2017, funded jointly by Cornell University Library, annual donations were envisaged to vary in size between $2,300 to $4,000, based on each institution’s usage. As of 14 January 2014,174 institutions have pledged support for the period 2013–2017 on this basis, in September 2011, Cornell University Library took overall administrative and financial responsibility for arXivs operation and development. Ginsparg was quoted in the Chronicle of Higher Education as saying it was supposed to be a three-hour tour, however, Ginsparg remains on the arXiv Scientific Advisory Board and on the arXiv Physics Advisory Committee. The lists of moderators for many sections of the arXiv are publicly available, additionally, an endorsement system was introduced in 2004 as part of an effort to ensure content that is relevant and of interest to current research in the specified disciplines. Under the system, for categories that use it, an author must be endorsed by an established arXiv author before being allowed to submit papers to those categories. Endorsers are not asked to review the paper for errors, new authors from recognized academic institutions generally receive automatic endorsement, which in practice means that they do not need to deal with the endorsement system at all. However, the endorsement system has attracted criticism for allegedly restricting scientific inquiry, perelman appears content to forgo the traditional peer-reviewed journal process, stating, If anybody is interested in my way of solving the problem, its all there – let them go and read about it. The arXiv generally re-classifies these works, e. g. in General mathematics, papers can be submitted in any of several formats, including LaTeX, and PDF printed from a word processor other than TeX or LaTeX. The submission is rejected by the software if generating the final PDF file fails, if any image file is too large. ArXiv now allows one to store and modify an incomplete submission, the time stamp on the article is set when the submission is finalized

14.
On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences
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The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, also cited simply as Sloanes, is an online database of integer sequences. It was created and maintained by Neil Sloane while a researcher at AT&T Labs, Sloane continues to be involved in the OEIS in his role as President of the OEIS Foundation. OEIS records information on integer sequences of interest to professional mathematicians and amateurs, and is widely cited. As of 30 December 2016 it contains nearly 280,000 sequences, the database is searchable by keyword and by subsequence. Neil Sloane started collecting integer sequences as a student in 1965 to support his work in combinatorics. The database was at first stored on punched cards and he published selections from the database in book form twice, A Handbook of Integer Sequences, containing 2,372 sequences in lexicographic order and assigned numbers from 1 to 2372. The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences with Simon Plouffe, containing 5,488 sequences and these books were well received and, especially after the second publication, mathematicians supplied Sloane with a steady flow of new sequences. The collection became unmanageable in book form, and when the database had reached 16,000 entries Sloane decided to go online—first as an e-mail service, as a spin-off from the database work, Sloane founded the Journal of Integer Sequences in 1998. The database continues to grow at a rate of some 10,000 entries a year, Sloane has personally managed his sequences for almost 40 years, but starting in 2002, a board of associate editors and volunteers has helped maintain the database. In 2004, Sloane celebrated the addition of the 100, 000th sequence to the database, A100000, in 2006, the user interface was overhauled and more advanced search capabilities were added. In 2010 an OEIS wiki at OEIS. org was created to simplify the collaboration of the OEIS editors and contributors, besides integer sequences, the OEIS also catalogs sequences of fractions, the digits of transcendental numbers, complex numbers and so on by transforming them into integer sequences. Sequences of rationals are represented by two sequences, the sequence of numerators and the sequence of denominators, important irrational numbers such as π =3.1415926535897. are catalogued under representative integer sequences such as decimal expansions, binary expansions, or continued fraction expansions. The OEIS was limited to plain ASCII text until 2011, yet it still uses a form of conventional mathematical notation. Greek letters are represented by their full names, e. g. mu for μ. Every sequence is identified by the letter A followed by six digits, sometimes referred to without the leading zeros, individual terms of sequences are separated by commas. Digit groups are not separated by commas, periods, or spaces, a represents the nth term of the sequence. Zero is often used to represent non-existent sequence elements, for example, A104157 enumerates the smallest prime of n² consecutive primes to form an n×n magic square of least magic constant, or 0 if no such magic square exists. The value of a is 2, a is 1480028129, but there is no such 2×2 magic square, so a is 0

