Post-Confederation Canada (1867–1914)
Post-Confederation Canada is the history of a new nation from its formation to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Canada had a population of 3.5 million, residing in the large expanse from Cape Breton to just beyond the Great Lakes within a hundred miles or so of the Canada–US border. One in three Canadians was French, about 100,000 were aboriginal, it was a rural country composed of small farms. With a population of 115,000, Montreal was the largest city, followed by Toronto and Quebec at about 60,000. Pigs roamed the muddy streets of the small new national capital. Besides subsistence agriculture, the economy was based on exports of lumber and grain, the import of investment capital from London and New York. Factories were small, except for those making farm implements. Overall the economy prospered in the first years of Confederation, but a world-wide depression 1873-1896 hurt the export economy, reduced the inflow of foreign capital, reduced the flow of immigration. Economic growth of total GNP averaged only 2.4 percent per year, 1870 to 1896 surged to 6.2 percent, 1897-1913.
Part of that increase was due to population growth. The rate of growth of GNP per capita was 1.3%, 1870 to 1896 surged to 2.6 percent, 1897-1913. The growth rate was respectable, but lower than that of the United States, fueled a sense of disappointment that Confederation had not delivered on its promise of prosperity. Politically, the Father of Confederation, John A. Macdonald and his Conservative Party dominated national politics until his death; the Liberals under Wilfrid Laurier were in power 1896 to 1911, were ousted in a campaign based on anti-Americanism by Robert Borden. Francophones had a traditionalistic culture, led by the landholders and the priests; the Anglophones took pride in their Britishness and in their refusal to be swallowed up by the United States. Baseball and lacrosse were favorite sports. Cultural facilities were limited. There were only two public libraries in the entire new country. Hard drinking in all ranks was the norm. Politically, the new nation was defined by its practicality and stoicism.
Much more important was loyalty to family, political party, Queen Victoria. Historians emphasized the iconic phrase "Peace and Good Government" as founding constitutional principles, but at the time it was quoted. On the eve of the great war in 1914, the national population had reached 8.1 million. Most of the growth had taken place in the new western provinces, Saskatchewan and British Columbia, while immigration from abroad reached 400,000 annually; the great national achievement was the building of transcontinental railways that opened the prairies to settlement. The rich new farmlands made Canada a major exporter of wheat. Issues of nationalism versus loyalty to the British Crown continued. So too did bitter disputes on language issues the role of the French language outside Québec. Ethno-religious tensions flared between the Francophones and the Anglophones, between the Catholic Irish and the Protestant Irish, between the whites and the Asians on the West Coast. In the 1860s, the British were concerned with the possibility of an American assault on Canada in the wake of the American Civil War.
Britain feared that American settlers might expand to the north, into land, technically British but, sparsely settled. There were problems with raids into Canada launched by the Fenian Brotherhood, a group of Irish Americans who wanted to pressure Britain into granting independence to Ireland. Canada was essentially a self-governing colony since the 1840s, Britain no longer felt it was worth the expense of keeping it as a colony. Both sides would, it was felt, be better off economically if Canada was independent; these factors led to the first serious discussions about real political union in Canada. However, there were internal political obstacles; the Province of Canada had little success in keeping a stable government for any period of time. In 1864, the two parties decided to unite in the "Great Coalition"; this was an important step towards Confederation. Meanwhile, the colonies further east, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, were discussing a political union with each other.
Representatives from the Province of Canada joined them at the Charlottetown Conference in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island in 1864 to discuss a union of all the colonies, these discussions were extended into the Quebec Conference of 1864. While there was opposition in each of the colonies, only Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland decided to remain outside of the planned Confederation. In 1867, representatives of the other colonies travelled to Britain to finalize the union, granted by the British North America Act on July 1, 1867. Early drafts of the BNA Act showed that Macdonald and the other Fathers of Confederation had viewed the new nation as a kingdom, calling for the official name of the country to be the "Kingdom of Canada". Though it is still considered that Canada became a "kingdom in her own right" in 1867, it was felt by the Colonial Office in London that a name such as Kingdom of Canada was too "p
Niagara-on-the-Lake is a town in Ontario, Canada. It is located on the Niagara Peninsula at the point where the Niagara River meets Lake Ontario, across the river from New York, United States. Niagara-on-the-Lake is in the Niagara Region of Ontario, is the only town in Canada that has a Lord Mayor, it has a population of 17,511 Niagara-on-the-Lake is important in the history of Canada: it served as the first capital of the Province of Upper Canada, the predecessor of Ontario, called Newark from 1792 to 1797. During the War of 1812, the town, the two former villages of St. David's and Queenston, Fort George were the site of numerous battles following the American invasion of Upper Canada, the town was razed. Niagara-on-the-Lake is home to the oldest Anglican and Catholic churches in Ontario, the oldest surviving golf course in North America. Today, Niagara-on-the-Lake draws tourists with its quaint colonial-style buildings, the Shaw Festival, Fort George, wineries, an outlet mall on the highway, its proximity to Niagara Falls.