15.
Sequence
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In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed. Like a set, it contains members, the number of elements is called the length of the sequence. Unlike a set, order matters, and exactly the elements can appear multiple times at different positions in the sequence. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function whose domain is either the set of the numbers or the set of the first n natural numbers. The position of an element in a sequence is its rank or index and it depends on the context or of a specific convention, if the first element has index 0 or 1. For example, is a sequence of letters with the letter M first, also, the sequence, which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be finite, as in these examples, or infinite, the empty sequence is included in most notions of sequence, but may be excluded depending on the context. A sequence can be thought of as a list of elements with a particular order, Sequences are useful in a number of mathematical disciplines for studying functions, spaces, and other mathematical structures using the convergence properties of sequences. In particular, sequences are the basis for series, which are important in differential equations, Sequences are also of interest in their own right and can be studied as patterns or puzzles, such as in the study of prime numbers. There are a number of ways to denote a sequence, some of which are useful for specific types of sequences. One way to specify a sequence is to list the elements, for example, the first four odd numbers form the sequence. This notation can be used for sequences as well. For instance, the sequence of positive odd integers can be written. Listing is most useful for sequences with a pattern that can be easily discerned from the first few elements. Other ways to denote a sequence are discussed after the examples, the prime numbers are the natural numbers bigger than 1, that have no divisors but 1 and themselves. Taking these in their natural order gives the sequence, the prime numbers are widely used in mathematics and specifically in number theory. The Fibonacci numbers are the integer sequence whose elements are the sum of the two elements. The first two elements are either 0 and 1 or 1 and 1 so that the sequence is, for a large list of examples of integer sequences, see On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences

16.
Geometric progression
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For example, the sequence 2,6,18,54. is a geometric progression with common ratio 3. Similarly 10,5,2.5,1.25. is a sequence with common ratio 1/2. Examples of a sequence are powers rk of a fixed number r, such as 2k. The general form of a sequence is a, a r, a r 2, a r 3, a r 4, … where r ≠0 is the common ratio. The n-th term of a sequence with initial value a. Such a geometric sequence also follows the relation a n = r a n −1 for every integer n ≥1. Generally, to whether a given sequence is geometric, one simply checks whether successive entries in the sequence all have the same ratio. The common ratio of a sequence may be negative, resulting in an alternating sequence, with numbers switching from positive to negative. For instance 1, −3,9, −27,81, the behaviour of a geometric sequence depends on the value of the common ratio. If the common ratio is, Positive, the terms will all be the sign as the initial term. Negative, the terms will alternate between positive and negative, greater than 1, there will be exponential growth towards positive or negative infinity. 1, the progression is a constant sequence, between −1 and 1 but not zero, there will be exponential decay towards zero. −1, the progression is an alternating sequence Less than −1, for the absolute values there is exponential growth towards infinity, due to the alternating sign. Geometric sequences show exponential growth or exponential decay, as opposed to the growth of an arithmetic progression such as 4,15,26,37,48. This result was taken by T. R. Malthus as the foundation of his Principle of Population. A geometric series is the sum of the numbers in a geometric progression, for example,2 +10 +50 +250 =2 +2 ×5 +2 ×52 +2 ×53. The formula works for any real numbers a and r. For example, −2 π +4 π2 −8 π3 = −2 π +2 +3 = −2 π1 − = −2 π1 +2 π ≈ −214.855