The Niagara Region has the second-highest percentage of seniors in Ontario. Niagara-on-the-Lake has been rated among the best places to retire in Ontario according to Comfort Life, a publication for seniors. Before the British settlers came, the point where Fort Mississauga is situated was used by at least three Native American tribes: the Neutral; the settlement was founded in 1781 as Butlersburg, in honour of Colonel John Butler, the commander of Butler's Rangers. It was renamed West Niagara to distinguish it from Fort Niagara, it was a British military base and haven for pro-British loyalists fleeing the United States during the volatile aftermath of the American Revolution. Renamed Newark by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, it was the first capital of Upper Canada; the Upper Canada legislature first met at Navy Hall on September 17, 1792 and met here another four times until June 1796. In 1797, Simcoe moved the capital to York because Newark was close to the border with the U.
S. Newark was renamed Niagara in 1798. Fort George, just south of the settlement, was built in 1796-1799. During the War of 1812, Niagara was taken in the Battle of Fort George by American forces in May 1813 after a two-day bombardment by cannon from Fort Niagara and the American fleet, followed by a fierce battle. After capturing Fort George, the Americans built their own fortifications here; the fort was retaken by the British in December 1813 but left to fall into ruins and abandoned in 1815. Only a small portion of the fort remains. Fort Mississauga was built, starting in 1813, but was not completed until after the war in 1816. During the war, the settlement of Niagara was razed and burnt to the ground by American soldiers as they withdrew to Fort Niagara; the citizens rebuilt Niagara after the war, with the residential quarter around Queen Street and toward King Street, where the new Court House was rebuilt out of range of Fort Niagara's cannons. The Smith's Canadian Gazetteer of 1846 describes "Niagara" as follows: "It has been a place of considerable trade.
On the east side of the town is a large military reserve. About half a mile up the river are the ruins of Fort George, where the remains of General Brock were interred. A new town-hall and court-house are intended to be erected by the town. There is a fire brigade with a hook and ladder company. Churches and chapels total five. Two newspapers are published weekly.... Steamboats run daily, as long as the weather will allow of it, from Toronto.... The Niagara Harbour and Dock Company were incorporated in the year 1830.... The vessels turned out by the Company the steamboat "London," which commenced running in the spring of 1845, the fastest boat on the upper lakes... The Company employ about 150 hands. There is on the premises a marine railway, large enough for hauling up vessels of the first class. Post Office, post every day. Professions and Trades.—Three physicians and surgeons, nine lawyers, twelve stores, two chemists and druggists, three booksellers and stationers, two saddlers, four wagon makers, two watchmakers, two tallow-chandlers, marble works, two printers, two cabinet makers, one hatter, four bakers, two livery stables, two tinsmiths, three blacksmiths, six tailors, seven shoemakers, one tobacconist, one bank agency....