17.
Square number
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In mathematics, a square number or perfect square is an integer that is the square of an integer, in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself. For example,9 is a number, since it can be written as 3 × 3. The usual notation for the square of a n is not the product n × n. The name square number comes from the name of the shape, another way of saying that a integer is a square number, is that its square root is again an integer. For example, √9 =3, so 9 is a square number, a positive integer that has no perfect square divisors except 1 is called square-free. For a non-negative integer n, the nth square number is n2, the concept of square can be extended to some other number systems. If rational numbers are included, then a square is the ratio of two integers, and, conversely, the ratio of two square integers is a square, e. g.49 =2. Starting with 1, there are ⌊√m⌋ square numbers up to and including m, the squares smaller than 602 =3600 are, The difference between any perfect square and its predecessor is given by the identity n2 −2 = 2n −1. Equivalently, it is possible to count up square numbers by adding together the last square, the last squares root, and the current root, that is, n2 =2 + + n. The number m is a number if and only if one can compose a square of m equal squares. Hence, a square with side length n has area n2, the expression for the nth square number is n2. This is also equal to the sum of the first n odd numbers as can be seen in the above pictures, the formula follows, n 2 = ∑ k =1 n. So for example,52 =25 =1 +3 +5 +7 +9, there are several recursive methods for computing square numbers. For example, the nth square number can be computed from the square by n2 =2 + + n =2 +. Alternatively, the nth square number can be calculated from the two by doubling the th square, subtracting the th square number, and adding 2. For example, 2 × 52 −42 +2 = 2 × 25 −16 +2 =50 −16 +2 =36 =62, a square number is also the sum of two consecutive triangular numbers. The sum of two square numbers is a centered square number. Every odd square is also an octagonal number

18.
Cube (algebra)
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In arithmetic and algebra, the cube of a number n is its third power, the result of the number multiplied by itself twice, n3 = n × n × n. It is also the number multiplied by its square, n3 = n × n2 and this is also the volume formula for a geometric cube with sides of length n, giving rise to the name. The inverse operation of finding a number whose cube is n is called extracting the cube root of n and it determines the side of the cube of a given volume. It is also n raised to the one-third power, both cube and cube root are odd functions,3 = −. The cube of a number or any other mathematical expression is denoted by a superscript 3, a cube number, or a perfect cube, or sometimes just a cube, is a number which is the cube of an integer. The perfect cubes up to 603 are, Geometrically speaking, an integer m is a perfect cube if and only if one can arrange m solid unit cubes into a larger. For example,27 small cubes can be arranged into one larger one with the appearance of a Rubiks Cube, the difference between the cubes of consecutive integers can be expressed as follows, n3 −3 = 3n +1. There is no minimum perfect cube, since the cube of an integer is negative. For example, −4 × −4 × −4 = −64, unlike perfect squares, perfect cubes do not have a small number of possibilities for the last two digits. Except for cubes divisible by 5, where only 25,75 and 00 can be the last two digits, any pair of digits with the last digit odd can be a perfect cube. With even cubes, there is considerable restriction, for only 00, o2, e4, o6, some cube numbers are also square numbers, for example,64 is a square number and a cube number. This happens if and only if the number is a perfect sixth power, the last digits of each 3rd power are, It is, however, easy to show that most numbers are not perfect cubes because all perfect cubes must have digital root 1,8 or 9. That is their values modulo 9 may be only −1,1 and 0, every positive integer can be written as the sum of nine positive cubes. The equation x3 + y3 = z3 has no solutions in integers. In fact, it has none in Eisenstein integers, both of these statements are also true for the equation x3 + y3 = 3z3. The sum of the first n cubes is the nth triangle number squared,13 +23 + ⋯ + n 3 =2 =2. Proofs Charles Wheatstone gives a simple derivation, by expanding each cube in the sum into a set of consecutive odd numbers. Indeed, he begins by giving the identity n 3 = + + + ⋯ + ⏟ n consecutive odd numbers, kanim provides a purely visual proof, Benjamin & Orrison provide two additional proofs, and Nelsen gives seven geometric proofs

19.
Factorial
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In mathematics, the factorial of a non-negative integer n, denoted by n. is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. =5 ×4 ×3 ×2 ×1 =120, the value of 0. is 1, according to the convention for an empty product. The factorial operation is encountered in areas of mathematics, notably in combinatorics, algebra. Its most basic occurrence is the fact there are n. ways to arrange n distinct objects into a sequence. This fact was known at least as early as the 12th century, fabian Stedman, in 1677, described factorials as applied to change ringing. After describing a recursive approach, Stedman gives a statement of a factorial, Now the nature of these methods is such, the factorial function is formally defined by the product n. = ∏ k =1 n k, or by the relation n. = {1 if n =0. The factorial function can also be defined by using the rule as n. All of the above definitions incorporate the instance 0, =1, in the first case by the convention that the product of no numbers at all is 1. This is convenient because, There is exactly one permutation of zero objects, = n. ×, valid for n >0, extends to n =0. It allows for the expression of many formulae, such as the function, as a power series. It makes many identities in combinatorics valid for all applicable sizes, the number of ways to choose 0 elements from the empty set is =0. More generally, the number of ways to choose n elements among a set of n is = n. n, the factorial function can also be defined for non-integer values using more advanced mathematics, detailed in the section below. This more generalized definition is used by advanced calculators and mathematical software such as Maple or Mathematica, although the factorial function has its roots in combinatorics, formulas involving factorials occur in many areas of mathematics. There are n. different ways of arranging n distinct objects into a sequence, often factorials appear in the denominator of a formula to account for the fact that ordering is to be ignored. A classical example is counting k-combinations from a set with n elements, one can obtain such a combination by choosing a k-permutation, successively selecting and removing an element of the set, k times, for a total of n k _ = n ⋯ possibilities. This however produces the k-combinations in an order that one wishes to ignore, since each k-combination is obtained in k. different ways. This number is known as the coefficient, because it is also the coefficient of Xk in n

20.
Power of two
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In mathematics, a power of two means a number of the form 2n where n is an integer, i. e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer n as the exponent. In a context where only integers are considered, n is restricted to values, so we have 1,2. Because two is the base of the numeral system, powers of two are common in computer science. Written in binary, a power of two always has the form 100…000 or 0. 00…001, just like a power of ten in the decimal system, a word, interpreted as an unsigned integer, can represent values from 0 to 2n −1 inclusively. Corresponding signed integer values can be positive, negative and zero, either way, one less than a power of two is often the upper bound of an integer in binary computers. As a consequence, numbers of this show up frequently in computer software. For example, in the original Legend of Zelda the main character was limited to carrying 255 rupees at any time. Powers of two are used to measure computer memory. A byte is now considered eight bits (an octet, resulting in the possibility of 256 values, the prefix kilo, in conjunction with byte, may be, and has traditionally been, used, to mean 1,024. However, in general, the term kilo has been used in the International System of Units to mean 1,000, binary prefixes have been standardized, such as kibi meaning 1,024. Nearly all processor registers have sizes that are powers of two,32 or 64 being most common, powers of two occur in a range of other places as well. For many disk drives, at least one of the size, number of sectors per track. The logical block size is almost always a power of two. Numbers that are not powers of two occur in a number of situations, such as video resolutions, but they are often the sum or product of two or three powers of two, or powers of two minus one. For example,640 =512 +128 =128 ×5, put another way, they have fairly regular bit patterns. A prime number that is one less than a power of two is called a Mersenne prime, for example, the prime number 31 is a Mersenne prime because it is 1 less than 32. Similarly, a number that is one more than a positive power of two is called a Fermat prime—the exponent itself is a power of two. A fraction that has a power of two as its denominator is called a dyadic rational, the numbers that can be represented as sums of consecutive positive integers are called polite numbers, they are exactly the numbers that are not powers of two

21.
Power of 10
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In mathematics, a power of 10 is any of the integer powers of the number ten, in other words, ten multiplied by itself a certain number of times. By definition, the one is a power of ten. The first few powers of ten are,1,10,100,1000,10000,100000,1000000,10000000. In decimal notation the nth power of ten is written as 1 followed by n zeroes and it can also be written as 10n or as 1En in E notation. See order of magnitude and orders of magnitude for named powers of ten, there are two conventions for naming positive powers of ten, called the long and short scales. Where a power of ten has different names in the two conventions, the long scale namme is shown in brackets, googolplex, a much larger power of ten, was also introduced in that book. Scientific notation is a way of writing numbers of very large, a number written in scientific notation has a significand multiplied by a power of ten. Sometimes written in the form, m × 10n Or more compactly as, where n is positive, this indicates the number zeros after the number, and where the n is negative, this indicates the number of decimal places before the number. As an example,105 =100,000 10−5 =0.00001 The notation of mEn, known as E notation, is used in programming, spreadsheets and databases. Power of two SI prefix Cosmic View, inspiration for the film Powers of Ten Video Powers of Ten, US Public Broadcasting Service, made by Charles and Ray Eames. Starting at a picnic by the lakeside in Chicago, this film transports the viewer to the edges of the universe. Every ten seconds we view the point from ten times farther out until our own galaxy is visible only as a speck of light among many others. Returning to Earth with breathtaking speed, we move inward - into the hand of the sleeping picnicker - with ten times more magnification every ten seconds and our journey ends inside a proton of a carbon atom within a DNA molecule in a white blood cell