Large quantities of apples and cider are shipped annually." In 1859 the town built Niagara Public School. The town's present name was adopted around 1880 as a Postal Address to distinguish the town from Niagara Falls; the name was not adopted until 1970, when the Town of Niagara and the Township of Niagara merged. Most of the former military sites, such as Fort George, Navy Hall, Butler's Barracks, have been restored. Fort George's restoration was done as a "Make Work Project," guided by plans from the Royal Engineers during the Great Depression of the 1930s, an early example of historic preservation. Fort George National Historic Site is a focal point in a collection of War of 1812 sites which, are managed by Parks Canada under the name Niagara National Historic Sites; that administrative name includes several national historic sites: Fort Mississauga, Mississauga Point Lighthouse, Navy Hall, Butler's Barracks, Queenston Heights. Niagara-on-the-Lake features historical plaques. Critical battles in the defence of Upper Canada took place here, at nearby at Queenston and St. David's, b
Isaac Swayze was a soldier and political figure in Upper Canada. He was born in New Jersey in 1751 into a family of German immigrants. During the American Revolution, according to legend, he served as a secret agent for the British, was arrested, sentenced to death and escaped by exchanging clothes with his wife during a prison visit. In 1783, he was arrested by the British authorities at New York, having been suspected of committed a robbery, released, on condition that he leave town. In 1784, he settled at St. Davids on the Niagara peninsula, he is famous for being the pioneer nurseryman of the Niagara District, having carried trees on his back from New York State to his new homestead at Beaverdams. Swayze created the apple known as the Swayze Pomme Gris. In 1792, he was elected to the 1st Parliament of Upper Canada representing the 3rd riding of Lincoln. In 1795, he led a protest against the wording used on deeds that some people believed would prevent the sale of their own land, he was fined.
He was elected again in Lincoln County in 1800 after a campaign where he was accused of being a horse thief by his competitors, including Silvester Tiffany, who published his accusations in his newspaper, the Niagara Herald. At this time, Swayze supported policies favouring the common folk rather than the rich elite, he was elected again in 1804 and 1816. He was a captain of troops during the War of 1812, his house and barn were destroyed during the conflict. He was a vocal opponent of the reformer Robert Gourlay and helped bring charges of seditious libel against Bartemas Ferguson editor of the Niagara Spectator, for publishing an article written by Gourlay, he died near Niagara in 1828. Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections. In each country the procedures for opening, in between sessions differs slightly. A session may last for the full term of the legislature or the term may consist of a number of sessions; these may be used as a parliamentary procedural device. A session of the legislature is brought to an end by an official act of prorogation. In either event, the effect of prorogation is the clearing of all outstanding matters before the legislature; each session of a parliament would last less than one year, ceasing with a prorogation during which legislators could return to their constituencies. In more recent times, development in transportation technology has permitted these individuals to journey with greater ease and frequency from the legislative capital to their respective electoral districts for short periods, meaning that parliamentary sessions last for more than one year, though the length of sessions varies.
Legislatures plan their business within a legislative calendar, which lays out how bills will proceed before a session ceases, although related but unofficial affairs may be conducted by legislators outside a session or during a session on days in which parliament is not meeting. While a parliament is prorogued, between two legislative sessions, the legislature is still constituted – i.e. no general election takes place and all Members of Parliament thus retain their seats. In many legislatures, prorogation causes all orders of the body – bills, etc. – to be expunged. Prorogations should thus not be confused with recesses, adjournments, or holiday breaks from legislation, after which bills can resume where they left off. In the United Kingdom, the practice of terminating all bills upon prorogation has altered; this break takes place so as to prevent the upper house from sitting during an election campaign and to purge all upper chamber business before the start of the next legislative session.
It is not uncommon for a session of parliament to be put into recess during holidays and resumed a few weeks exactly where it left off. Governments today end sessions whenever it is most convenient, a new session will begin on the same day that the previous session ended. In most cases, when parliament reconvenes for a new legislative session, the head of state, or a representative thereof, will address the legislature in an opening ceremony. In both parliamentary and presidential systems, sessions are referred to by the name of the body and an ordinal number – for example, the 2nd Session of the 39th Canadian Parliament or the 1st Session of the 109th United States Congress. In Commonwealth realms, legislative sessions can last from a few weeks to over a year; each session begins with a speech from the throne, read to the members of both legislative chambers either by the reigning sovereign or a viceroy or other representative. Houses of parliament in some realms will, following this address, introduce a pro forma bill as a symbol of the right of parliament to give priority to matters other than the monarch's speech.