22.
Fibonacci number
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The Fibonacci sequence is named after Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci. His 1202 book Liber Abaci introduced the sequence to Western European mathematics, the sequence described in Liber Abaci began with F1 =1. Fibonacci numbers are related to Lucas numbers L n in that they form a complementary pair of Lucas sequences U n = F n and V n = L n. They are intimately connected with the ratio, for example. Fibonacci numbers appear unexpectedly often in mathematics, so much so that there is a journal dedicated to their study. The Fibonacci sequence appears in Indian mathematics, in connection with Sanskrit prosody, in the Sanskrit tradition of prosody, there was interest in enumerating all patterns of long syllables that are 2 units of duration, and short syllables that are 1 unit of duration. Counting the different patterns of L and S of a given duration results in the Fibonacci numbers, susantha Goonatilake writes that the development of the Fibonacci sequence is attributed in part to Pingala, later being associated with Virahanka, Gopāla, and Hemachandra. He dates Pingala before 450 BC, however, the clearest exposition of the sequence arises in the work of Virahanka, whose own work is lost, but is available in a quotation by Gopala, Variations of two earlier meters. For example, for four, variations of meters of two three being mixed, five happens, in this way, the process should be followed in all mātrā-vṛttas. The sequence is also discussed by Gopala and by the Jain scholar Hemachandra, outside India, the Fibonacci sequence first appears in the book Liber Abaci by Fibonacci. The puzzle that Fibonacci posed was, how many pairs will there be in one year, at the end of the first month, they mate, but there is still only 1 pair. At the end of the month the female produces a new pair. At the end of the month, the original female produces a second pair. At the end of the month, the original female has produced yet another new pair. At the end of the nth month, the number of pairs of rabbits is equal to the number of new pairs plus the number of pairs alive last month and this is the nth Fibonacci number. The name Fibonacci sequence was first used by the 19th-century number theorist Édouard Lucas, the most common such problem is that of counting the number of compositions of 1s and 2s that sum to a given total n, there are Fn+1 ways to do this. For example, if n =5, then Fn+1 = F6 =8 counts the eight compositions, 1+1+1+1+1 = 1+1+1+2 = 1+1+2+1 = 1+2+1+1 = 2+1+1+1 = 2+2+1 = 2+1+2 = 1+2+2, all of which sum to 5. The Fibonacci numbers can be found in different ways among the set of strings, or equivalently

23.
Heptagonal number
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A heptagonal number is a figurate number that represents a heptagon. The n-th heptagonal number is given by the formula 5 n 2 −3 n 2, like square numbers, the digital root in base 10 of a heptagonal number can only be 1,4,7 or 9. Five times a number, plus 1 equals a triangular number. A generalized heptagonal number is obtained by the formula T n + T ⌊ n 2 ⌋, where Tn is the nth triangular number. The first few generalized heptagonal numbers are,1,4,7,13,18,27,34,46,55,70,81,99,112, besides 1 and 70, no generalized heptagonal numbers are also Pell numbers. The heptagonal root of x is given by the formula n =40 x +9 +310

24.
Hexagonal number
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A hexagonal number is a figurate number. The formula for the nth hexagonal number h n =2 n 2 − n = n =2 n ×2. The first few numbers are,1,6,15,28,45,66,91,120,153,190,231,276,325,378,435,496,561,630,703,780,861,946. Every hexagonal number is a number, but only every other triangular number is a hexagonal number. Like a triangular number, the root in base 10 of a hexagonal number can only be 1,3,6. The digital root pattern, repeating every nine terms, is 166193139. Every even perfect number is hexagonal, given by the formula M p 2 p −1 = M p /2 = h /2 = h 2 p −1 where Mp is a Mersenne prime. No odd perfect numbers are known, hence all known perfect numbers are hexagonal, for example, the 2nd hexagonal number is 2×3 =6, the 4th is 4×7 =28, the 16th is 16×31 =496, and the 64th is 64×127 =8128. The largest number that cannot be written as a sum of at most four hexagonal numbers is 130, adrien-Marie Legendre proved in 1830 that any integer greater than 1791 can be expressed in this way. Hexagonal numbers can be rearranged into rectangular numbers of n by. Hexagonal numbers should not be confused with centered hexagonal numbers, which model the standard packaging of Vienna sausages, to avoid ambiguity, hexagonal numbers are sometimes called cornered hexagonal numbers. One can efficiently test whether a positive x is an hexagonal number by computing n =8 x +1 +14. If n is an integer, then x is the nth hexagonal number, if n is not an integer, then x is not hexagonal. The nth number of the sequence can also be expressed by using Sigma notation as h n = ∑ i =0 n −1 where the empty sum is taken to be 0. Centered hexagonal number Mathworld entry on Hexagonal Number

25.
Pell number
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In mathematics, the Pell numbers are an infinite sequence of integers, known since ancient times, that comprise the denominators of the closest rational approximations to the square root of 2. This sequence of approximations begins 1/1, 3/2, 7/5, 17/12, and 41/29, so the sequence of Pell numbers begins with 1,2,5,12, and 29. The numerators of the sequence of approximations are half the companion Pell numbers or Pell–Lucas numbers, these numbers form a second infinite sequence that begins with 2,6,14,34. As with Pells equation, the name of the Pell numbers stems from Leonhard Eulers mistaken attribution of the equation, the Pell–Lucas numbers are also named after Édouard Lucas, who studied sequences defined by recurrences of this type, the Pell and companion Pell numbers are Lucas sequences. The Pell numbers are defined by the recurrence relation P n = {0 if n =0,1 if n =1,2 P n −1 + P n −2 otherwise. In words, the sequence of Pell numbers starts with 0 and 1, and then each Pell number is the sum of twice the previous Pell number and the Pell number before that. The first few terms of the sequence are 0,1,2,5,12,29,70,169,408,985,2378,5741,13860, …. The Pell numbers can also be expressed by the closed form formula P n = n − n 22, a third definition is possible, from the matrix formula = n. Pell numbers arise historically and most notably in the rational approximation to √2. If two large integers x and y form a solution to the Pell equation x 2 −2 y 2 = ±1 and that is, the solutions have the form P n −1 + P n P n. The approximation 2 ≈577408 of this type was known to Indian mathematicians in the third or fourth century B. C, the Greek mathematicians of the fifth century B. C. also knew of this sequence of approximations, Plato refers to the numerators as rational diameters. In the 2nd century CE Theon of Smyrna used the term the side and these approximations can be derived from the continued fraction expansion of 2,2 =1 +12 +12 +12 +12 +12 + ⋱. As Knuth describes, the fact that Pell numbers approximate √2 allows them to be used for accurate rational approximations to an octagon with vertex coordinates. All vertices are equally distant from the origin, and form uniform angles around the origin. Alternatively, the points, and form approximate octagons in which the vertices are equally distant from the origin. A Pell prime is a Pell number that is prime, the first few Pell primes are 2,5,29,5741, …. The indices of these primes within the sequence of all Pell numbers are 2,3,5,11,13,29,41,53,59,89,97,101,167,181,191, … These indices are all themselves prime. As with the Fibonacci numbers, a Pell number Pn can only be prime if n itself is prime, the only Pell numbers that are squares, cubes, or any higher power of an integer are 0,1, and 169 =132. However, despite having so few squares or other powers, Pell numbers have a connection to square triangular numbers