In the parliament of the United Kingdom, prorogation is preceded by a speech to both legislative chambers, with procedures similar to the Throne Speech. The monarch approves the oration—which recalls the prior legislative session, noting major bills passed and other functions of the government—but delivers it in person, Queen Victoria being the last to do so. Instead, the speech is presented by the Lords Commissioners and read by the Leader of the House of Lords; when King Charles I dissolved the Parliament of England in 1628, after the Petition of Right, he gave a prorogation speech that cancelled all future meetings of the legislature, at least until he again required finances. Prior to 1977, it was common for the federal Parliament to have up to three sessions, with Parliament being prorogued at the end of each session and recalled at the beginning of the next; this was not always the case, for instance. The practice of having multiple sessions in the same parliament fell into disuse, all parliaments from 1978 to 2013 had a single session.
Since 1990, it has been the practice for the parliament to be prorogued on the same day that the House is dissolved so that the Senate will not be able to sit during the election period. However, on 21 March 2016, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull announced that the 44th Parliament, elected in 2013, would be prorogued on 15 April and that a second session would begin on 18 April. Prorogation is now a procedural device, the effect of, to call the Parliament back on a particular date, to wipe clean all matters before each House, without triggering an election. In the Parliament of Canada and its provinces, the legislature is prorogued upon th
Norfolk County, Ontario
Norfolk County is a rural single-tier municipality on the north shore of Lake Erie in Southwestern Ontario, Canada with a 2016 population of 64,044. The largest community in Norfolk County is Simcoe, Ontario with a 2016 population of 13,922; the other population centres are Port Dover, Delhi and Port Rowan, there are many smaller communities. For several years in the late 20th century, the county was merged with Haldimand County but the merged entity was dissolved in 2000. According to the Census of Agriculture of 2016 by Statistics Canada, Norfolk County farmers are Ontario’s Number One growers of asparagus, tart cherries, peppers, rye and zucchini, other vegetables. Farmers in Norfolk County are among Ontario’s top growers of several other crops: sweet corn, potatoes, cucumbers and wax beans, carrots and lettuce. Located on the Norfolk Sand Plain in the Carolinian Life Zone, Norfolk County's soil type is sandy loam, the most fertile land in Ontario. With a mild climate and lengthy growing season, the region has long been the centre of the Ontario tobacco belt.
However, many farmers have begun the process of diversifying their crop selections to include fruits and vegetables, ginseng and wolfberries as tobacco consumption continues to decrease. Dennis' Horseradish is considered to be one of the longest lasting non-tobacco farming businesses in Norfolk County; the area has an active greenhouse industry. Despite this, farmers have asked governments to reduce the financial losses of moving away from profitable tobacco operations. A significant natural feature of Norfolk is Long Point, a 40 kilometre spit of land projecting into Lake Erie, it plays an important part in eastern North American bird migration, was designated a World Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1986. Long Point Provincial Park is located on the point. More than 25% of Norfolk County is considered to be forested; the county seat and largest community is Simcoe. Other population centres are Port Dover and Waterford. By 1669, Europeans had reached what is now Port Dover, the French explorers De Galinee and Dollier de Casson.
They erected a cross with the arms of France claiming sovereignty for King Louis XIV over the Lake Erie region on March 23, 1670. A history of the area written in 1898 indicates an earlier visit to what is now Norfolk County, in October 1626, by a Recollet priest, Laroche-Daillon with two Frenchmen Grenolle and La Vallee; the priest spent three month with the Neutrals First Nation. The same account indicates that two Jesuits and Chaurnonot, visited the Neutrals in this area in 1640; the first European to live in the area, with the Neutrals, was William Smith, son of Abraham Smith. He settled near the current Port Rowan in 1793; this was in the first community, the Long Point Settlement, where mills were built by United Empire Loyalist settlers. In the subsequent years and grist mills were opened and the population increased. After the town site was surveyed in the late 1700s, the area was called Charlotte Villa and was renamed Charlotteville. Norfolk County was created in July 1792 as a constituency for the purposes of returning a member to the new Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, was described as having the following territory:...to be bounded on the north and east by the county of Lincoln and the River La Tranche, now called the Thames, on the south side by the lake Erie until it meets the Barlue, to be called the Orwell River, thence by a line running north sixteen degrees west until it intersects the river La Tranche or Thames, thence up the said river until it meets the northwest boundary of the county of York.