26.
Triangular number
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A triangular number or triangle number counts the objects that can form an equilateral triangle, as in the diagram on the right. The nth triangular number is the number of dots composing a triangle with n dots on a side and it represents the number of distinct pairs that can be selected from n +1 objects, and it is read aloud as n plus one choose two. Carl Friedrich Gauss is said to have found this relationship in his early youth, however, regardless of the truth of this story, Gauss was not the first to discover this formula, and some find it likely that its origin goes back to the Pythagoreans 5th century BC. The two formulae were described by the Irish monk Dicuil in about 816 in his Computus, the triangular number Tn solves the handshake problem of counting the number of handshakes if each person in a room with n +1 people shakes hands once with each person. In other words, the solution to the problem of n people is Tn−1. The function T is the analog of the factorial function. In the limit, the ratio between the two numbers, dots and line segments is lim n → ∞ T n L n =13, Triangular numbers have a wide variety of relations to other figurate numbers. Most simply, the sum of two triangular numbers is a square number, with the sum being the square of the difference between the two. Algebraically, T n + T n −1 = + = + = n 2 =2, alternatively, the same fact can be demonstrated graphically, There are infinitely many triangular numbers that are also square numbers, e. g.1,36,1225. Some of them can be generated by a recursive formula. All square triangular numbers are found from the recursion S n =34 S n −1 − S n −2 +2 with S0 =0 and S1 =1. Also, the square of the nth triangular number is the same as the sum of the cubes of the integers 1 to n and this can also be expressed as ∑ k =1 n k 3 =2. The sum of the all triangular numbers up to the nth triangular number is the nth tetrahedral number, more generally, the difference between the nth m-gonal number and the nth -gonal number is the th triangular number. For example, the sixth heptagonal number minus the sixth hexagonal number equals the triangular number,15. Every other triangular number is a hexagonal number, knowing the triangular numbers, one can reckon any centered polygonal number, the nth centered k-gonal number is obtained by the formula C k n = k T n −1 +1 where T is a triangular number. The positive difference of two numbers is a trapezoidal number. Triangular numbers correspond to the case of Faulhabers formula. Alternating triangular numbers are also hexagonal numbers, every even perfect number is triangular, given by the formula M p 2 p −1 = M p 2 = T M p where Mp is a Mersenne prime

27.
Cauchy sequence
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In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence, named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses. More precisely, given any small positive distance, all but a number of elements of the sequence are less than that given distance from each other. It is not sufficient for each term to become close to the preceding term. For instance, in the harmonic series ∑1 n a difference between consecutive terms decreases as 1 n, however the series does not converge, rather, it is required that all terms get arbitrarily close to each other, starting from some point. More formally, for any given ε >0 there exists an N such that for any m, n > N. The notions above are not as unfamiliar as they might at first appear, the customary acceptance of the fact that any real number x has a decimal expansion is an implicit acknowledgment that a particular Cauchy sequence of rational numbers has the real limit x. In some cases it may be difficult to describe x independently of such a process involving rational numbers. Generalizations of Cauchy sequences in more abstract uniform spaces exist in the form of Cauchy filters, in a similar way one can define Cauchy sequences of rational or complex numbers. Cauchy formulated such a condition by requiring x m − x n to be infinitesimal for every pair of infinite m, n, to define Cauchy sequences in any metric space X, the absolute value |xm - xn| is replaced by the distance d between xm and xn. A metric space X in which every Cauchy sequence converges to an element of X is called complete, the real numbers are complete under the metric induced by the usual absolute value, and one of the standard constructions of the real numbers involves Cauchy sequences of rational numbers. A rather different type of example is afforded by a metric space X which has the discrete metric, any Cauchy sequence of elements of X must be constant beyond some fixed point, and converges to the eventually repeating term. The rational numbers Q are not complete, There are sequences of rationals that converge to irrational numbers, if one considers this as a sequence of real numbers, however, it converges to the real number φ = /2, the Golden ratio, which is irrational. Every Cauchy sequence of numbers is bounded. Every Cauchy sequence of numbers is bounded, hence by Bolzano-Weierstrass has a convergent subsequence, hence is itself convergent. It should be noted, though, that proof of the completeness of the real numbers implicitly makes use of the least upper bound axiom. The alternative approach, mentioned above, of constructing the real numbers as the completion of the rational numbers, makes the completeness of the real numbers tautological. Such a series ∑ n =1 ∞ x n is considered to be convergent if and only if the sequence of sums is convergent. It is a matter to determine whether the sequence of partial sums is Cauchy or not

28.
Convergent series
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In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function or sequence approaches as the input or index approaches some value. Limits are essential to calculus and are used to define continuity, derivatives, the concept of a limit of a sequence is further generalized to the concept of a limit of a topological net, and is closely related to limit and direct limit in category theory. In formulas, a limit is usually written as lim n → c f = L and is read as the limit of f of n as n approaches c equals L. Here lim indicates limit, and the fact that function f approaches the limit L as n approaches c is represented by the right arrow, suppose f is a real-valued function and c is a real number. Intuitively speaking, the lim x → c f = L means that f can be made to be as close to L as desired by making x sufficiently close to c. The first inequality means that the distance x and c is greater than 0 and that x ≠ c, while the second indicates that x is within distance δ of c. Note that the definition of a limit is true even if f ≠ L. Indeed. Now since x +1 is continuous in x at 1, we can now plug in 1 for x, in addition to limits at finite values, functions can also have limits at infinity. In this case, the limit of f as x approaches infinity is 2, in mathematical notation, lim x → ∞2 x −1 x =2. Consider the following sequence,1.79,1.799,1.7999 and it can be observed that the numbers are approaching 1.8, the limit of the sequence. Formally, suppose a1, a2. is a sequence of real numbers, intuitively, this means that eventually all elements of the sequence get arbitrarily close to the limit, since the absolute value | an − L | is the distance between an and L. Not every sequence has a limit, if it does, it is called convergent, one can show that a convergent sequence has only one limit. The limit of a sequence and the limit of a function are closely related, on one hand, the limit as n goes to infinity of a sequence a is simply the limit at infinity of a function defined on the natural numbers n. On the other hand, a limit L of a function f as x goes to infinity, if it exists, is the same as the limit of any sequence a that approaches L. Note that one such sequence would be L + 1/n, in non-standard analysis, the limit of a sequence can be expressed as the standard part of the value a H of the natural extension of the sequence at an infinite hypernatural index n=H. Thus, lim n → ∞ a n = st , here the standard part function st rounds off each finite hyperreal number to the nearest real number. This formalizes the intuition that for very large values of the index. Conversely, the part of a hyperreal a = represented in the ultrapower construction by a Cauchy sequence, is simply the limit of that sequence

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Uniform convergence
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In the mathematical field of analysis, uniform convergence is a type of convergence stronger than pointwise convergence. Loosely speaking, this means that f n converges to f at a speed on its entire domain. In contrast, we say that f n converges to f pointwise, if exists a N. It is clear from these definitions that uniform convergence of f n to f on E implies pointwise convergence for every x ∈ E, frequently, no special symbol is used, and authors simply write f n → f u n i f o r m l y. The difference between the two types of convergence was not fully appreciated early in the history of calculus, leading to instances of faulty reasoning, Uniform convergence to a function on a given interval can be defined in terms of the uniform norm. Completely standard notions of convergence did not exist at the time, when put into the modern language, what Cauchy proved is that a uniformly convergent sequence of continuous functions has a continuous limit. While he thought it a fact when a series converged in this way, he did not give a formal definition. Independently, similar concepts were articulated by Philipp Ludwig von Seidel, suppose E is a set and f n, E → R are real-valued functions. This is the Cauchy criterion for uniform convergence, in another equivalent formulation, if we define a n = sup x ∈ E | f n − f |, then f n converges to f uniformly if and only if a n →0 as n → ∞. The sequence n ∈ N is said to be uniformly convergent with limit f if E is a metric space and for every x in E. It is easy to see that local uniform convergence implies pointwise convergence and it is also clear that uniform convergence implies local uniform convergence. Note that interchanging the order of there exists N and for all x in the definition above results in a statement equivalent to the convergence of the sequence. In explicit terms, in the case of convergence, N can only depend on ϵ, while in the case of pointwise convergence. It is therefore plain that uniform convergence implies pointwise convergence, the converse is not true, as the example in the section below illustrates. One may straightforwardly extend the concept to functions S → M, the most general setting is the uniform convergence of nets of functions S → X, where X is a uniform space. The above-mentioned theorem, stating that the limit of continuous functions is continuous. Uniform convergence admits a simplified definition in a hyperreal setting, thus, a sequence f n converges to f uniformly if for all x in the domain of f* and all infinite n, f n ∗ is infinitely close to f ∗. Then uniform convergence simply means convergence in the norm topology