Norfolk County was reduced in size in 1798, with parts going to the counties of Oxford and Haldimand, became part of the London District. It consisted of the following townships: In 1826, the townships of Rainham and Walpole were moved to Haldimand County in Niagara District because of their distance from the London courthouse; the community, now Simcoe, Ontario was first settled when Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe gave land to Aaron Culver in 1795 on the agreement that he would build mills. After they were in operation, a hamlet formed by 1812, although it was burned down by American troops in 1814. Between 1819 and 1823 Culver laid out a village; the settlement consisted of two distinct areas, named by William Bird who arrived in the early 1800s and the Queensway which grew up around Culver's sawmill and grist mill in the 1820s. The post office was called Simcoe; the County had an important role during the War of 1812. Fort Norfolk was built in Charlotteville in 1813 with accommodation for 300 troops.
The Battle of Nanticoke, against American troops, was an important event in 1813. In August 1812, Major General Isaac Brock gathered a force of about regulars and militia at Port Dover. Using boats on the lake, they reached Amherstburg and attacked and captured the American Hull's Army at Detroit; the Americans forces burned Port Dover. The Americans forces burnt Port Dover, Port Ryerse and the Walsingham settlement in 1814. In 1837, Norfolk County was separated from the London District to form Talbot District, Simcoe was declared to be the district town. At the beginning of 1850, the district was abolished, being replaced by Norfolk County for municipal pu
Grenville County, Ontario
Grenville County is a historic county in the Canadian province of Ontario. The county was created in 1792, named in honour of William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, Secretary of State in 1790, it consisted of five townships, which were settled by United Empire Loyalists in the late 1700s after the Revolutionary War. Prior to being settled by Europeans, the area was home to many generations of native cultures. Grenville County merged with Leeds County in 1850 to create Grenville County; the county covered an area of 272,261 acres. Prior to European settlement, numerous Native American villages were present in Grenville County; the French occupied this area at present-day Johnstown, in what was to become Edwardsburgh township, at Pointe au Baril in what would be Augusta township. These French settlements date back to 1759 respectively. In the late 1700s, land was surveyed in and around what would become Grenville County to be distributed as land grants to the United Empire Loyalists and their families for their loyalty to the Crown.
The first townships laid out were called the Royal Townships, were situated along the St. Lawrence River where land was most productive and travel was convenient. In the 1790s, three more townships were created further north of the existing townships which became part of Grenville County: Oxford-on-Rideau, South Gower, Wolford townships. Shortly after the Loyalists arrival and Scottish immigrants began to settle in the area as well; the European settlers dotted the new townships with small agricultural communities which were self-sustaining. These communities were established out of necessity, as roads in the area were not well-established during nineteenth century and people were travelling via horse and buggy, or on foot; every few kilometres, a village or hamlet was present. Most residents made their living through small-scale mixed farming operations. In 1850, Grenville county was amalgamated with the neighbouring county of Leeds, to become the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville; this occurred when the area ceased to be divided by districts, Canada began to be divided instead by province.
Prior to confederation, the area of Upper Canada was divided by districts, which held the counties, which held the townships. During the mid-1800s, counties began the districts were dropped. Grenville County consisted of five separate townships, two of which still exist, one under a different name; the five townships were Augusta, Oxford-on-Rideau, South Gower, Wolford. Augusta township, covers an area of 75,083 acres, it was first surveyed in 1783, was named in honour of Princess Augusta Sophia, second daughter of George III. This township is located along the southern border of Leeds and Grenville along the St. Lawrence River. Edwardsburgh township, covers an area of 66,669 acres; the township was first surveyed in 1783. This township is located along the southern border of Leeds and Grenville along the St. Lawrence River, east of Augusta township. Oxford-on-Rideau township, covered an area of 59,350 acres and was first surveyed in 1791; the township was amalgamated in the 1990s with South Gower township and the town of Kemptville to become North Grenville.
This township was located north of both Edwardsburgh and Augusta townships, between Wolford and South Gower. South Gower township, covered an area of 27,709 acres and was first surveyed in 1799; this township was located north of Edwardsburgh. Wolford township covered an area of 46,851 acres and was first surveyed in 1795, it was named for the Devonshire seat of John Graves Simcoe. This township was located west of Oxford-on-Rideau, north of Augusta. In the 1990s, Wolford township became known as its own municipality, was renamed Merrickville–Wolford. 1951 map of Grenville County